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Anxiety

MedGen UID:
335849
Concept ID:
C1842981
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Synonyms: Neuroticism
 
Gene (location): SLC6A4 (17q11.2)
OMIM®: 607834

Definition

Human personality is shaped by genetic and environmental factors, and evidence suggests that the genetic component is highly complex, polygenic, and epistatic. Genetic factors are thought to contribute to 40 to 60% of trait variance. Molecular genetics has tried to identify specific genes for quantitative traits, called quantitative trait loci (QTLs). The QTL concept suggests that complex personality traits or dimensions are not attributable to single genes, but to multiple interacting genes (Reif and Lesch, 2003). Fullerton et al. (2003) stated that psychologists were in agreement that the wide variation in human personalities can be explained by a small number of personality factors, including neuroticism (a measure of emotional stability), which manifests at one extreme as anxiety, depression, moodiness, low self-esteem, and diffidence. They cited a number of studies that had described a relationship between high scores on measures of neuroticism and major depressive disorder. They also noted that theoretical studies had suggested that large samples of randomly ascertained sibs could be used to ascertain phenotypically extreme individuals and thereby increase power to detect genetic linkage in complex traits. See also panic disorder (PAND1; 167870), which is a subtype of anxiety disorder. [from GTR]

Additional description

From OMIM
Human personality is shaped by genetic and environmental factors, and evidence suggests that the genetic component is highly complex, polygenic, and epistatic. Genetic factors are thought to contribute to 40 to 60% of trait variance. Molecular genetics has tried to identify specific genes for quantitative traits, called quantitative trait loci (QTLs). The QTL concept suggests that complex personality traits or dimensions are not attributable to single genes, but to multiple interacting genes (Reif and Lesch, 2003). Fullerton et al. (2003) stated that psychologists were in agreement that the wide variation in human personalities can be explained by a small number of personality factors, including neuroticism (a measure of emotional stability), which manifests at one extreme as anxiety, depression, moodiness, low self-esteem, and diffidence. They cited a number of studies that had described a relationship between high scores on measures of neuroticism and major depressive disorder. They also noted that theoretical studies had suggested that large samples of randomly ascertained sibs could be used to ascertain phenotypically extreme individuals and thereby increase power to detect genetic linkage in complex traits. See also panic disorder (PAND1; 167870), which is a subtype of anxiety disorder.  http://www.omim.org/entry/607834

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Michelsen B, Kristianslund EK, Sexton J, Hammer HB, Fagerli KM, Lie E, Wierød A, Kalstad S, Rødevand E, Krøll F, Haugeberg G, Kvien TK
Ann Rheum Dis 2017 Nov;76(11):1906-1910. Epub 2017 Jul 21 doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-211284. PMID: 28733473
Peres MFP, Mercante JPP, Tobo PR, Kamei H, Bigal ME
J Headache Pain 2017 Dec;18(1):37. Epub 2017 Mar 21 doi: 10.1186/s10194-017-0742-1. PMID: 28324317Free PMC Article
Buckner JD, Lemke AW, Jeffries ER, Shah SM
J Anxiety Disord 2017 Jan;45:60-63. Epub 2016 Dec 2 doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.11.010. PMID: 27940416Free PMC Article
Orchard F, Apetroaia A, Clarke K, Creswell C
J Anxiety Disord 2017 Jan;45:1-8. Epub 2016 Nov 6 doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.10.012. PMID: 27866085Free PMC Article
Newby JM, Mewton L, Andrews G
J Anxiety Disord 2017 Mar;46:25-34. Epub 2016 Jun 23 doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.06.002. PMID: 27396841

Diagnosis

Michelsen B, Kristianslund EK, Sexton J, Hammer HB, Fagerli KM, Lie E, Wierød A, Kalstad S, Rødevand E, Krøll F, Haugeberg G, Kvien TK
Ann Rheum Dis 2017 Nov;76(11):1906-1910. Epub 2017 Jul 21 doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-211284. PMID: 28733473
Peres MFP, Mercante JPP, Tobo PR, Kamei H, Bigal ME
J Headache Pain 2017 Dec;18(1):37. Epub 2017 Mar 21 doi: 10.1186/s10194-017-0742-1. PMID: 28324317Free PMC Article
Hedman E, Ljótsson B, Axelsson E, Andersson G, Rück C, Andersson E
J Anxiety Disord 2017 Jan;45:80-86. Epub 2016 Nov 25 doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.11.007. PMID: 27988419
Orchard F, Apetroaia A, Clarke K, Creswell C
J Anxiety Disord 2017 Jan;45:1-8. Epub 2016 Nov 6 doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.10.012. PMID: 27866085Free PMC Article
Spinhoven P, Batelaan N, Rhebergen D, van Balkom A, Schoevers R, Penninx BW
J Anxiety Disord 2016 Dec;44:92-101. Epub 2016 Oct 24 doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.10.011. PMID: 27842240

Therapy

Michelsen B, Kristianslund EK, Sexton J, Hammer HB, Fagerli KM, Lie E, Wierød A, Kalstad S, Rødevand E, Krøll F, Haugeberg G, Kvien TK
Ann Rheum Dis 2017 Nov;76(11):1906-1910. Epub 2017 Jul 21 doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-211284. PMID: 28733473
Grzeskowiak LE, Smith B, Roy A, Schubert KO, Baune BT, Dekker GA, Clifton VL
J Asthma 2017 Sep;54(7):706-713. Epub 2017 Jan 11 doi: 10.1080/02770903.2016.1258080. PMID: 28075198
Newby JM, Mewton L, Andrews G
J Anxiety Disord 2017 Mar;46:25-34. Epub 2016 Jun 23 doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.06.002. PMID: 27396841
Hallford DJ, Nicholson G, Sanders K, McCabe MP
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2017 Sep 1;72(5):729-741. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbv160. PMID: 26791279
Te Poel F, Baumgartner SE, Hartmann T, Tanis M
J Anxiety Disord 2016 Oct;43:32-40. Epub 2016 Jul 31 doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.07.009. PMID: 27497667

Prognosis

Michelsen B, Kristianslund EK, Sexton J, Hammer HB, Fagerli KM, Lie E, Wierød A, Kalstad S, Rødevand E, Krøll F, Haugeberg G, Kvien TK
Ann Rheum Dis 2017 Nov;76(11):1906-1910. Epub 2017 Jul 21 doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-211284. PMID: 28733473
Peres MFP, Mercante JPP, Tobo PR, Kamei H, Bigal ME
J Headache Pain 2017 Dec;18(1):37. Epub 2017 Mar 21 doi: 10.1186/s10194-017-0742-1. PMID: 28324317Free PMC Article
Metcalf CA, Arch JJ, Greer JA
J Psychosoc Oncol 2017 Sep-Oct;35(5):597-613. Epub 2017 Mar 21 doi: 10.1080/07347332.2017.1307895. PMID: 28323578
Thirlwall K, Cooper P, Creswell C
J Anxiety Disord 2017 Jan;45:43-48. Epub 2016 Nov 10 doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.11.003. PMID: 27930939Free PMC Article
Spinhoven P, Batelaan N, Rhebergen D, van Balkom A, Schoevers R, Penninx BW
J Anxiety Disord 2016 Dec;44:92-101. Epub 2016 Oct 24 doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.10.011. PMID: 27842240

Clinical prediction guides

Michelsen B, Kristianslund EK, Sexton J, Hammer HB, Fagerli KM, Lie E, Wierød A, Kalstad S, Rødevand E, Krøll F, Haugeberg G, Kvien TK
Ann Rheum Dis 2017 Nov;76(11):1906-1910. Epub 2017 Jul 21 doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-211284. PMID: 28733473
Peres MFP, Mercante JPP, Tobo PR, Kamei H, Bigal ME
J Headache Pain 2017 Dec;18(1):37. Epub 2017 Mar 21 doi: 10.1186/s10194-017-0742-1. PMID: 28324317Free PMC Article
Palacios-Ceña M, Fernández-Muñoz JJ, Castaldo M, Wang K, Guerrero-Peral Á, Arendt-Nielsen L, Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C
J Headache Pain 2017 Dec;18(1):19. Epub 2017 Feb 10 doi: 10.1186/s10194-017-0730-5. PMID: 28185160Free PMC Article
Thirlwall K, Cooper P, Creswell C
J Anxiety Disord 2017 Jan;45:43-48. Epub 2016 Nov 10 doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.11.003. PMID: 27930939Free PMC Article
Newby JM, Mewton L, Andrews G
J Anxiety Disord 2017 Mar;46:25-34. Epub 2016 Jun 23 doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.06.002. PMID: 27396841

Recent systematic reviews

Lazor T, Tigelaar L, Pole JD, De Souza C, Tomlinson D, Sung L
Support Care Cancer 2017 Sep;25(9):2921-2931. Epub 2017 Jun 3 doi: 10.1007/s00520-017-3743-3. PMID: 28578534
Cooney LG, Lee I, Sammel MD, Dokras A
Hum Reprod 2017 May 1;32(5):1075-1091. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dex044. PMID: 28333286
Chen PY, Liu YM, Chen ML
Worldviews Evid Based Nurs 2017 Jun;14(3):223-236. Epub 2017 Mar 7 doi: 10.1111/wvn.12215. PMID: 28267893
Hallford DJ, Nicholson G, Sanders K, McCabe MP
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2017 Sep 1;72(5):729-741. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbv160. PMID: 26791279
Newby JM, Twomey C, Yuan Li SS, Andrews G
J Affect Disord 2016 Jul 15;199:30-41. Epub 2016 Mar 24 doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.03.018. PMID: 27060430

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