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1.

Iron

Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries oxygen from our lungs throughout our bodies. It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and enzymes. Your body needs the right amount of iron. If you have too little iron, you may develop iron deficiency anemia. Causes of low iron levels include blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from foods. People at higher risk of having too little iron are young children and women who are pregnant or have periods. Too much iron can damage your body. Taking too many iron supplements can cause iron poisoning. Some people have an inherited disease called hemochromatosis. It causes too much iron to build up in the body. . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
137068
Concept ID:
C0302583
Biologically Active Substance; Element, Ion, or Isotope; Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Iron Overload

A condition in which the body takes up and stores more iron than it needs. The extra iron is stored in the liver, heart, and pancreas, which may cause liver disease, heart problems, organ failure, and cancer. It may also cause bronze skin, diabetes, pain in the joints and abdomen, tiredness, and impotence. Iron overload may be inherited, or it may be caused by blood transfusions. [from NCI_NCI-GLOSS]

MedGen UID:
79398
Concept ID:
C0282193
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Hypoxia

A decrease in the amount of oxygen in the body. Symptoms range from mild (impaired judgment, memory loss, impaired motor coordination) to severe (seizures and coma). [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
66846
Concept ID:
C0242184
Pathologic Function
4.

Inflammation

A localized protective response resulting from injury or destruction of tissues. Inflammation serves to destroy, dilute, or wall off both the injurious agent and the injured tissue. In the acute phase, inflammation is characterized by the signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Histologically, inflammation involves a complex series of events, including dilatation of arterioles, capillaries, and venules, with increased permeability and blood flow; exudation of fluids, including plasma proteins; and leukocyte migration into the site of inflammation. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
7072
Concept ID:
C0021368
Pathologic Function
5.

Anemia

If you have anemia, your blood does not carry enough oxygen to the rest of your body. The most common cause of anemia is not having enough iron. Your body needs iron to make hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that gives the red color to blood. It carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Anemia has three main causes: blood loss, lack of red blood cell production, and high rates of red blood cell destruction. Conditions that may lead to anemia include. -Heavy periods. -Pregnancy. -Ulcers. -Colon polyps or colon cancer. -Inherited disorders. -A diet that does not have enough iron, folic acid or vitamin B12. -Blood disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, or cancer. -Aplastic anemia, a condition that can be inherited or acquired. -G6PD deficiency, a metabolic disorder. Anemia can make you feel tired, cold, dizzy, and irritable. You may be short of breath or have a headache. Your doctor will diagnose anemia with a physical exam and blood tests. Treatment depends on the kind of anemia you have. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
1526
Concept ID:
C0002871
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Position

The anatomical localization of the specified phenotypic abnormality. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
866377
Concept ID:
C4019252
Spatial Concept
7.

Proximal

Localized close to the central point of the body. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
64374
Concept ID:
C0205107
Spatial Concept
8.

Acute

Sudden appearance of disease manifestations over a short period of time. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
61381
Concept ID:
C0205178
Temporal Concept
9.

Anemia

A reduction in erythrocytes volume or hemoglobin concentration. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
56401
Concept ID:
C0162119
Finding
10.

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the major histologic type of malignant primary liver neoplasm. It is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. The major risk factors for HCC are chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, prolonged dietary aflatoxin exposure, alcoholic cirrhosis, and cirrhosis due to other causes. Hepatoblastomas comprise 1 to 2% of all malignant neoplasms of childhood, most often occurring in children under 3 years of age. Hepatoblastomas are thought to be derived from undifferentiated hepatocytes (Taniguchi et al., 2002). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
389187
Concept ID:
C2239176
Neoplastic Process
11.

Epithelial Neoplasm

A benign or malignant neoplasm that arises from and is composed of epithelial cells. This category include adenomas, papillomas, and carcinomas. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
277963
Concept ID:
C1368683
Neoplastic Process
12.

Carcinomatosis

Carcinoma that has spread diffusely to an anatomic site or throughout the body. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
104704
Concept ID:
C0205699
Neoplastic Process
13.

Cribriform Carcinoma

A carcinoma characterized by the presence of a cribriform architectural pattern. Representative examples include the intraductal cribriform breast carcinoma and invasive cribriform breast carcinoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
104694
Concept ID:
C0205643
Neoplastic Process
14.

Tubular Adenocarcinoma

An infiltrating adenocarcinoma in which the malignant cells form tubular structures. Representative examples include the tubular breast carcinoma and the gastric tubular adenocarcinoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
61428
Concept ID:
C0205645
Neoplastic Process
15.

Oxyphilic Adenocarcinoma

An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of large malignant epithelial cells with abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm (oncocytes). Representative examples include thyroid gland oncocytic follicular carcinoma, oncocytic breast carcinoma, and salivary gland oncocytic carcinoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
61427
Concept ID:
C0205642
Neoplastic Process
16.

Undifferentiated Carcinoma

A malignant epithelial neoplasm exhibiting poor differentiation (anaplasia). [from NCI_CDISC]

MedGen UID:
60010
Concept ID:
C0205698
Neoplastic Process
17.

Sarcomatoid Carcinoma

A malignant epithelial neoplasm characterized by the presence of spindle cells. [from NCI_CDISC]

MedGen UID:
60009
Concept ID:
C0205697
Neoplastic Process
18.

Carcinoma, anaplastic

MedGen UID:
60008
Concept ID:
C0205696
Neoplastic Process
19.

Protein binding

The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
18704
Concept ID:
C0033618
Molecular Function
20.

Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial

Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
10217
Concept ID:
C0027660
Neoplastic Process
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