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Influenza

MedGen UID:
9466
Concept ID:
C0021400
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Flu, Human; Grippe; Human Flu; Human Influenza; Human Influenzas; Influenza in Human; Influenza in Humans; Influenza, Human; Influenzas; Influenzas, Human
SNOMED CT: Influenza (6142004); Flu (6142004); Grippe (6142004)
 
Gene (location): IFITM3 (11p15.5)
OMIM®: 614680

Definition

Flu is a respiratory infection caused by a number of viruses. The viruses pass through the air and enter your body through your nose or mouth. Between 5% and 20% of people in the U.S. get the flu each year. The flu can be serious or even deadly for elderly people, newborn babies, and people with certain chronic illnesses. Symptoms of the flu come on suddenly and are worse than those of the common cold. They may include . -Body or muscle aches. -Chills . -Cough . -Fever . -Headache . -Sore throat . Is it a cold or the flu? Colds rarely cause a fever or headaches. Flu almost never causes an upset stomach. And stomach flu isn't really flu at all, but gastroenteritis. Most people with the flu recover on their own without medical care. People with mild cases of the flu should stay home and avoid contact with others, except to get medical care. If you get the flu, your health care provider may prescribe medicine to help your body fight the infection and lessen symptoms. . The main way to keep from getting the flu is to get a yearly flu vaccine. Good hygiene, including hand washing, can also help. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Loubet P, Lenzi N, Valette M, Foulongne V, Krivine A, Houhou N, Lagathu G, Rogez S, Alain S, Duval X, Galtier F, Postil D, Tattevin P, Vanhems P, Carrat F, Lina B, Launay O; FLUVAC Study Group.
Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 Apr;23(4):253-259. Epub 2016 Nov 27 doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2016.11.014. PMID: 27903461
Takashita E, Fujisaki S, Shirakura M, Nakamura K, Kishida N, Kuwahara T, Shimazu Y, Shimomura T, Watanabe S, Odagiri T; Influenza Virus Surveillance Group of Japan.
Euro Surveill 2016 Jun 16;21(24) doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.24.30258. PMID: 27336226
Ishikane M, Kamiya H, Kawabata K, Higashihara M, Sugihara M, Tabuchi A, Kuwabara M, Yahata Y, Yamagishi T, Odagiri T, Sugiki Y, Ohmagari N, Matsui T, Oishi K
J Infect Chemother 2016 Nov;22(11):777-779. Epub 2016 Apr 23 doi: 10.1016/j.jiac.2016.03.011. PMID: 27118211
Lafond KE, Nair H, Rasooly MH, Valente F, Booy R, Rahman M, Kitsutani P, Yu H, Guzman G, Coulibaly D, Armero J, Jima D, Howie SR, Ampofo W, Mena R, Chadha M, Sampurno OD, Emukule GO, Nurmatov Z, Corwin A, Heraud JM, Noyola DE, Cojocaru R, Nymadawa P, Barakat A, Adedeji A, von Horoch M, Olveda R, Nyatanyi T, Venter M, Mmbaga V, Chittaganpitch M, Nguyen TH, Theo A, Whaley M, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Bresee J, Campbell H, Widdowson MA; Global Respiratory Hospitalizations—Influenza Proportion Positive (GRIPP) Working Group.
PLoS Med 2016 Mar;13(3):e1001977. Epub 2016 Mar 24 doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001977. PMID: 27011229Free PMC Article
Saha S, Chadha M, Shu Y; Group of Asian Researchers on Influenza (GARI).
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2016 May;10(3):176-84. Epub 2016 Feb 5 doi: 10.1111/irv.12372. PMID: 26781162Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Loubet P, Lenzi N, Valette M, Foulongne V, Krivine A, Houhou N, Lagathu G, Rogez S, Alain S, Duval X, Galtier F, Postil D, Tattevin P, Vanhems P, Carrat F, Lina B, Launay O; FLUVAC Study Group.
Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 Apr;23(4):253-259. Epub 2016 Nov 27 doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2016.11.014. PMID: 27903461
Filleul L, Ranoaritiana DB, Balleydier E, Vandroux D, Ferlay C, Jaffar-Bandjee MC, Jaubert J, Roquebert B, Lina B, Valette M, Hubert B, Larrieu S, Brottet E
Euro Surveill 2016 Nov 24;21(47) doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.47.30405. PMID: 27918264Free PMC Article
Muthuri SG, Venkatesan S, Myles PR, Leonardi-Bee J, Lim WS, Al Mamun A, Anovadiya AP, Araújo WN, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Báez C, Bantar C, Barhoush MM, Bassetti M, Beovic B, Bingisser R, Bonmarin I, Borja-Aburto VH, Cao B, Carratala J, Cuezzo MR, Denholm JT, Dominguez SR, Duarte PA, Dubnov-Raz G, Echavarria M, Fanella S, Fraser J, Gao Z, Gérardin P, Giannella M, Gubbels S, Herberg J, Higuera Iglesias AL, Hoeger PH, Hoffmann M, Hu X, Islam QT, Jiménez MF, Kandeel A, Keijzers G, Khalili H, Khandaker G, Knight M, Kusznierz G, Kuzman I, Kwan AM, Lahlou Amine I, Langenegger E, Lankarani KB, Leo YS, Linko R, Liu P, Madanat F, Manabe T, Mayo-Montero E, McGeer A, Memish ZA, Metan G, Mikić D, Mohn KG, Moradi A, Nymadawa P, Ozbay B, Ozkan M, Parekh D, Paul M, Poeppl W, Polack FP, Rath BA, Rodríguez AH, Siqueira MM, Skręt-Magierło J, Talarek E, Tang JW, Torres A, Törün SH, Tran D, Uyeki TM, van Zwol A, Vaudry W, Velyvyte D, Vidmar T, Zarogoulidis P; PRIDE Consortium Investigators., Nguyen-Van-Tam JS
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2016 May;10(3):192-204. Epub 2016 Feb 1 doi: 10.1111/irv.12363. PMID: 26602067Free PMC Article
Su S, Fry AM, Kirley PD, Aragon D, Yousey-Hindes K, Meek J, Openo K, Oni O, Sharangpani R, Morin C, Hollick G, Lung K, Laidler M, Lindegren ML, Schaffner W, Atkinson A, Chaves SS
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2016 Mar;10(2):86-90. Epub 2016 Jan 29 doi: 10.1111/irv.12355. PMID: 26505742Free PMC Article
Wongsawat J, Chittaganpitch M, Ampornareekul S, Srisophaa S, Likanonsakul S
Paediatr Int Child Health 2016 Nov;36(4):275-281. doi: 10.1179/2046905515Y.0000000052. PMID: 26293663

Therapy

Takashita E, Fujisaki S, Shirakura M, Nakamura K, Kishida N, Kuwahara T, Shimazu Y, Shimomura T, Watanabe S, Odagiri T; Influenza Virus Surveillance Group of Japan.
Euro Surveill 2016 Jun 16;21(24) doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.24.30258. PMID: 27336226
Castilla J, Navascués A, Fernández-Alonso M, Reina G, Pozo F, Casado I, Guevara M, Martínez-Baz I, Barricarte A, Ezpeleta C; Primary Health Care Sentinel Network.; Network for Influenza Surveillance in Hospitals of Navarra.
Vaccine 2016 Mar 8;34(11):1350-7. Epub 2016 Feb 5 doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.01.054. PMID: 26854911
Muthuri SG, Venkatesan S, Myles PR, Leonardi-Bee J, Lim WS, Al Mamun A, Anovadiya AP, Araújo WN, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Báez C, Bantar C, Barhoush MM, Bassetti M, Beovic B, Bingisser R, Bonmarin I, Borja-Aburto VH, Cao B, Carratala J, Cuezzo MR, Denholm JT, Dominguez SR, Duarte PA, Dubnov-Raz G, Echavarria M, Fanella S, Fraser J, Gao Z, Gérardin P, Giannella M, Gubbels S, Herberg J, Higuera Iglesias AL, Hoeger PH, Hoffmann M, Hu X, Islam QT, Jiménez MF, Kandeel A, Keijzers G, Khalili H, Khandaker G, Knight M, Kusznierz G, Kuzman I, Kwan AM, Lahlou Amine I, Langenegger E, Lankarani KB, Leo YS, Linko R, Liu P, Madanat F, Manabe T, Mayo-Montero E, McGeer A, Memish ZA, Metan G, Mikić D, Mohn KG, Moradi A, Nymadawa P, Ozbay B, Ozkan M, Parekh D, Paul M, Poeppl W, Polack FP, Rath BA, Rodríguez AH, Siqueira MM, Skręt-Magierło J, Talarek E, Tang JW, Torres A, Törün SH, Tran D, Uyeki TM, van Zwol A, Vaudry W, Velyvyte D, Vidmar T, Zarogoulidis P; PRIDE Consortium Investigators., Nguyen-Van-Tam JS
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2016 May;10(3):192-204. Epub 2016 Feb 1 doi: 10.1111/irv.12363. PMID: 26602067Free PMC Article
Kittikraisak W, Chittaganpitch M, Gregory CJ, Laosiritaworn Y, Thantithaveewat T, Dawood FS, Lindblade KA
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2016 May;10(3):211-9. Epub 2016 Jan 29 doi: 10.1111/irv.12361. PMID: 26588892Free PMC Article
Wongsawat J, Chittaganpitch M, Ampornareekul S, Srisophaa S, Likanonsakul S
Paediatr Int Child Health 2016 Nov;36(4):275-281. doi: 10.1179/2046905515Y.0000000052. PMID: 26293663

Prognosis

Jamotte A, Clay E, Macabeo B, Caicedo A, Lopez JG, Bricks L, Romero Prada M, Marrugo R, Alfonso P, Moreno Arévalo B, Franco D, Garcia Diaz L, Isaza de Molto Y
Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Apr 3;13(4):877-888. Epub 2017 Jan 24 doi: 10.1080/21645515.2016.1256928. PMID: 28118092
Loubet P, Lenzi N, Valette M, Foulongne V, Krivine A, Houhou N, Lagathu G, Rogez S, Alain S, Duval X, Galtier F, Postil D, Tattevin P, Vanhems P, Carrat F, Lina B, Launay O; FLUVAC Study Group.
Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 Apr;23(4):253-259. Epub 2016 Nov 27 doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2016.11.014. PMID: 27903461
Filleul L, Ranoaritiana DB, Balleydier E, Vandroux D, Ferlay C, Jaffar-Bandjee MC, Jaubert J, Roquebert B, Lina B, Valette M, Hubert B, Larrieu S, Brottet E
Euro Surveill 2016 Nov 24;21(47) doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.47.30405. PMID: 27918264Free PMC Article
Wongsawat J, Chittaganpitch M, Ampornareekul S, Srisophaa S, Likanonsakul S
Paediatr Int Child Health 2016 Nov;36(4):275-281. doi: 10.1179/2046905515Y.0000000052. PMID: 26293663
Scheminske M, Henninger M, Irving SA, Thompson M, Williams J, Shifflett P, Ball SW, Avalos LA, Naleway AL; Pregnancy and Influenza Project Workgroup.
Health Educ Behav 2015 Jun;42(3):402-8. Epub 2014 Dec 12 doi: 10.1177/1090198114560021. PMID: 25504630

Clinical prediction guides

Pereyaslov D, Zemtsova G, Gruessner C, Daniels RS, McCauley JW, Brown CS
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2016 Mar;10(2):68-75. doi: 10.1111/irv.12362. PMID: 26589132Free PMC Article
Wongsawat J, Chittaganpitch M, Ampornareekul S, Srisophaa S, Likanonsakul S
Paediatr Int Child Health 2016 Nov;36(4):275-281. doi: 10.1179/2046905515Y.0000000052. PMID: 26293663
Caini S, Huang QS, Ciblak MA, Kusznierz G, Owen R, Wangchuk S, Henriques CM, Njouom R, Fasce RA, Yu H, Feng L, Zambon M, Clara AW, Kosasih H, Puzelli S, Kadjo HA, Emukule G, Heraud JM, Ang LW, Venter M, Mironenko A, Brammer L, Mai le TQ, Schellevis F, Plotkin S, Paget J; Global Influenza B Study.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2015 Aug;9 Suppl 1:3-12. doi: 10.1111/irv.12319. PMID: 26256290Free PMC Article
Ridenour C, Johnson A, Winne E, Hossain J, Mateu-Petit G, Balish A, Santana W, Kim T, Davis C, Cox NJ, Barr JR, Donis RO, Villanueva J, Williams TL, Chen LM
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2015 Sep;9(5):263-70. doi: 10.1111/irv.12322. PMID: 25962412Free PMC Article
Scheminske M, Henninger M, Irving SA, Thompson M, Williams J, Shifflett P, Ball SW, Avalos LA, Naleway AL; Pregnancy and Influenza Project Workgroup.
Health Educ Behav 2015 Jun;42(3):402-8. Epub 2014 Dec 12 doi: 10.1177/1090198114560021. PMID: 25504630

Recent systematic reviews

Thommes EW, Kruse M, Kohli M, Sharma R, Noorduyn SG
Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Apr 3;13(4):867-876. Epub 2016 Nov 18 doi: 10.1080/21645515.2016.1251537. PMID: 27858509
Sun Y, Wang Q, Yang G, Lin C, Zhang Y, Yang P
Infect Dis (Lond) 2016 Nov-Dec;48(11-12):813-22. Epub 2016 Jul 6 doi: 10.1080/23744235.2016.1201721. PMID: 27385315
Leung VK, Cowling BJ, Feng S, Sullivan SG
Euro Surveill 2016 Apr 21;21(16) doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.16.30202. PMID: 27124573
Lafond KE, Nair H, Rasooly MH, Valente F, Booy R, Rahman M, Kitsutani P, Yu H, Guzman G, Coulibaly D, Armero J, Jima D, Howie SR, Ampofo W, Mena R, Chadha M, Sampurno OD, Emukule GO, Nurmatov Z, Corwin A, Heraud JM, Noyola DE, Cojocaru R, Nymadawa P, Barakat A, Adedeji A, von Horoch M, Olveda R, Nyatanyi T, Venter M, Mmbaga V, Chittaganpitch M, Nguyen TH, Theo A, Whaley M, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Bresee J, Campbell H, Widdowson MA; Global Respiratory Hospitalizations—Influenza Proportion Positive (GRIPP) Working Group.
PLoS Med 2016 Mar;13(3):e1001977. Epub 2016 Mar 24 doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001977. PMID: 27011229Free PMC Article
Muthuri SG, Venkatesan S, Myles PR, Leonardi-Bee J, Lim WS, Al Mamun A, Anovadiya AP, Araújo WN, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Báez C, Bantar C, Barhoush MM, Bassetti M, Beovic B, Bingisser R, Bonmarin I, Borja-Aburto VH, Cao B, Carratala J, Cuezzo MR, Denholm JT, Dominguez SR, Duarte PA, Dubnov-Raz G, Echavarria M, Fanella S, Fraser J, Gao Z, Gérardin P, Giannella M, Gubbels S, Herberg J, Higuera Iglesias AL, Hoeger PH, Hoffmann M, Hu X, Islam QT, Jiménez MF, Kandeel A, Keijzers G, Khalili H, Khandaker G, Knight M, Kusznierz G, Kuzman I, Kwan AM, Lahlou Amine I, Langenegger E, Lankarani KB, Leo YS, Linko R, Liu P, Madanat F, Manabe T, Mayo-Montero E, McGeer A, Memish ZA, Metan G, Mikić D, Mohn KG, Moradi A, Nymadawa P, Ozbay B, Ozkan M, Parekh D, Paul M, Poeppl W, Polack FP, Rath BA, Rodríguez AH, Siqueira MM, Skręt-Magierło J, Talarek E, Tang JW, Torres A, Törün SH, Tran D, Uyeki TM, van Zwol A, Vaudry W, Velyvyte D, Vidmar T, Zarogoulidis P; PRIDE Consortium Investigators., Nguyen-Van-Tam JS
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2016 May;10(3):192-204. Epub 2016 Feb 1 doi: 10.1111/irv.12363. PMID: 26602067Free PMC Article

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