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Items: 9

1.

Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma

Palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) is a common hereditary cutaneous disorder characterized by marked hyperkeratosis on the surface of palms and soles (Hennies et al., 1995). PPK has been classified into diffuse, focal, and punctate forms according to the pattern of hyperkeratosis on the palms and soles (Lucker et al., 1994). Diffuse PPK develops at birth or shortly thereafter and involves the entire palm and sole with a sharp cutoff at an erythematous border; there are no lesions outside the volar skin, and, in particular, no follicular or oral lesions. In contrast, focal PPK is a late-onset form in which focal hyperkeratotic lesions develop in response to mechanical trauma; an important distinguishing feature is the presence of lesions at other body sites, e.g., oral and follicular hyperkeratosis (Stevens et al., 1996). Palmoplantar keratodermas can be further subdivided histologically into epidermolytic and nonepidermolytic PPK (Risk et al., 1994). Genetic Heterogeneity of Palmoplantar Keratoderma Nonepidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (NEPPK; 600962) is caused by mutation in the KRT1 gene. A focal form of NEPPK (FNEPPK1; 613000) is caused by mutation in the KRT16 gene (148067). Another focal form, FNEPPK2 (616400), is caused by mutation in the TRPV3 gene (607066); mutation in TRPV3 can also cause Olmsted syndrome (OLMS; 614594), a severe mutilating form of PPK. The diffuse Bothnian form of NEPPK (PPKB; 600231) is caused by mutation in the AQP5 gene (600442). The Nagashima type of nonepidermolytic diffuse PPK (PPKN; 615598) is caused by mutation in the SERPINB7 gene (603357). A generalized form of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EHK; 113800), also designated bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (BCIE), is caused by mutation in the keratin genes KRT1 and KRT10 (148080). For a discussion of punctate PPK, see 148600; for a discussion of striate PPK, see 148700. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
354561
Concept ID:
C1721006
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
2.

Bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma

Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EHK), also termed bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (BCIE), is a keratinization disorder with an incidence of approximately 1 in 200,000 in the USA. The clinical phenotype of EHK is characterized by erythema and widespread formation of epidermal blisters developing at birth. Later in life, bullous erythema is replaced by progressive hyperkeratosis, involving thickening of the cornified layer of the epidermis (summary by Muller et al., 2006). Goldsmith (1976) used the designation of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis for the condition that is called bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (BCIE) when generalized, and ichthyosis hystrix (see 146600) when localized. They are presumably distinct entities. A form of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis that is limited to the palms and soles, designated palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK; 144200), is caused by mutation in the keratin gene KRT9 (607606), and a mild form of EPPK can also be caused by mutation in KRT1. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
38179
Concept ID:
C0079153
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
3.

Ichthyosis

Any of several generalized skin disorders characterized by dryness, roughness, and scaliness, due to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum epidermis. Most are genetic, but some are acquired, developing in association with other systemic disease or genetic syndrome. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
7002
Concept ID:
C0020757
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
4.

Ichthyosis

MedGen UID:
833525
Concept ID:
CN229181
Finding
5.

Congenital bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma

An ichthyosiform abnormality of the skin that presents at birth or shortly thereafter with generalized, erythema, blistering, erosions, and peeling. In the subsequent months, erythema and blistering improves but patients go on to develop hyperkeratotic scaling that is especially prominent along the joint flexures, neck, hands and feet. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
506075
Concept ID:
CN006553
Finding
6.

Ichthyosis

An abnormality of the skin characterized the presence of excessive amounts of dry surface scales on the skin resulting from an abnormality of keratinization. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
429191
Concept ID:
CN007091
Finding
7.

Hyperkeratosis

Hyperkeratosis is thickening of the outer layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, which is composed of large, polyhedral, plate-like envelopes filled with keratin which are the dead cells that have migrated up from the stratum granulosum. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
209030
Concept ID:
C0870082
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Epidermal nevus

Epidermal naevi are due to an overgrowth of the epidermis and may be present at birth (50%) or develop during childhood. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
506403
Concept ID:
CN116550
Finding
9.

Generalized hyperkeratosis

MedGen UID:
370776
Concept ID:
C1969913
Finding
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