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Items: 1 to 20 of 22

1.

Epithelial Neoplasm

A benign or malignant neoplasm that arises from and is composed of epithelial cells. This category include adenomas, papillomas, and carcinomas. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
277963
Concept ID:
C1368683
Neoplastic Process
2.

Invasion

The movement of one cell type into an area normally occupied by a different cell type. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
397081
Concept ID:
C2699153
Pathologic Function
3.

Separated from cohabitee

Indicates a person living apart from his/her spouse by legal arrangement. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
88651
Concept ID:
C0086972
Finding
4.

Experimental Tumor

Laboratory tumor models used to study tumor development and treatment. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
10216
Concept ID:
C0027659
Experimental Model of Disease; Neoplastic Process
5.

Malignant Breast Neoplasm

A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm involving the breast. The vast majority of cases are carcinomas arising from the breast parenchyma or the nipple. Malignant breast neoplasms occur more frequently in females than in males. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
651
Concept ID:
C0006142
Neoplastic Process
6.

breast cancer

MedGen UID:
880206
Concept ID:
CN235590
Finding
7.

En(a-) phenotype

MedGen UID:
714462
Concept ID:
C1292209
Finding
8.

Migratory

MedGen UID:
534910
Concept ID:
C0232901
Functional Concept
9.

Ras Signaling Pathway

Ras activates many signaling cascades. Here we illustrate some of the well-characterized cascades in a generic compilation of effector molecules. The effectors mediate Ras stimulation to a diverse set of cellular signals. Many of these signals are interpreted differently depending on the cell type or microenvironment receiving the stimulus. Not all of these effectors are activated in any given cell type. The primary method of activation is to promote the translocation of the molecule to the plasma membrane where additional interactions lead to the activation of the molecule. RalGDS is a Guanine Exchange Factor (GEF) for Ral but also has other independent functions. RalGDS activates RalA/B-related small GTPases. RalBP1 is a GTPase activating protein that leads to the inhibition of the Rac and CDC42 GTPases. Ral can also interact with phospholipase D1 (PLD1) that can also be activated by RhoA. Ras stimulation of the lipid kinase activity of PI3K occurs through an interaction with the p110 catalytic subunit. PI3K phosphorylates the D3 position of phosphatidylinositides. In this example Pip2 is converted to PIP3. PIP3 stimulates the AKT/PKB kinase and several of the Rac-GEFs such as Sos1 AND Vav. AKT activation inhibits apoptosis by inhibiting the actions of Bad, Caspase 9, and AFX. AKT further hinders apoptosis by phosphorylating the IkB repressor of NFkB. Stimulus of Rac causes, among other things, the activation of NFkB. Ras also stimulates the mitogen-activated kinases ERK1/2 via the Raf1 cascade. The Erk kinases translocate to the nucleus where they phosphorylate various transcription factors such as ELK1. [from NCI_BioC]

MedGen UID:
271078
Concept ID:
C1514731
Molecular Function
10.

Transformation

The conversion of a cell from a normal phenotype, which undergoes a limited number of mitotic divisions, into an aberrant phenotype that is immortal and divides indefinitely. Transformed cells no longer retain cell-cycle checkpoints and may ultimately become malignant cancer cells via additional genetic mutations, or damaging environmental events. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
266929
Concept ID:
C1510411
Pathologic Function
11.

Neoplasm of the breast

Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in the breast become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably to form a tumor. Although breast cancer is much more common in women, this form of cancer can also develop in men. In both women and men, the most common form of breast cancer begins in cells lining the milk ducts (ductal cancer). In women, cancer can also develop in the glands that produce milk (lobular cancer). Most men have little or no lobular tissue, so lobular cancer in men is very rare.In its early stages, breast cancer usually does not cause pain and may exhibit no noticeable symptoms. As the cancer progresses, signs and symptoms can include a lump or thickening in or near the breast; a change in the size or shape of the breast; nipple discharge, tenderness, or retraction (turning inward); and skin irritation, dimpling, or scaliness. However, these changes can occur as part of many different conditions. Having one or more of these symptoms does not mean that a person definitely has breast cancer.In some cases, cancerous tumors can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body. If breast cancer spreads, cancerous cells most often appear in the bones, liver, lungs, or brain. Tumors that begin at one site and then spread to other areas of the body are called metastatic cancers.A small percentage of all breast cancers cluster in families. These cancers are described as hereditary and are associated with inherited gene mutations. Hereditary breast cancers tend to develop earlier in life than noninherited (sporadic) cases, and new (primary) tumors are more likely to develop in both breasts. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
264172
Concept ID:
C1458155
Neoplastic Process
12.

Breast carcinoma

A carcinoma arising from the breast, most commonly the terminal ductal-lobular unit. It is the most common malignant tumor in females. Risk factors include country of birth, family history, menstrual and reproductive history, fibrocystic disease and epithelial hyperplasia, exogenous estrogens, contraceptive agents, and ionizing radiation. The vast majority of breast carcinomas are adenocarcinomas (ductal or lobular). Breast carcinoma spreads by direct invasion, by the lymphatic route, and by the blood vessel route. The most common site of lymph node involvement is the axilla. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
146260
Concept ID:
C0678222
Neoplastic Process
13.

Proliferation

MedGen UID:
137720
Concept ID:
C0334094
Pathologic Function
14.

Signaling Pathway

An elaboration of the known or inferred interactions involved in a signal transduction pathway. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
39530
Concept ID:
C0086982
Molecular Function
15.

Mitogen

A soluble substance, usually a protein, that induces mitosis in resting cells, thereby causing cell proliferation. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
7665
Concept ID:
C0026249
Pharmacologic Substance
16.

Carcinogenesis

A pathological process in which normal cells are transformed into malignant cancer cells within a primary tumor. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
154544
Concept ID:
C0596263
Neoplastic Process
17.

Collagenase product

Collagenases are enzymes that degrade collagen fibers. These enzymes play an important role in connective tissue metabolism and are produced by specific cells involved in both repair and remodeling processes. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
102454
Concept ID:
C0162745
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Enzyme; Pharmacologic Substance
18.

Protease preparation

A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in the interior of a polypeptide chain or protein molecule. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
45389
Concept ID:
C0030946
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Enzyme; Pharmacologic Substance
19.

Neoplastic Processes

The pathological mechanisms and forms taken by tissue during degeneration into a neoplasm and its subsequent activity. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
14325
Concept ID:
C0027671
Neoplastic Process
20.

Tumorigenesis

A pathologic process that involves the transformation of normal cells to a neoplastic state and resulting in polyclonal or monoclonal neoplastic cell proliferation. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
3302
Concept ID:
C0007621
Neoplastic Process
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