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Items: 17

1.

Choline

A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
3048
Concept ID:
C0008405
Biologically Active Substance; Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Phosphatidylethanolamine

A phospholipid with the polar ethanolamine found in phosphoester linkage to diacylglycerol. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
260779
Concept ID:
C1450468
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
3.

Betaine preparation

A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
2615
Concept ID:
C0005304
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
4.

Choline deficiency

A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
930
Concept ID:
C0008412
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Fish-eye disease

Fish-eye disease, also called partial LCAT deficiency, is a disorder that causes the clear front surface of the eyes (the corneas) to gradually become cloudy. The cloudiness, which generally first appears in adolescence or early adulthood, consists of small grayish dots of cholesterol (opacities) distributed across the corneas. Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that is produced in the body and obtained from foods that come from animals; it aids in many functions of the body but can become harmful in excessive amounts. As fish-eye disease progresses, the corneal cloudiness worsens and can lead to severely impaired vision. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
83354
Concept ID:
C0342895
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Nutritional disorder

Any condition related to a disturbance between proper intake and utilization of nourishment. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
811347
Concept ID:
C3714509
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Vitamin deficiency

A disorder that is caused by the deficiency of a vitamin. The deficiency may result from either suboptimal vitamin intake or conditions that prevent the vitamin's use or absorption in the body. Representative examples include beriberi caused by thiamine deficiency, scurvy caused by vitamin C deficiency, and rickets caused by vitamin D deficiency. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
267607
Concept ID:
C1510471
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Avitaminosis

A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
91216
Concept ID:
C0376286
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Malnutrition

An imbalanced nutritional status resulting from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
56429
Concept ID:
C0162429
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases

A collective term for nutritional disorders resulting from poor absorption or nutritional imbalance, and metabolic disorders resulting from defects in biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) or breakdown (CATABOLISM) of endogenous substances. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
45164
Concept ID:
C0028715
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Vitamin B deficiency

A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
22669
Concept ID:
C0042850
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Deficiency Disease

A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
4169
Concept ID:
C0011156
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Amino alcohol

Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2). [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
1873
Concept ID:
C0002530
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
14.

Alcohol

A class of compounds where a hydroxyl (OH) group is attached to single bonded hydrocarbons. Alcohols are classified according to the position of the carbon atom with the attached hydroxyl group (i.e. primary alcohols are alcohols with the OH group attached to the primary carbon atom, C1). Uses include solvents, astringents, and anti-infective activity. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
1400
Concept ID:
C0001975
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
15.

Deficiency of choline kinase

MedGen UID:
713693
Concept ID:
C1291387
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Deficiency of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase

MedGen UID:
713631
Concept ID:
C1291321
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Deficiency of choline dehydrogenase

MedGen UID:
713567
Concept ID:
C1291254
Disease or Syndrome
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