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Items: 9

1.

Thyroid carcinoma

Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in your neck, just above your collarbone. It makes hormones that help the body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater risk if you. -Are between ages 25 and 65. -Are a woman. -Are Asian. -Have a family member who has had thyroid disease. -Have had radiation treatments to your head or neck. You should see a doctor if you have a lump or swelling in your neck. Doctors use a physical exam, thyroid tests, other blood and imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you have and how far the cancer has spread. Many patients receive a combination of treatments. They may include surgery, radioactive iodine, hormone treatment, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. NIH: National Cancer Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
107811
Concept ID:
C0549473
Neoplastic Process
2.

Carcinoma

A malignant tumor arising from epithelial cells. Carcinomas that arise from glandular epithelium are called adenocarcinomas, those that arise from squamous epithelium are called squamous cell carcinomas, and those that arise from transitional epithelium are called transitional cell carcinomas (NCI Thesaurus). [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
2867
Concept ID:
C0007097
Neoplastic Process
3.

Carcinoma

MedGen UID:
910818
Concept ID:
CN241453
Finding
4.

Aspiration

Inspiration of a foreign object into the airway. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
751786
Concept ID:
C2712334
Finding
5.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma

The presence of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
505394
Concept ID:
CN002618
Finding
6.

Thyroid carcinoma

The presence of a carcinoma of the thyroid gland. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
505391
Concept ID:
CN002613
Finding
7.

Aspiration

Inspiration of a foreign object into the airway. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
472619
Concept ID:
C0700198
Pathologic Function
8.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma

Nonmedullary thyroid cancer (NMTC) comprises thyroid cancers of follicular cell origin and accounts for more than 95% of all thyroid cancer cases. The remaining cancers originate from parafollicular cells (medullary thyroid cancer, MTC; 155240). NMTC is classified into 4 groups: papillary, follicular (188470), Hurthle cell (607464), and anaplastic. Approximately 5% of NMTC is hereditary, occurring as a component of a familial cancer syndrome (e.g., familial adenomatous polyposis, 175100; Carney complex, 160980) or as a primary feature (familial NMTC or FNMTC). Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common histologic subtype of FNMTC, accounting for approximately 85% of cases (summary by Vriens et al., 2009). PTC is characterized by distinctive nuclear alterations including pseudoinclusions, grooves, and chromatin clearing. PTCs smaller than 1 cm are referred to as papillary microcarcinomas. These tumors have been identified in up to 35% of individuals at autopsy, suggesting that they may be extremely common although rarely clinically relevant. PTC can also be multifocal but is typically slow-growing with a tendency to spread to lymph nodes and usually has an excellent prognosis (summary by Bonora et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer NMTC2 (188470) is caused by mutation in the SRGAP1 gene (606523). NMTC3 (606240) represents a susceptibility locus mapped to chromosome 2q21. NMTC4 (616534) is caused by mutation in the FOXE1 gene (602617). NMTC5 (616535) is caused by mutation in the HABP2 gene (603924). A susceptibility gene for familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma with or without cell oxyphilia (TCO; 603386) has been mapped to chromosome 19p. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
66773
Concept ID:
C0238463
Neoplastic Process
9.

Metastasis

The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
45032
Concept ID:
C0027627
Neoplastic Process
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