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Items: 1 to 20 of 24

1.

Lithium

An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
6121
Concept ID:
C0023870
Element, Ion, or Isotope; Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is highly heritable, as shown by family, twin, and adoption studies. For example, for identical twins, if one twin develops schizophrenia, the other twin has about a 50% chance of also developing the disease. The risk of the general population developing the schizophrenia is about 0.3-0.7% worldwide. The search for “schizophrenia genes” has been elusive. Initial linkage studies looked at parts of the genome associated with schizophrenia, and many candidate genes were identified, including APOE, COMT, DAO, DRD1, DRD2, DRD4, DTNBP1, GABRB2, GRIN2B, HP, IL1B, MTHFR, PLXNA2, SLC6A4, TP53, and TPH1. However, some of these have later been questioned. Microdeletions and microduplications have been found to be three times more common in individuals with schizophrenia, compared to controls. Because these deletions and duplications are in genes that are overexpressed in pathways related to brain development, it is possible that the inheritance of multiple rare variants may contribute to the development of schizophrenia. Several genetic disorders feature schizophrenia as a clinical feature. The 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome comprises many different syndromes, of which one of the most serious is DiGeorge syndrome. Children born with DiGeorge syndrome typically have heart defects, cleft palate, learning difficulties, and immune deficiency. Schizophrenia is a late manifestation, affecting around 30% of individuals. Microdeletions and duplications in chromosome 1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 16 have also been associated with schizophrenia. In 2014, a genome-wide association study looked at the genomes of over 35,000 patients and 110,00 controls. The study identified 108 SNPs that were associated with schizophrenia, 83 of which had not been previously reported. As expected, many of these loci occurred in genes that are expressed in the brain. For example, the SNPs included a gene that encodes the dopamine D2 receptor, DRD2 (the target of antipsychotic drugs), and many genes involved in glutamine neurotransmitter pathways and synaptic plasticity (e.g., GRM3, GRIN2A, SRR, GRIA1). More surprisingly, however, associations were also enriched among genes expressed in tissues with important immune functions. In 2016, a study based on nearly 65,000 people investigated the association between schizophrenia and variation in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) locus—a region on chromosome 6 that is important for immune function. The study focused on the C4 gene (complement component 4) that exists as two distinct genes: C4A and C4B, which encode particularly structurally diverse alleles. The study found that the alleles which promoted greater expression of C4A in the brain were associated with a greater risk of schizophrenia. By using mice models, the study showed that C4 is involved in the elimination of synapses during brain maturation. In humans, “synaptic pruning” is most active during late adolescence, which coincides with the typical onset of symptoms of schizophrenia. It is therefore possible that the inheritance of specific C4A alleles could lead to “run away” synaptic pruning, increasing the risk of schizophrenia. Further research may even determine C4 as a potential therapeutic target. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
48574
Concept ID:
C0036341
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
3.

Depression

A melancholy feeling of sadness and despair. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
8325
Concept ID:
C0011570
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
4.

Bipolar affective disorder

A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
2649
Concept ID:
C0005586
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
5.

Bipolar

MedGen UID:
912721
Concept ID:
CN244029
Finding
6.

Psychiatric

MedGen UID:
851585
Concept ID:
C1548428
Finding
7.

Behavioral abnormality

An abnormality of mental functioning including various affective, behavioural, cognitive and perceptual abnormalities. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
535345
Concept ID:
C0233514
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
8.

Schizophrenia

A mental disorder characterized by a disintegration of thought processes and of emotional responsiveness. It most commonly manifests as auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, or disorganized speech and thinking, and it is accompanied by significant social or occupational dysfunction. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in young adulthood, with a global lifetime prevalence of about 0.3-0.7%. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
506532
Concept ID:
CN117643
Finding
9.

Major affective disorder 1

Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition that causes extreme shifts in mood, energy, and behavior. This disorder most often appears in late adolescence or early adulthood, although symptoms can begin at any time of life.People with bipolar disorder experience both dramatic "highs," called manic episodes, and "lows," called depressive episodes. These episodes can last from hours to weeks, and many people have no symptoms between episodes. Manic episodes are characterized by increased energy and activity, irritability, restlessness, an inability to sleep, and reckless behavior. Depressive episodes are marked by low energy and activity, a feeling of hopelessness, and an inability to perform everyday tasks. People with bipolar disorder often have repeated thoughts of death and suicide, and they have a much greater risk of dying by suicide than the general population.Manic and depressive episodes can include psychotic symptoms, such as false perceptions (hallucinations) or strongly held false beliefs (delusions). Mixed episodes, which have features of manic and depressive episodes at the same time, also occur in some affected individuals.Bipolar disorder often occurs with other mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders (such as panic attacks), behavioral disorders (such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder), and substance abuse. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
377615
Concept ID:
C1852197
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
10.

Depression

An emotional state characterized by feelings of sadness, emptiness, and/or tearfulness. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
137999
Concept ID:
C0344315
Finding
11.

Behavioral symptoms

An abnormality of mental functioning including various affective, behavioural, cognitive and perceptual abnormalities. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
14048
Concept ID:
C0004941
Sign or Symptom
12.

Inhibition

MedGen UID:
5809
Concept ID:
C0021469
Molecular Function
13.

Depression

A condition characterized by pervasive dysphoric mood, loss of interests, and inability to experience pleasure. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
4229
Concept ID:
C0011581
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
14.

Diagnosis, Psychiatric

MedGen UID:
138165
Concept ID:
C0376338
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
15.

Mood disorder

A category of psychiatric disorders which have as their most predominant feature a disturbance in mood. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
99866
Concept ID:
C0525045
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
16.

Lithium chloride

A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
72992
Concept ID:
C0065088
Inorganic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
17.

Antimanic Agents

Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
69288
Concept ID:
C0242911
Pharmacologic Substance
18.

Psychotherapeutic agent

A classification of medication that acts on the central nervous system, affecting brain function, level of consciousness, mood, emotions, and behavior. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
46201
Concept ID:
C0033978
Pharmacologic Substance
19.

Tranquilizer

A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
21610
Concept ID:
C0040614
Pharmacologic Substance
20.

Mental disorder

A disorder characterized by behavioral and/or psychological abnormalities, often accompanied by physical symptoms. The symptoms may cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social and occupational areas of functioning. Representative examples include anxiety disorders, cognitive disorders, mood disorders and schizophrenia. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
14047
Concept ID:
C0004936
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
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