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Items: 1 to 20 of 25

1.

CI-1040

MedGen UID:
253809
Concept ID:
C1134610
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
2.

thyroid cancer

MedGen UID:
880181
Concept ID:
CN235603
Finding
3.

Thyroid cancer

MedGen UID:
808135
Concept ID:
CN221577
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Inhibitor

Any substance that inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a phosphate group to a mitogen-activated protein kinase. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase results in the inhibition of cell proliferation. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
416906
Concept ID:
C2347168
Pharmacologic Substance
5.

Proliferation

MedGen UID:
137720
Concept ID:
C0334094
Pathologic Function
6.

Mitogen

A soluble substance, usually a protein, that induces mitosis in resting cells, thereby causing cell proliferation. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
7665
Concept ID:
C0026249
Pharmacologic Substance
7.

Experimental Tumor

Laboratory tumor models used to study tumor development and treatment. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
10216
Concept ID:
C0027659
Experimental Model of Disease; Neoplastic Process
8.

Down-regulation

A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
4386
Concept ID:
C0013081
Molecular Function
9.

Thyroid tumor

MedGen UID:
830831
Concept ID:
CN197367
Disease or Syndrome
10.

RET/PTC Rearrangement

A gene rearrangement involving the RET proto-oncogene. RET gene rearrangements are associated with several different neoplastic conditions. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
318094
Concept ID:
C1709815
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
11.

Transformation

The conversion of a cell from a normal phenotype, which undergoes a limited number of mitotic divisions, into an aberrant phenotype that is immortal and divides indefinitely. Transformed cells no longer retain cell-cycle checkpoints and may ultimately become malignant cancer cells via additional genetic mutations, or damaging environmental events. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
266929
Concept ID:
C1510411
Pathologic Function
12.

MEK Inhibitor CI-1040

An agent that inhibits both mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 1 and 2 (MEK1 and MEK2), substrates of Raf and phosphorylates extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1 and ERK2), preventing phosphorylation and activation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways, involved with signal transduction pathways and tumor proliferation. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
208481
Concept ID:
C0769767
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
13.

Examined for

Having been subjected to inspection or evaluation. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
83047
Concept ID:
C0332128
Finding
14.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma

Nonmedullary thyroid cancer (NMTC) comprises thyroid cancers of follicular cell origin and accounts for more than 95% of all thyroid cancer cases. The remaining cancers originate from parafollicular cells (medullary thyroid cancer, MTC; 155240). NMTC is classified into 4 groups: papillary, follicular (188470), Hurthle cell (607464), and anaplastic. Approximately 5% of NMTC is hereditary, occurring as a component of a familial cancer syndrome (e.g., familial adenomatous polyposis, 175100; Carney complex, 160980) or as a primary feature (familial NMTC or FNMTC). Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common histologic subtype of FNMTC, accounting for approximately 85% of cases (summary by Vriens et al., 2009). PTC is characterized by distinctive nuclear alterations including pseudoinclusions, grooves, and chromatin clearing. PTCs smaller than 1 cm are referred to as papillary microcarcinomas. These tumors have been identified in up to 35% of individuals at autopsy, suggesting that they may be extremely common although rarely clinically relevant. PTC can also be multifocal but is typically slow-growing with a tendency to spread to lymph nodes and usually has an excellent prognosis (summary by Bonora et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer Other susceptibilities to nonmedullary thyroid cancer include NMTC2 (188470), caused by mutation in the SRGAP1 gene (606523); NMTC3 (606240), mapped to chromosome 2q21; NMTC4 (616534), caused by mutation in the FOXE1 gene (602617); and NMTC5 (616535), caused by mutation in the HABP2 gene (603924). A susceptibility locus for familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma with or without cell oxyphilia (TCO; 603386) has been mapped to chromosome 19p. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
66773
Concept ID:
C0238463
Neoplastic Process
15.

Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action

Pharmacological activities at the molecular level of DRUGS and other exogenous compounds that are used to treat DISEASES and affect normal BIOCHEMISTRY. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
226255
Concept ID:
C1258062
Molecular Function
16.

DNA Fragmentation

A process that results in the breaking of macromolecular DNA into small pieces. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
138244
Concept ID:
C0376669
Molecular Function
17.

Benzoate

MedGen UID:
67406
Concept ID:
C0220795
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
18.

Abnormality of the thyroid gland

A non-neoplastic or neoplastic disorder that affects the thyroid gland. Representative examples include hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis, follicular adenoma, and carcinoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
52747
Concept ID:
C0040128
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Hyperplasia

An abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or a tissue with consequent enlargement. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
43784
Concept ID:
C0020507
Pathologic Function
20.

Neoplasm of the thyroid gland

A benign or malignant neoplasm affecting the thyroid gland. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
21546
Concept ID:
C0040136
Neoplastic Process
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