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1.

Pleuropulmonary blastoma

Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a rare pediatric tumor of the lung that arises during fetal lung development and is often part of an inherited cancer syndrome (Hill et al., 2009). PPBs contain both epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Early in tumorigenesis, cysts form in lung airspaces, and these cysts are lined with benign-appearing epithelium. Mesenchymal cells susceptible to malignant transformation reside within the cyst walls and form a dense 'cambium' layer beneath the epithelial lining. In a subset of patients, overgrowth of the mesenchymal cells produces a sarcoma, a transition that is associated with a poorer prognosis (Priest et al., 1996). In approximately 35% of families in which a child has PPB, the patient or a family member manifests 1 or more additional conditions from an unusual array of dysontogenetic-dysplastic and malignant conditions, known as the 'PPB family tumor and dysplasia syndrome' (PPBFTDS). Cystic nephroma, which are benign lesions of the kidney, are found in 9 to 10% of family members affected by PPB (summary by Bahubeshi et al., 2010). Larger studies have shown that DICER1 mutations are associated with a variety of tumor types, indicating that this disorder can be considered a tumor predisposition syndrome (summary by Slade et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
266105
Concept ID:
C1266144
Neoplastic Process
2.

Pleuropulmonary blastoma

A rare cancer originating in the lung or pleural cavity that occurs most often in infants and young children but also has been reported in adults. Pleuropulmonary blastoma is regarded as malignant. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
506476
Concept ID:
CN117421
Finding
3.

Neonatal hemochromatosis

Neonatal hemochromatosis (NH) is characterized by hepatic failure in the newborn period and heavy iron staining in the liver. In addition, there is marked siderosis of extrahepatic tissues, including the heart and pancreas (Driscoll et al., 1988). Whitington (2007) postulated that some cases of neonatal hemochromatosis result from maternal alloimmunity directed at the fetal liver, and therefore do not represent an inherited mendelian disorder. Other causes may result from metabolic disease or perinatal infection. In particular, he commented that the disorder is not related to the family of inherited liver diseases that fall under the classification of hereditary hemochromatosis (see, e.g., 235200). Whitington (2007) proposed the term 'congenital alloimmune hepatitis.' In the past, the disorder has loosely been labeled 'neonatal hepatitis' and 'giant cell hepatitis,' which are pathologic findings in the liver representing a common response to a variety of insults, including cholestatic disorders and infection, among others (Fawaz et al., 1975; Knisely et al., 1987; Kelly et al., 2001). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
82768
Concept ID:
C0268059
Disease or Syndrome
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