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1.

Larsen syndrome

Larsen syndrome is a disorder that affects the development of bones throughout the body. The signs and symptoms of Larsen syndrome vary widely even within the same family. Affected individuals are usually born with inward- and upward-turning feet (clubfeet) and dislocations of the hips, knees, and elbows. They generally have small extra bones in their wrists and ankles that are visible on x-ray images. The tips of their fingers, especially the thumbs, are typically blunt and square-shaped (spatulate).People with Larsen syndrome may also have an unusually large range of joint movement (hypermobility) and short stature. They can also have abnormal curvature of the spine (kyphosis or scoliosis) that may compress the spinal cord and lead to weakness of the limbs.Characteristic facial features include a prominent forehead (frontal bossing), flattening of the bridge of the nose and of the middle of the face (midface hypoplasia), and wide-set eyes (ocular hypertelorism). Some people with Larsen syndrome have an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate) or hearing loss caused by malformations in the tiny bones in the ears (ossicles). Some affected individuals experience respiratory problems as a result of weakness of the airways that can lead to partial closing, short pauses in breathing (apnea), and frequent respiratory infections. People with Larsen syndrome can survive into adulthood and intelligence is unaffected.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
104500
Concept ID:
C0175778
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Larsen syndrome, dominant type

The FLNB-related disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild (spondylocarpotarsal synostosis [SCT] syndrome and Larsen syndrome) to severe (atelosteogenesis types I [AOI] and III [AOIII], boomerang dysplasia). SCT syndrome is characterized by disproportionate short stature, block vertebrae, scoliosis and lordosis, carpal and tarsal fusion, club feet, hearing loss, dental enamel hypoplasia, and mild facial dysmorphisms. Larsen syndrome is characterized by congenital dislocations of the hip, knee, and elbow; club feet (equinovarus or equinovalgus foot deformities); scoliosis and cervical kyphosis, which can be associated with a cervical myelopathy; short, broad, spatulate distal phalanges; and distinctive craniofacies (prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, malar flattening, and widely spaced eyes). Both can have midline cleft palate and conductive hearing loss. AOIII and AOI are characterized by severe short-limbed dwarfism; dislocated hips, knees, and elbows; and club feet. AOI is lethal in the perinatal period. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
320634
Concept ID:
C1835564
3.

Dilatation of the thoracic aorta

A bulging, weakened area in the wall of the thoracic aorta. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
56525
Concept ID:
C0162872
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Congenital aneurysm of ascending aorta

Aneurysms and dissections of the aorta usually result from degenerative changes in the aortic wall. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections are primarily associated with a characteristic histologic appearance known as 'medial necrosis' or 'Erdheim cystic medial necrosis' in which there is degeneration and fragmentation of elastic fibers, loss of smooth muscle cells, and an accumulation of basophilic ground substance. In contrast, degeneration leading to abdominal aortic aneurysm (100070) is usually caused by a combination of factors including age, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and infectious, inflammatory, or autoimmune processes. Medial necrosis and thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection are known to occur in certain connective tissue diseases such as Marfan syndrome (154700), and vascular (type IV) Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (130050). More commonly, however, medial necrosis occurs in the absence of a clearly identifiable syndrome. Genetic Heterogeneity of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Loci for isolated thoracic aortic aneurysm have been identified on chromosomes 11q (AAT1) and 5q (AAT2; 607087). Mutation in the MYH11 gene (160745) on chromosome 16p causes AAT4 (132900). Mutation in the ACTA2 gene (102620) on chromosome 10q causes AAT6 (611788). Mutation in the MYLK gene (600922) on chromosome 3q21 causes AAT7 (613780). Mutation in the PRKG1 gene (176894) on chromosome 10q11 causes AAT8 (615436). Mutation in the MFAP5 gene (601103) on chromosome 12p13 causes AAT9 (616166). Mutation in the LOX gene (153455) on chromosome 5q23 causes AAT10 (617168). Mutation in the FOXE3 gene (601094) on chromosome 1p33 causes susceptibility to AAT11 (617349). Thoracic aortic aneurysm with dissection (e.g., AAT3 and AAT5) can occur as a manifestation of the Loeys-Dietz syndrome (see LDS2, 610168 and LDS1, 609192, caused by mutation in the TGFBR2 (190182) and TGFBR1 (190181) genes, respectively). Reviews Pyeritz (2014) reviewed heritable thoracic aortic disorders with particular attention to causative genes, including components of the extracellular matrix, vascular smooth muscle cytoskeleton, and TGF-beta and other signaling pathways. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
91038
Concept ID:
C0345050
Congenital Abnormality
5.

Loeys-Dietz syndrome 4

Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
766676
Concept ID:
C3553762
Disease or Syndrome
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