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Items: 11

1.

Renal cell carcinoma

MedGen UID:
775811
Concept ID:
CN182935
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Renal cell carcinoma

A type of carcinoma of the kidney with origin in the epithelium of the proximal convoluted renal tubule. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
505836
Concept ID:
CN004944
Finding
3.

Renal cell carcinoma, Xp11-associated

Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinomas (RCCX1) are a group of neoplasms distinguished by chromosomal translocations with breakpoints involving the TFE3 gene within tumor cells. The result is a TFE3 transcription factor gene fusion with 1 of multiple reported genes including ASPRCR1 (606236) on chromosome 17q25 and PRCC (179755) on 1q21, and more rarely, NONO (300084) on Xq13, SFPQ (605199) on 1p34, CLTC (118955) on 17q23, and unknown genes on chromosomes 3 and 10. Xp11 translocations are often found in pediatric tumors and less commonly in adults. However, adult cases may outnumber pediatric cases since renal cell carcinoma is more common in the adult population. Prior chemotherapy is a known risk factor for Xp11 translocations. Histology shows both clear cells and papillary architecture, often with abundant psammoma bodies, although variable histologic features have been observed (review by Ross and Argani, 2010). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of renal cell carcinoma, see RCC (144700). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
477077
Concept ID:
C3275446
Neoplastic Process
4.

Renal cell carcinoma, papillary, 1

Hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma is characterized by the development of multiple, bilateral papillary renal tumors (Zbar et al., 1995). The transmission pattern is consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Papillary renal cell carcinoma is histologically and genetically distinct from 2 other forms of inherited renal carcinoma, von Hippel Lindau disease (193300), caused by mutation in the VHL gene (608537) on chromosome 3, and a form associated with the chromosome translocation t(3;8), as described by Cohen et al. (1979). Bodmer et al. (2002) reviewed the molecular genetics of familial and nonfamilial cases of renal cell carcinoma, including the roles of VHL, MET, and translocations involving chromosomes 1, 3, and X. For background information and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nonpapillary renal cell carcinoma, see RCC (144700). See also a hereditary syndrome of predisposition to uterine leiomyomas and papillary renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC; 150800) caused by germline mutation in the FH gene (136850). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766
Concept ID:
C0007134
Neoplastic Process
5.

Renal cell carcinoma, nonpapillary

The Heidelberg histologic classification of renal cell tumors subdivides renal cell tumors into benign and malignant parenchymal neoplasms and, where possible, limits each subcategory to the most common documented genetic abnormalities (Kovacs et al., 1997). Malignant tumors are subclassified into common or conventional renal cell carcinoma (clear cell); papillary renal cell carcinoma; chromophobe renal cell carcinoma; collecting duct carcinoma, with medullary carcinoma of the kidney; and unclassified renal cell carcinoma. The common or conventional type accounts for about 75% of renal cell neoplasms and is characterized genetically by a highly specific deletion of chromosome 3p. Papillary renal cell carcinoma (see 605074) accounts for about 10% of renal cell tumors. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 5% of renal cell neoplasms. Genetically, chromophobe RCC is characterized by a combination of loss of heterozygosity of chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21 and hypodiploid DNA content. Collecting duct carcinoma accounts for about 1% of renal cell carcinoma. Renal cell carcinoma occurs nearly twice as often in men as in women; incidence in the United States is equivalent among whites and blacks. Cigarette smoking doubles the likelihood of renal cell carcinoma and contributes to as many as one-third of cases. Obesity is also a risk factor, particularly in women. Other risk factors include hypertension, unopposed estrogen therapy, and occupational exposure to petroleum products, heavy metals, or asbestos (summary by Motzer et al., 1996). Genetic Heterogeneity of Renal Cell Carcinoma Germline mutation resulting in nonpapillary renal cell carcinoma of the clear cell and chromophobe type occurs in the HNF1A gene (142410) and the HNF1B gene (189907). Somatic mutations in renal cell carcinomas occur in the VHL gene (608537), the TRC8 gene (603046), the OGG1 gene (601982), the ARMET gene (601916), the FLCN gene (607273), and the BAP1 gene (603089). See also RCCX1 (300854) for a discussion of renal cell carcinoma associated with translocations of chromosome Xp11.2 involving the TFE3 gene (314310). For a discussion of papillary renal cell carcinoma, see RCCP1 (605074). Occurrence of Renal Cell Carcinoma in Other Disorders Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (193300) is a familial multicancer syndrome in which there is a susceptibility to a variety of neoplasms, including renal cell carcinoma of clear cell histology and renal cysts. A syndrome of predisposition to uterine leiomyomas and papillary renal cell carcinoma has been reported (605839). Medullary carcinoma of the kidney is believed to arise from the collecting ducts of the renal medulla and is associated with sickle cell trait (603903) (Kovacs et al., 1997). Renal cell carcinoma occurs in patients with the Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome (135150). Bertolotto et al. (2011) identified a missense mutation in the MITF (156845) gene that increases the risk of renal cell carcinoma with or without malignant melanoma (CCMM8; 614456). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
463622
Concept ID:
C3160732
Neoplastic Process
6.

Albinism, ocular, with sensorineural deafness

Ocular albinism is a genetic condition that primarily affects the eyes. This condition reduces the coloring (pigmentation) of the iris, which is the colored part of the eye, and the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. Pigmentation in the eye is essential for normal vision.Ocular albinism is characterized by severely impaired sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and problems with combining vision from both eyes to perceive depth (stereoscopic vision). Although the vision loss is permanent, it does not worsen over time. Other eye abnormalities associated with this condition include rapid, involuntary eye movements (nystagmus); eyes that do not look in the same direction (strabismus); and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). Many affected individuals also have abnormalities involving the optic nerves, which carry visual information from the eye to the brain.Unlike some other forms of albinism, ocular albinism does not significantly affect the color of the skin and hair. People with this condition may have a somewhat lighter complexion than other members of their family, but these differences are usually minor.The most common form of ocular albinism is known as the Nettleship-Falls type or type 1. Other forms of ocular albinism are much rarer and may be associated with additional signs and symptoms, such as hearing loss.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
400230
Concept ID:
C1863198
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Tietz syndrome

Tietz syndrome is a disorder characterized by profound hearing loss from birth, fair skin, and light-colored hair. The hearing loss in affected individuals is caused by abnormalities of the inner ear (sensorineural hearing loss) and is present from birth. Although people with Tietz syndrome are born with white hair and very pale skin, their hair color often darkens over time to blond or red. The skin of affected individuals, which sunburns very easily, may tan slightly or develop reddish freckles with limited sun exposure; however, their skin and hair color remain lighter than those of other members of their family.Tietz syndrome also affects the eyes. The colored part of the eye (the iris) in affected individuals is blue, and specialized cells in the eye called retinal pigment epithelial cells lack their normal pigment. The retinal pigment epithelium nourishes the retina, the part of the eye that detects light and color. The changes to the retinal pigment epithelium are generally detectable only by an eye examination; it is unclear whether the changes affect vision.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
98213
Concept ID:
C0391816
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Clear cell carcinoma of kidney

A subtype of renal cell carcinoma thought to originate from mature renal tubular cells in the proximal tubule of the nehpron. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
76018
Concept ID:
C0279702
Neoplastic Process
9.

Genitourinary neoplasm

A tumor (abnormal growth of tissue) of the genitourinary system. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
22583
Concept ID:
C0042065
Neoplastic Process
10.

Nephropathy

Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of your fists. They are located near the middle of your back, just below the rib cage. Inside each kidney about a million tiny structures called nephrons filter blood. They remove waste products and extra water, which become urine. The urine flows through tubes called ureters to your bladder, which stores the urine until you go to the bathroom. . Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys unable to remove wastes. Causes can include genetic problems, injuries, or medicines. You are at greater risk for kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or a close family member with kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease damages the nephrons slowly over several years. Other kidney problems include:. -Cancer. -Cysts. -Stones. -Infections. Your doctor can run tests to find out if you have kidney disease. If your kidneys fail completely, a kidney transplant or dialysis can replace the work your kidneys normally do. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
9635
Concept ID:
C0022658
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Adenocarcinoma

A malignant neoplasm arising from glandular cells. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
122
Concept ID:
C0001418
Neoplastic Process
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