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Items: 20

1.

Sodium phosphate

An inorganic compound used as a laxative, dietary supplement and for electrolyte-replacement purposes. Phosphate, a predominant intracellular anion, plays an important role in energy storage, osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities, regulating serum calcium concentrations, and numerous cellular phosphate-transfer reactions. Sodium phosphate increases fluidity of the intestinal contents by retention of water by osmotic forces, thereby indirectly inducing intestinal smooth muscle constriction. Sodium phosphate is also used in the renal excretion of hydrogen ions while promoting the reabsorption of sodium ions. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
78246
Concept ID:
C0074757
Inorganic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Zinc

An element with atomic symbol Zn, atomic number 30, and atomic weight 65.39. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
22752
Concept ID:
C0043481
Biologically Active Substance; Element, Ion, or Isotope; Pharmacologic Substance
3.

Starvation

Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
20944
Concept ID:
C0038187
Finding
4.

Up-Regulation (Physiology)

A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
12003
Concept ID:
C0041904
Molecular Function
5.

Resonance

MedGen UID:
534094
Concept ID:
C0231881
Finding
6.

Calcineurin Pathway

The differentiation of keratinocytes constantly replenishes the upper layers of human skin we lose each day. One factor that contributes to terminal keratinocyte differentiation is increased levels of intracellular calcium. Adding calcium to the medium of cultured keratinocytes elevates intracellular calcium and triggers differentiation. Intracellular calcium levels are also increased in response to phospholipase C activation, producing IP3 and releasing calcium from stores in the ER. Intracellular calcium alters multiple signaling pathways, one of which is binding to calmodulin to activate the serine-threonine protein phosphatase calcineurin. Calcineurin dephosphorylates and activates the transcription factor NFAT and both calcineurin and NFAT are expressed in differentiating keratinocytes. Activated NFAT can regulate transcription through binding its own cognate DNA binding site. One marker of keratinocyte differentiation, the p21 gene, is activated by NFAT by a different mechanism, with NFAT activating the p21 promoter by acting as a coactivator for the transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3.Another protein activated by calcium that may be involved in keratinocyte differentiation is protein kinase C (PKC). One substrate of activated PKC is MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich kinase C substrate). Phosphorylation of MARCKS by PKC in intact keratinocytes is not induced during calcium-induced differentiation, but does increase when tested in vitro. PKC activity is increased by calcium during keratinocyte differentiation but PKC MARCKS phosphorylation is blocked by the formation of a complex between calmodulin and MARCKS. The immunosuppressants cyclosporin-A (CsA) and FK506 inhibit T cell activation through indirect inhibition of NFAT activation and have several side effects including changes in the skin, suggesting that calcineurin activity may play a role in normal skin physiology. CsA is used to treat psoriasis, a disease involving abnormal proliferation of skin cells. The activity of CsA in treating psoriasis may involve inhibition of immune cells, but may also directly involve inhibition of calcineurin activity in keratinocytes. [from NCI_BioC]

MedGen UID:
273837
Concept ID:
C1516142
Molecular Function
7.

Alkalinization

A process that lowers the amount of acid in a solution. In medicine, an alkali, such as sodium bicarbonate, may be given to patients to lower high levels of acid in the blood or urine that can be caused by certain medicines or conditions. [from NCI_NCI-GLOSS]

MedGen UID:
266976
Concept ID:
C1510847
Molecular Function
8.

Signal Transduction Pathways

An elaboration of the known or inferred interactions involved in a signal transduction pathway. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
39530
Concept ID:
C0086982
Molecular Function
9.

Stress

Everyone feels stressed from time to time. Not all stress is bad. All animals have a stress response, and it can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress:. -Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities. -Stress brought about by a sudden negative change, such as losing a job, divorce, or illness. -Traumatic stress, which happens when you are in danger of being seriously hurt or killed. Examples include a major accident, war, assault, or a natural disaster. This type of stress can cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Different people may feel stress in different ways. Some people experience digestive symptoms. Others may have headaches, sleeplessness, depressed mood, anger, and irritability. People under chronic stress get more frequent and severe viral infections, such as the flu or common cold. Vaccines, such as the flu shot, are less effective for them. Some people cope with stress more effectively than others. It's important to know your limits when it comes to stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
20971
Concept ID:
C0038435
Finding
10.

Phosphate

Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
18434
Concept ID:
C0031603
Inorganic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
11.

Second Messenger Systems

A non-proteinaceous signaling molecule that is generated by intracellular enzymes that respond to the binding of extracellular ligands to cell surface receptors. These compounds serve as intermediate signals for a diverse set of cellular processes. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
19914
Concept ID:
C0036522
Molecular Function
12.

Calcium

A mineral needed for healthy teeth, bones, and other body tissues. It is the most common mineral in the body. A deposit of calcium in body tissues, such as breast tissue, may be a sign of disease. [from NCI_NCI-GLOSS]

MedGen UID:
710
Concept ID:
C0006675
Biologically Active Substance; Element, Ion, or Isotope; Pharmacologic Substance
13.

Blood clotting factor

Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
605
Concept ID:
C0005789
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Biologically Active Substance; Pharmacologic Substance
14.

SODIUM PHOSPHATE, TRIBASIC, DODECAHYDRATE

MedGen UID:
396596
Concept ID:
C2699326
Inorganic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
15.

phosphoric acid, disodium salt, heptahydrate

MedGen UID:
301584
Concept ID:
C1621924
Inorganic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
16.

phosphoric acid, disodium salt, dodecahydrate

MedGen UID:
301195
Concept ID:
C1621346
Inorganic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
17.

Dibasic sodium phosphate anhydrous

MedGen UID:
242354
Concept ID:
C0982396
Inorganic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
18.

Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic

MedGen UID:
162823
Concept ID:
C0772024
Inorganic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
19.

Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic

MedGen UID:
162347
Concept ID:
C0770578
Inorganic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
20.

Tribasic Sodium Phosphate

MedGen UID:
34661
Concept ID:
C0074758
Inorganic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
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