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1.

Parkinson disease, late-onset

Parkinsonism refers to all clinical states characterized by tremor, muscle rigidity, slowed movement (bradykinesia) and often postural instability. Parkinson disease is the primary and most common form of parkinsonism. Psychiatric manifestations, which include depression and visual hallucinations, are common but not uniformly present. Dementia eventually occurs in at least 20% of cases. The most common sporadic form of Parkinson disease manifests around age 60; however, young-onset and even juvenile presentations are seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
463618
Concept ID:
C3160718
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Parkinson disease

Parkinsonism refers to all clinical states characterized by tremor, muscle rigidity, slowed movement (bradykinesia) and often postural instability. Parkinson disease is the primary and most common form of parkinsonism. Psychiatric manifestations, which include depression and visual hallucinations, are common but not uniformly present. Dementia eventually occurs in at least 20% of cases. The most common sporadic form of Parkinson disease manifests around age 60; however, young-onset and even juvenile presentations are seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
10590
Concept ID:
C0030567
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Levodopa

The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
9744
Concept ID:
C0023570
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Biologically Active Substance; Neuroreactive Substance or Biogenic Amine; Pharmacologic Substance
4.

Diagnosis

The process of identifying a disease, such as cancer, from its signs and symptoms. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
8354
Concept ID:
C0011900
Finding
5.

Elderly person

A person 65 through 79 years of age. For a person older than 79 years, AGED, 80 AND OVER is available. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
7927
Concept ID:
C0001792
Finding; Population Group
6.

Not significant

MedGen UID:
697304
Concept ID:
C1273937
Finding
7.

Bilateral

Being present on both sides of the body. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
65977
Concept ID:
C0238767
Spatial Concept
8.

Neurodegeneration

Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
17999
Concept ID:
C0027746
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
9.

Dyskinesia

A movement disorder which consists of effects including diminished voluntary movements and the presence of involuntary movements. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
8514
Concept ID:
C0013384
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Pharmaceutical Preparations

You may need to take medicines every day, or only once in a while. Either way, you want to make sure that the medicines are safe and will help you get better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety and effectiveness of both prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with food or other medicines you may be taking. They may not be safe during pregnancy. To reduce the risk of reactions and make sure that you get better, it is important for you to take your medicines correctly and be careful when giving medicines to children.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
8496
Concept ID:
C0013227
Pharmacologic Substance
11.

Parkinson Disease, Juvenile

MedGen UID:
155699
Concept ID:
C0752105
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Neurodegenerative disease

Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Hunter syndrome, or sensory motor neuropathies, such as Friedreich ataxia and Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome. [from LNC]

MedGen UID:
101195
Concept ID:
C0524851
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Parkinsonism

Characteristic neurologic anomaly resulting form degeneration of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain, characterized clinically by shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
66079
Concept ID:
C0242422
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Unspecified encephalopathy

Encephalopathy is a term that means brain disease, damage, or malfunction. In general, encephalopathy is manifested by an altered mental state. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
39314
Concept ID:
C0085584
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Disorder of nervous system

The brain, spinal cord, and nerves make up the nervous system. Together they control all the workings of the body. When something goes wrong with a part of your nervous system, you can have trouble moving, speaking, swallowing, breathing, or learning. You can also have problems with your memory, senses, or mood. There are more than 600 neurologic diseases. Major types include. - Diseases caused by faulty genes, such as Huntington's disease and muscular dystrophy. - Problems with the way the nervous system develops, such as spina bifida. - Degenerative diseases, where nerve cells are damaged or die, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. - Diseases of the blood vessels that supply the brain, such as stroke. - Injuries to the spinal cord and brain. - Seizure disorders, such as epilepsy . - Cancer, such as brain tumors. - infections, such as meningitis.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
14336
Concept ID:
C0027765
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Disorder of brain

The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, when problems occur, the results can be devastating. . Inflammation in the brain can lead to problems such as vision loss, weakness and paralysis. Loss of brain cells, which happens if you suffer a stroke, can affect your ability to think clearly. Brain tumors can also press on nerves and affect brain function. Some brain diseases are genetic. And we do not know what causes some brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. The symptoms of brain diseases vary widely depending on the specific problem. In some cases, damage is permanent. In other cases, treatments such as surgery, medicines, or physical therapy can correct the source of the problem or improve symptoms. .  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
14214
Concept ID:
C0006111
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Abnormality of the basal ganglia

Abnormality of the basal ganglia. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
14035
Concept ID:
C0004782
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Movement disorders

Imagine if parts of your body moved when you didn't want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia is abnormal uncontrolled movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. . Nerve diseases cause many movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Other causes include injuries, autoimmune diseases, infections and certain medicines. Many movement disorders are inherited, which means they run in families. Treatment varies by disorder. Medicine can cure some disorders. Others get better when an underlying disease is treated. Often, however, there is no cure. In that case, the goal of treatment is to improve symptoms and relieve pain.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
10113
Concept ID:
C0026650
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Morphological abnormality of the central nervous system

A structural abnormality of the central nervous system. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
3306
Concept ID:
C0007682
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Parkinson Disease, Secondary Vascular

MedGen UID:
148303
Concept ID:
C0751414
Disease or Syndrome
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