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1.

Atrophy

Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
83084
Concept ID:
C0333641
Pathologic Function
2.

Skeletal muscle atrophy

The presence of skeletal muscular atrophy (which is also known as amyotrophy). [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
902598
Concept ID:
C0234958
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Spinal muscular atrophy

Muscular weakness and atrophy related to loss of the motor neurons of the spinal cord and brainstem. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
506049
Concept ID:
CN006358
Finding
4.

Spinal muscular atrophy

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy resulting from progressive degeneration and loss of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord (i.e., lower motor neurons) and the brain stem nuclei. The onset of weakness ranges from before birth to adolescence or young adulthood. The weakness is symmetric, proximal > distal, and progressive. Before the genetic basis of SMA was understood, it was classified into clinical subtypes; however, it is now apparent that the phenotype of SMN1-associated SMA spans a continuum without clear delineation of subtypes. Poor weight gain with growth failure, restrictive lung disease, scoliosis, joint contractures, and sleep difficulties are common complications. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
7755
Concept ID:
C0026847
Disease or Syndrome
5.

SCLEROSING CHOLANGITIS, NEONATAL

Neonatal sclerosing cholangitis is a rare autosomal recessive form of severe liver disease with onset in infancy. Affected infants have jaundice, cholestasis, acholic stools, and progressive liver dysfunction resulting in fibrosis and cirrhosis; most require liver transplantation in the first few decades of life. Cholangiography shows patent biliary ducts, but there are bile duct irregularities (summary by Girard et al., 2016; Grammatikopoulos et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
910848
Concept ID:
CN241830
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Proximal spinal muscular atrophy

Proximal spinal muscular atrophies are a group of neuromuscular disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness resulting from the degeneration and loss of the lower motor neurons in the spinal cord and the brain stem nuclei. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
832697
Concept ID:
CN205570
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Proximal spinal muscular atrophy

Proximal spinal muscular atrophy, i.e., muscular weakness and atrophy related to loss of the motor neurons of the spinal cord and brainstem. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
428668
Concept ID:
CN006073
Finding
8.

Retinitis pigmentosa

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) refers to a heterogeneous group of inherited ocular diseases that result in a progressive retinal degeneration affecting 1 in 3,000 to 5,000 people (Veltel et al., 2008). Symptoms include night blindness, the development of tunnel vision, and slowly progressive decreased central vision starting at approximately 20 years of age. Upon examination, patients have decreased visual acuity, constricted visual fields, dyschromatopsia (tritanopic; see 190900), and the classic fundus appearance with dark pigmentary clumps in the midperiphery and perivenous areas ('bone spicules'), attenuated retinal vessels, cystoid macular edema, fine pigmented vitreous cells, and waxy optic disc pallor. RP is associated with posterior subcapsular cataracts in 39 to 72% of patients, high myopia, astigmatism, keratoconus, and mild hearing loss in 30% of patients (excluding patients with Usher syndrome; see 276900). Fifty percent of female carriers of X-linked RP have a golden reflex in the posterior pole (summary by Kaiser et al., 2004). Juvenile Retinitis Pigmentosa Autosomal recessive childhood-onset severe retinal dystrophy is a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting rod and cone photoreceptors simultaneously. The most severe cases are termed Leber congenital amaurosis (see 204000), whereas the less aggressive forms are usually considered juvenile retinitis pigmentosa (Gu et al., 1997). Autosomal recessive forms of juvenile retinitis pigmentosa can be caused by mutation in the SPATA7 (609868), LRAT (604863), and TULP1 (602280) genes (see LCA3, 604232, LCA14, 613341, and LCA15, 613843, respectively). An autosomal dominant form of juvenile retinitis pigmentosa (see 604393) is caused by mutation in the AIPL1 gene (604392). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
20551
Concept ID:
C0035334
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Inborn genetic diseases

Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
181981
Concept ID:
C0950123
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Motor neuron disease

Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
38785
Concept ID:
C0085084
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Abnormality of the spinal cord

Your spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of your back. It carries signals back and forth between your body and your brain. It is protected by your vertebrae, which are the bone disks that make up your spine. If you have an accident that damages the vertebrae or other parts of the spine, this can also injure the spinal cord. Other spinal cord problems include. - Tumors. - Infections such as meningitis and polio. - Inflammatory diseases. - Autoimmune diseases . - Degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy. Symptoms vary but might include pain, numbness, loss of sensation and muscle weakness. These symptoms can occur around the spinal cord, and also in other areas such as your arms and legs. Treatments often include medicines and surgery. .  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
11550
Concept ID:
C0037928
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Neuromuscular Diseases

Neuromuscular disorders affect the nerves that control your voluntary muscles. Voluntary muscles are the ones you can control, like in your arms and legs. Your nerve cells, also called neurons, send the messages that control these muscles. When the neurons become unhealthy or die, communication between your nervous system and muscles breaks down. As a result, your muscles weaken and waste away. The weakness can lead to twitching, cramps, aches and pains, and joint and movement problems. Sometimes it also affects heart function and your ability to breathe. Examples of neuromuscular disorders include. -Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. -Multiple sclerosis. -Myasthenia gravis. -Spinal muscular atrophy. Many neuromuscular diseases are genetic, which means they run in families or there is a mutation in your genes. Sometimes, an immune system disorder can cause them. Most of them have no cure. The goal of treatment is to improve symptoms, increase mobility and lengthen life.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
10323
Concept ID:
C0027868
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Morphological abnormality of the central nervous system

A structural abnormality of the central nervous system. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
3306
Concept ID:
C0007682
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Kugelberg-Welander disease

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy resulting from progressive degeneration and loss of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord (i.e., lower motor neurons) and the brain stem nuclei. The onset of weakness ranges from before birth to adolescence or young adulthood. The weakness is symmetric, proximal > distal, and progressive. Before the genetic basis of SMA was understood, it was classified into clinical subtypes; however, it is now apparent that the phenotype of SMN1-associated SMA spans a continuum without clear delineation of subtypes. Poor weight gain with growth failure, restrictive lung disease, scoliosis, joint contractures, and sleep difficulties are common complications. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
101816
Concept ID:
C0152109
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Spinal muscular atrophy, type II

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy resulting from progressive degeneration and loss of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord (i.e., lower motor neurons) and the brain stem nuclei. The onset of weakness ranges from before birth to adolescence or young adulthood. The weakness is symmetric, proximal > distal, and progressive. Before the genetic basis of SMA was understood, it was classified into clinical subtypes; however, it is now apparent that the phenotype of SMN1-associated SMA spans a continuum without clear delineation of subtypes. Poor weight gain with growth failure, restrictive lung disease, scoliosis, joint contractures, and sleep difficulties are common complications. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
95975
Concept ID:
C0393538
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Distal spinal muscular atrophy, autosomal recessive 4

MedGen UID:
369682
Concept ID:
C1970211
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Distal spinal muscular atrophy, autosomal recessive 3

Distal spinal muscular atrophy (DSMA), also known as distal hereditary motor neuronopathy (dHMN or HMN), is characterized by distal muscle weakness and wasting without significant sensory involvement. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal SMA, see HMN1 (182960). Harding (1993) classified autosomal recessive distal hereditary motor neuronopathy as dHMN IV (HMN4) and dHMN III (HMN3). Both have juvenile onset and differ only by less severe involvement in HMN3. However, Viollet et al. (2004) reported an extended Lebanese kindred in which both HMN III and HMN IV occurred, suggesting that the same gene was involved in both phenotypes (see Irobi et al., 2006). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
337659
Concept ID:
C1846823
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Folic Acid Metabolism Disorder

MedGen UID:
850974
Concept ID:
CN231747
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Spinal muscular atrophy, distal, autosomal recessive, 5

DSMA5 is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by young adult onset of slowly progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy resulting in gait impairment and loss of reflexes due to impaired function of motor nerves. Sensation and cognition are not impaired (summary by Blumen et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal SMA, see HMN1 (182960). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766903
Concept ID:
C3553989
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Distal spinal muscular atrophy, autosomal recessive 2

Distal spinal muscular atrophy-2 is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset of distal muscle weakness and wasting affecting the lower and upper limbs in the first decade; there is no sensory involvement (summary by Li et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DSMA, see HMN1 (182960). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
344189
Concept ID:
C1854023
Disease or Syndrome
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