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Leukemia

MedGen UID:
9725
Concept ID:
C0023418
Neoplastic Process
Synonyms: Blood cancer
SNOMED CT: Leukemia morphology (87163000); Leukemia (87163000); Leukemia (93143009); Subacute leukemia [obs] (87163000); Chronic leukemia [obs] (87163000); Aleukemic leukemia [obs] (87163000); Leukemia, disease (93143009); Leukemia, no ICD-O subtype (87163000); Leukemia, no International Classification of Diseases for Oncology subtype (87163000)
 
HPO: HP:0001909

Definition

A cancer of the blood and bone marrow characterized by an abnormal proliferation of leukocytes. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVLeukemia

Conditions with this feature

Ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
439
Concept ID:
C0004135
Disease or Syndrome
Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, telangiectases, immune defects, and a predisposition to malignancy. Chromosomal breakage is a feature. AT cells are abnormally sensitive to killing by ionizing radiation (IR), and abnormally resistant to inhibition of DNA synthesis by ionizing radiation. The latter trait has been used to identify complementation groups for the classic form of the disease (Jaspers et al., 1988). At least 4 of these (A, C, D, and E) map to chromosome 11q23 (Sanal et al., 1990) and are associated with mutations in the ATM gene.
Bloom syndrome
MedGen UID:
2685
Concept ID:
C0005859
Disease or Syndrome
Bloom’s syndrome (BSyn) is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, sparseness of subcutaneous fat tissue throughout infancy and early childhood, and short stature throughout postnatal life that in most affected individuals is accompanied by an erythematous and sun-sensitive skin lesion of the face. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is common and very possibly responsible for infections of the upper respiratory tract, the middle ear, and the lung that occur repeatedly in most persons with BSyn. Although most affected individuals have normal intellectual ability, many exhibit a poorly defined learning disability. Women may be fertile, but menopause occurs unusually early; men are infertile. Serious medical complications that are much more common than in the general population and that also appear at unusually early ages are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus resembling the adult-onset type, and cancer of a wide variety of types and anatomic sites. BSyn occurs rarely in all national and ethnic groups but is relatively less rare in Ashkenazi Jews.
Acute myeloid leukemia, M6 type
MedGen UID:
7316
Concept ID:
C0023440
Neoplastic Process
Familial erythroleukemia is a leukemic or preleukemic state in which red cell proliferation is the predominant feature. Hematologic characteristics include particularly ineffective and hyperplastic erythropoiesis with megaloblastic components accompanied by myeloblastic proliferation of varying degree (Park et al., 2002). Park et al. (2002) discussed the evolution of the definition of 'erythroleukemia,' which is considered by most to be a subtype of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML; 601626). Controversy about the precise definition of erythroleukemia revolves around the number or percentage of erythroblasts and myeloblasts found in the bone marrow and peripheral circulation. In the French-American-British (FAB) classification system (Bennett et al., 1985), it is known as AML-M6, whereas in the revised World Health Organization (WHO) classification system (Harris et al., 1999), it is known as 'AML, not otherwise categorized' (Zini and D'Onofrio, 2004).
Retinoblastoma
MedGen UID:
20552
Concept ID:
C0035335
Neoplastic Process
Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a malignant tumor of the developing retina that occurs in children, usually before age five years. Rb develops from cells that have cancer-predisposing variants in both copies of RB1. Rb may be unifocal or multifocal. About 60% of affected individuals have unilateral Rb with a mean age of diagnosis of 24 months; about 40% have bilateral Rb with a mean age of diagnosis of 15 months. Heritable retinoblastoma is an autosomal dominant susceptibility for Rb. Individuals with heritable retinoblastoma are also at increased risk of developing non-ocular tumors.
Turcot syndrome
MedGen UID:
78553
Concept ID:
C0265325
Disease or Syndrome
Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, stomach, ovary, small bowel, hepatobiliary tract, urinary tract, brain, and skin. In individuals with Lynch syndrome the following lifetime risks for cancer are seen: CRC: 52%-82% (mean age at diagnosis 44-61 years). Endometrial cancer in females: 25%-60% (mean age at diagnosis 48-62 years). Gastric cancer: 6%-13% (mean age at diagnosis 56 years). Ovarian cancer: 4%-12% (mean age at diagnosis 42.5 years; ~30% are diagnosed < age 40 years). The risk for other Lynch syndrome-related cancers is lower, though substantially increased over general population rates.
WT limb blood syndrome
MedGen UID:
231231
Concept ID:
C1327917
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome is characterised by haematological anomalies (Fanconi anaemia, leukaemia and lymphoma) often appearing during childhood. Anomalies of the limbs and hands are also present: bifid or hypoplastic thumbs, cutaneous syndactyly and ulnar and radial defects. The syndrome has been described in several families. Transmission is autosomal dominant.
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome
MedGen UID:
338026
Concept ID:
C1850343
Disease or Syndrome
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome is a rare disorder in which some cells in the body have an abnormal number of chromosomes instead of the usual 46 chromosomes, a situation known as aneuploidy. Most commonly, cells have an extra chromosome, which is called trisomy, or are missing a chromosome, which is known as monosomy. In MVA syndrome, some cells are aneuploid and others have the normal number of chromosomes, which is a phenomenon known as mosaicism. Typically, at least one-quarter of cells in affected individuals have an abnormal number of chromosomes. Because the additional or missing chromosomes vary among the abnormal cells, the aneuploidy is described as variegated.In MVA syndrome, growth before birth is slow (intrauterine growth restriction). After birth, affected individuals continue to grow at a slow rate and are shorter than average. In addition, they typically have an unusually small head size (microcephaly). Another common feature of MVA syndrome is an increased risk of developing cancer in childhood. Cancers that occur most frequently in affected individuals include a cancer of muscle tissue called rhabdomyosarcoma, a form of kidney cancer known as Wilms tumor, and a cancer of the blood-forming tissue known as leukemia.Less commonly, people with MVA syndrome have eye abnormalities or distinctive facial features, such as a broad nasal bridge and low-set ears. Some affected individuals have brain abnormalities, the most common of which is called Dandy-Walker malformation. Intellectual disability, seizures, and other health problems can also occur in people with MVA syndrome.There are at least three types of MVA syndrome, each with a different genetic cause. Type 1 is the most common and displays the classic signs and symptoms described above. Type 2 appears to have slightly different signs and symptoms than type 1, although the small number of affected individuals makes it difficult to define its characteristic features. Individuals with MVA syndrome type 2 grow slowly before and after birth; however, their head size is typically normal. Some people with MVA syndrome type 2 have unusually short arms. Individuals with MVA syndrome type 2 do not seem to have an increased risk of cancer. Another form of MVA syndrome is characterized by a high risk of developing Wilms tumor. Individuals with this form may also have other signs and symptoms typical of MVA syndrome type 1.
Severe congenital neutropenia
MedGen UID:
343974
Concept ID:
C1853118
Disease or Syndrome
Severe congenital neutropenia is a condition that causes affected individuals to be prone to recurrent infections. People with this condition have a shortage (deficiency) of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that plays a role in inflammation and in fighting infection. The deficiency of neutrophils, called neutropenia, is apparent at birth or soon afterward. It leads to recurrent infections beginning in infancy, including infections of the sinuses, lungs, and liver. Affected individuals can also develop fevers and inflammation of the gums (gingivitis) and skin. Approximately 40 percent of affected people have decreased bone density (osteopenia) and may develop osteoporosis, a condition that makes bones progressively more brittle and prone to fracture. In people with severe congenital neutropenia, these bone disorders can begin at any time from infancy through adulthood.Approximately 20 percent of people with severe congenital neutropenia develop certain cancerous conditions of the blood, particularly myelodysplastic syndrome or leukemia during adolescence.Some people with severe congenital neutropenia have additional health problems such as seizures, developmental delay, or heart and genital abnormalities.
Ataxia-telangiectasia with generalized skin pigmentation and early death
MedGen UID:
395306
Concept ID:
C1859615
Disease or Syndrome
Megalencephaly cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita
MedGen UID:
355421
Concept ID:
C1865285
Disease or Syndrome
PIK3CA-associated segmental overgrowth includes disorders of brain (e.g., MCAP [megalencephaly-capillary malformation] syndrome, hemimegalencephaly); and segmental body overgrowth (e.g., CLOVES [congenital lipomatous asymmetric overgrowth of the trunk, lymphatic, capillary, venous, and combined-type vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, skeletal and spinal anomalies] syndrome, fibroadipose hyperplasia [FH]). Heterozygous (usually somatic mosaic) pathogenic variants of PIK3CA are causative. MCAP syndrome is characterized by the major findings of (1) megalencephaly (MEG) or hemimegalencephaly (HMEG) associated with neurologic findings of hypotonia, seizures, and mild to severe intellectual disability; and (2) cutaneous capillary malformations with focal or generalized somatic overgrowth. Additional findings can include digital anomalies (syndactyly, polydactyly), cortical malformations – most distinctively polymicrogyria (PMG); and variable connective tissue dysplasia. CLOVES (or CLOVE) syndrome and fibroadipose hyperplasia (FH) may be associated with (1) MEG or HMEG; and (2) patchy segmental overgrowth associated with skeletal anomalies, lipomatosis, vascular malformations, and epidermal nevi.
RAS-associated autoimmune leukoproliferative disorder
MedGen UID:
382434
Concept ID:
C2674723
Disease or Syndrome
RAS-associated leukoproliferative disorder is characterized by lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and variable autoimmune phenomena, including autoimmune hemolytic anemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and neutropenia. Laboratory studies show an expansion of lymphocytes due to defective apoptosis, as well as significant autoantibodies. Some patients have recurrent infections, and there may be an increased risk of hematologic malignancy (summary by Oliveira, 2013 and Niemela et al., 2010). The disorder shows significant overlap with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS; 601859) and was originally designated ALPS IV.
N syndrome
MedGen UID:
424834
Concept ID:
C2936859
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome that is characterised by intellectual deficit, deafness, ocular anomalies, T-cell leukaemia, cryptorchidism, hypospadias and spasticity. Mutations in DNA polymerase alpha, leading to increased chromosome breakage, may be responsible for the syndrome. X-linked recessive transmission has been proposed.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group D2
MedGen UID:
463627
Concept ID:
C3160738
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group E
MedGen UID:
463628
Concept ID:
C3160739
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group C
MedGen UID:
483324
Concept ID:
C3468041
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group A
MedGen UID:
483333
Concept ID:
C3469521
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group G
MedGen UID:
854017
Concept ID:
C3469527
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Pulmonary fibrosis and/or bone marrow failure, telomere-related, 1
MedGen UID:
766531
Concept ID:
C3553617
Disease or Syndrome
Shortened telomeres can cause a wide variety of clinical features that constitute a phenotypic spectrum. The most severe form is dyskeratosis congenita (see, e.g., 127750), characterized by early childhood onset of skin abnormalities, bone marrow failure, predisposition to malignancy, and risk of pulmonary and hepatic fibrosis. Adult-onset pulmonary fibrosis is the most common manifestation of mutant telomerase genes. Other manifestations include aplastic anemia due to bone marrow failure, hepatic fibrosis, and increased cancer risk, particularly myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Phenotype, age at onset, and severity are determined by telomere length, not just telomerase mutation (summary by Armanios, 2009). The genetic diagnosis of telomere-related bone marrow failure and pulmonary fibrosis has implications for treatment because affected individuals generally do not respond to immunosuppression and may be at increased risk for fatal complications after bone marrow or lung transplantation (Parry et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Telomere-Related Pulmonary Fibrosis and/or Bone Marrow Failure Also see PFBMFT2 (614743), caused by mutation in the TERC gene (602322) on chromosome 3q26; PFBMFT3 (616373), caused by mutation in the RTEL1 gene (608833) on chromosome 20q13; and PFBMFT4 (616371), caused by mutation in the PARN gene (604212) on chromosome 16p13.
Pulmonary fibrosis and/or bone marrow failure, telomere-related, 2
MedGen UID:
766536
Concept ID:
C3553622
Disease or Syndrome

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Godwin CD, Gale RP, Walter RB
Leukemia 2017 Sep;31(9):1855-1868. Epub 2017 Jun 13 doi: 10.1038/leu.2017.187. PMID: 28607471
Müller-Tidow C, Tschanter P, Röllig C, Thiede C, Koschmieder A, Stelljes M, Koschmieder S, Dugas M, Gerss J, Butterfaß-Bahloul T, Wagner R, Eveslage M, Thiem U, Krause SW, Kaiser U, Kunzmann V, Steffen B, Noppeney R, Herr W, Baldus CD, Schmitz N, Götze K, Reichle A, Kaufmann M, Neubauer A, Schäfer-Eckart K, Hänel M, Peceny R, Frickhofen N, Kiehl M, Giagounidis A, Görner M, Repp R, Link H, Kiani A, Naumann R, Brümmendorf TH, Serve H, Ehninger G, Berdel WE, Krug U; Study Alliance Leukemia Group.
Leukemia 2016 Mar;30(3):555-61. Epub 2015 Nov 2 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.306. PMID: 26522083
Cichocki F, Cooley S, Davis Z, DeFor TE, Schlums H, Zhang B, Brunstein CG, Blazar BR, Wagner J, Diamond DJ, Verneris MR, Bryceson YT, Weisdorf DJ, Miller JS
Leukemia 2016 Feb;30(2):456-63. Epub 2015 Sep 29 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.260. PMID: 26416461Free PMC Article
Ringdén O, Labopin M, Ciceri F, Velardi A, Bacigalupo A, Arcese W, Ghavamzadeh A, Hamladji RM, Schmid C, Nagler A, Mohty M
Leukemia 2016 Feb;30(2):447-55. Epub 2015 Aug 21 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.232. PMID: 26293645
Nakata J, Nakano K, Okumura A, Mizutani Y, Kinoshita H, Iwai M, Hasegawa K, Morimoto S, Fujiki F, Tatsumi N, Nakajima H, Nakae Y, Nishida S, Tsuboi A, Oji Y, Oka Y, Sugiyama H, Kumanogoh A, Hosen N
Leukemia 2014 Jun;28(6):1316-25. Epub 2013 Nov 13 doi: 10.1038/leu.2013.374. PMID: 24336127

Diagnosis

Godwin CD, Gale RP, Walter RB
Leukemia 2017 Sep;31(9):1855-1868. Epub 2017 Jun 13 doi: 10.1038/leu.2017.187. PMID: 28607471
Patel BJ, Przychodzen B, Thota S, Radivoyevitch T, Visconte V, Kuzmanovic T, Clemente M, Hirsch C, Morawski A, Souaid R, Saygin C, Nazha A, Demarest B, LaFramboise T, Sakaguchi H, Kojima S, Carraway HE, Ogawa S, Makishima H, Sekeres MA, Maciejewski JP
Leukemia 2017 Dec;31(12):2815-2823. Epub 2017 May 30 doi: 10.1038/leu.2017.164. PMID: 28555081
Quotti Tubi L, Canovas Nunes S, Brancalion A, Doriguzzi Breatta E, Manni S, Mandato E, Zaffino F, Macaccaro P, Carrino M, Gianesin K, Trentin L, Binotto G, Zambello R, Semenzato G, Gurrieri C, Piazza F
Leukemia 2017 Feb;31(2):292-300. Epub 2016 Aug 1 doi: 10.1038/leu.2016.209. PMID: 27479180
Müller-Tidow C, Tschanter P, Röllig C, Thiede C, Koschmieder A, Stelljes M, Koschmieder S, Dugas M, Gerss J, Butterfaß-Bahloul T, Wagner R, Eveslage M, Thiem U, Krause SW, Kaiser U, Kunzmann V, Steffen B, Noppeney R, Herr W, Baldus CD, Schmitz N, Götze K, Reichle A, Kaufmann M, Neubauer A, Schäfer-Eckart K, Hänel M, Peceny R, Frickhofen N, Kiehl M, Giagounidis A, Görner M, Repp R, Link H, Kiani A, Naumann R, Brümmendorf TH, Serve H, Ehninger G, Berdel WE, Krug U; Study Alliance Leukemia Group.
Leukemia 2016 Mar;30(3):555-61. Epub 2015 Nov 2 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.306. PMID: 26522083
Liu Y, Cheng H, Gao S, Lu X, He F, Hu L, Hou D, Zou Z, Li Y, Zhang H, Xu J, Kang L, Wang Q, Yuan W, Gao S, Cheng T
Leukemia 2014 May;28(5):1071-80. Epub 2013 Oct 22 doi: 10.1038/leu.2013.304. PMID: 24150221Free PMC Article

Therapy

Müller-Tidow C, Tschanter P, Röllig C, Thiede C, Koschmieder A, Stelljes M, Koschmieder S, Dugas M, Gerss J, Butterfaß-Bahloul T, Wagner R, Eveslage M, Thiem U, Krause SW, Kaiser U, Kunzmann V, Steffen B, Noppeney R, Herr W, Baldus CD, Schmitz N, Götze K, Reichle A, Kaufmann M, Neubauer A, Schäfer-Eckart K, Hänel M, Peceny R, Frickhofen N, Kiehl M, Giagounidis A, Görner M, Repp R, Link H, Kiani A, Naumann R, Brümmendorf TH, Serve H, Ehninger G, Berdel WE, Krug U; Study Alliance Leukemia Group.
Leukemia 2016 Mar;30(3):555-61. Epub 2015 Nov 2 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.306. PMID: 26522083
Wu H, Hu C, Wang A, Weisberg EL, Chen Y, Yun CH, Wang W, Liu Y, Liu X, Tian B, Wang J, Zhao Z, Liang Y, Li B, Wang L, Wang B, Chen C, Buhrlage SJ, Qi Z, Zou F, Nonami A, Li Y, Fernandes SM, Adamia S, Stone RM, Galinsky IA, Wang X, Yang G, Griffin JD, Brown JR, Eck MJ, Liu J, Gray NS, Liu Q
Leukemia 2016 Jan;30(1):173-81. Epub 2015 Jul 13 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.180. PMID: 26165234Free PMC Article
Sehgal AR, Konig H, Johnson DE, Tang D, Amaravadi RK, Boyiadzis M, Lotze MT
Leukemia 2015 Mar;29(3):517-25. Epub 2014 Nov 26 doi: 10.1038/leu.2014.349. PMID: 25541151Free PMC Article
Greenblatt SM, Nimer SD
Leukemia 2014 Jul;28(7):1396-406. Epub 2014 Mar 10 doi: 10.1038/leu.2014.94. PMID: 24609046Free PMC Article
Callahan KP, Minhajuddin M, Corbett C, Lagadinou ED, Rossi RM, Grose V, Balys MM, Pan L, Jacob S, Frontier A, Grever MR, Lucas DM, Kinghorn AD, Liesveld JL, Becker MW, Jordan CT
Leukemia 2014 Oct;28(10):1960-8. Epub 2014 Feb 28 doi: 10.1038/leu.2014.93. PMID: 24577530Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Godwin CD, Gale RP, Walter RB
Leukemia 2017 Sep;31(9):1855-1868. Epub 2017 Jun 13 doi: 10.1038/leu.2017.187. PMID: 28607471
Patel BJ, Przychodzen B, Thota S, Radivoyevitch T, Visconte V, Kuzmanovic T, Clemente M, Hirsch C, Morawski A, Souaid R, Saygin C, Nazha A, Demarest B, LaFramboise T, Sakaguchi H, Kojima S, Carraway HE, Ogawa S, Makishima H, Sekeres MA, Maciejewski JP
Leukemia 2017 Dec;31(12):2815-2823. Epub 2017 May 30 doi: 10.1038/leu.2017.164. PMID: 28555081
Zheng Y, Zhang H, Wang Y, Li X, Lu P, Dong F, Pang Y, Ma S, Cheng H, Hao S, Tang F, Yuan W, Zhang X, Cheng T
Leukemia 2016 Dec;30(12):2373-2384. Epub 2016 May 2 doi: 10.1038/leu.2016.112. PMID: 27133822
Greenblatt SM, Nimer SD
Leukemia 2014 Jul;28(7):1396-406. Epub 2014 Mar 10 doi: 10.1038/leu.2014.94. PMID: 24609046Free PMC Article
Wang QF, Li YJ, Dong JF, Li B, Kaberlein JJ, Zhang L, Arimura FE, Luo RT, Ni J, He F, Wu J, Mattison R, Zhou J, Wang CZ, Prabhakar S, Nobrega MA, Thirman MJ
Leukemia 2014 Jan;28(1):138-46. Epub 2013 Sep 11 doi: 10.1038/leu.2013.260. PMID: 24022755Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Reckel S, Hamelin R, Georgeon S, Armand F, Jolliet Q, Chiappe D, Moniatte M, Hantschel O
Leukemia 2017 Jul;31(7):1502-1512. Epub 2017 Jan 23 doi: 10.1038/leu.2017.36. PMID: 28111465Free PMC Article
Ringdén O, Labopin M, Ciceri F, Velardi A, Bacigalupo A, Arcese W, Ghavamzadeh A, Hamladji RM, Schmid C, Nagler A, Mohty M
Leukemia 2016 Feb;30(2):447-55. Epub 2015 Aug 21 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.232. PMID: 26293645
Wu H, Hu C, Wang A, Weisberg EL, Chen Y, Yun CH, Wang W, Liu Y, Liu X, Tian B, Wang J, Zhao Z, Liang Y, Li B, Wang L, Wang B, Chen C, Buhrlage SJ, Qi Z, Zou F, Nonami A, Li Y, Fernandes SM, Adamia S, Stone RM, Galinsky IA, Wang X, Yang G, Griffin JD, Brown JR, Eck MJ, Liu J, Gray NS, Liu Q
Leukemia 2016 Jan;30(1):173-81. Epub 2015 Jul 13 doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.180. PMID: 26165234Free PMC Article
Huang X, Spencer GJ, Lynch JT, Ciceri F, Somerville TD, Somervaille TC
Leukemia 2014 May;28(5):1081-91. Epub 2013 Oct 29 doi: 10.1038/leu.2013.316. PMID: 24166297Free PMC Article
Wang QF, Li YJ, Dong JF, Li B, Kaberlein JJ, Zhang L, Arimura FE, Luo RT, Ni J, He F, Wu J, Mattison R, Zhou J, Wang CZ, Prabhakar S, Nobrega MA, Thirman MJ
Leukemia 2014 Jan;28(1):138-46. Epub 2013 Sep 11 doi: 10.1038/leu.2013.260. PMID: 24022755Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Arber DA, Borowitz MJ, Cessna M, Etzell J, Foucar K, Hasserjian RP, Rizzo JD, Theil K, Wang SA, Smith AT, Rumble RB, Thomas NE, Vardiman JW
Arch Pathol Lab Med 2017 Oct;141(10):1342-1393. Epub 2017 Feb 22 doi: 10.5858/arpa.2016-0504-CP. PMID: 28225303
Lien SA, Young L, Gau BS, K Shiao SP
Oncotarget 2017 Jan 17;8(3):4387-4398. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.13876. PMID: 27966457Free PMC Article
Whitehead TP, Metayer C, Wiemels JL, Singer AW, Miller MD
Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2016 Oct;46(10):317-352. doi: 10.1016/j.cppeds.2016.08.004. PMID: 27968954Free PMC Article
Bryant AL, Walton A, Shaw-Kokot J, Mayer DK, Reeve BB
Cancer Nurs 2016 Sep-Oct;39(5):375-82. doi: 10.1097/NCC.0000000000000327. PMID: 26645111Free PMC Article
Amankwah EK, Saenz AM, Hale GA, Brown PA
Leuk Lymphoma 2016 May;57(5):1140-8. Epub 2015 Oct 9 doi: 10.3109/10428194.2015.1076815. PMID: 26453440

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