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1.

Dopamine

A monoamine compound with positive inotropic activity. Dopamine is a naturally occurring catecholamine formed by decarboxylation of dehydroxyphenylalanine and a precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine. Dopamine binds to alpha-1 and beta-1 adrenergic receptors. Mediated through myocardial beta-1 adrenergic receptors, dopamine increase heart rate and force, thereby increasing cardiac output. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor stimulation on vascular smooth muscle, leads to vasoconstriction and results in an increase in systemic vascular resistance. Stimulation of dopaminergic receptors in renal vasculature, leads to renal blood vessel dilation, and an increase in glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, sodium excretion, and urine output. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
41644
Concept ID:
C0013030
Biologically Active Substance; Neuroreactive Substance or Biogenic Amine; Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Is it hard for your child to sit still? Does your child act without thinking first? Does your child start but not finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems in school, at home and in social situations. ADHD is more common in boys than girls. It affects 3-5 percent of all American children. The main features of ADHD are. -Inattention. -Hyperactivity. -Impulsivity. No one knows exactly what causes ADHD. It sometimes runs in families, so genetics may be a factor. There may also be environmental factors. A complete evaluation by a trained professional is the only way to know for sure if your child has ADHD. Treatment may include medicine to control symptoms, therapy, or both. Structure at home and at school is important. Parent training may also help. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health .  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
3.

Inhibition

MedGen UID:
5809
Concept ID:
C0021469
Molecular Function
4.

Elderly person

A person 65 through 79 years of age. For a person older than 79 years, AGED, 80 AND OVER is available. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
7927
Concept ID:
C0001792
Finding; Population Group
5.

Independent

MedGen UID:
721426
Concept ID:
C1299583
Finding
6.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests at age 2-3 years or by first grade at the latest. The main symptoms are distractibility, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and often trouble organizing tasks and projects, difficulty going to sleep, and social problems from being aggressive, loud, or impatient. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
506017
Concept ID:
CN006126
Finding
7.

Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy

Familial hyperinsulinism (referred to as FHI in this GeneReview) is characterized by hypoglycemia that ranges from severe neonatal-onset, difficult-to-manage disease to childhood-onset disease with mild symptoms and difficult-to-diagnose hypoglycemia. Neonatal-onset disease manifests within hours to two days after birth. Childhood-onset disease manifests during the first months or years of life. In the newborn period, presenting symptoms may be nonspecific, including seizures, hypotonia, poor feeding, and apnea. In severe cases, serum glucose concentrations are typically extremely low and thus easily recognized, whereas in milder cases, variable and mild hypoglycemia may make the diagnosis more difficult. Even within the same family, disease manifestations can range from mild to severe. Individuals with autosomal recessive familial hyperinsulinism, caused by pathogenic variants in either ABCC8 or KCNJ11 (FHI-KATP), tend to be large for gestational age and usually present with severe refractory hypoglycemia in the first 48 hours of life; affected infants usually respond only partially to diet or medical management (i.e., diazoxide therapy) and thus may require pancreatic resection. Individuals with autosomal dominant FHI-KATP tend to be appropriate for gestational age at birth, to present at approximately age one year (range: 2 days - 30 years), and to respond to diet and diazoxide therapy. Exceptions to both of these generalities have been reported. FHI-GCK, caused by pathogenic variants in GCK, may be much milder than FHI-KATP; however, some persons have severe, diazoxide-unresponsive hypoglycemia. FHI-HADH, caused by pathogenic variants in HADH, tends to be relatively mild, although severe cases have been reported. Individuals with FHI-HNF4A, caused by pathogenic variants in HNF4A, are typically born large for gestational age and have mild features that respond to diazoxide treatment. FHI-UCP2, caused by pathgoenic variants in UCP2, is a rare cause of diazoxide-responsive FH1. Hyperammonemia/hyperinsulinism (HA/HI) is associated with mild-to-moderate hyperammonemia and with relatively mild, late-onset hypoglycemia; most but not all affected individuals have pathogenic variants in GLUD1. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
226230
Concept ID:
C1257959
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Disease regression

Return to a former state; a subsidence of the symptoms of a disease process; in cancer, a decrease in the size of a tumor or in the extent of cancer in the body. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
195771
Concept ID:
C0684320
Pathologic Function
9.

Impairment

Loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological, or anatomic structure or function. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
151925
Concept ID:
C0684336
Finding; Pathologic Function
10.

Hyperactivity

Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
98406
Concept ID:
C0424295
Finding; Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
11.

Central

Applies to an abnormality that is located close to the median plane or midline of the body or of the referenced structure. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
59958
Concept ID:
C0205099
Spatial Concept
12.

Neurodevelopmental disorder

Neurodevelopmental disorder is a behavioural and cognitive disorder with onset during the developmental period that involve impaired or aberrant development of intellectual, motor, or social functions. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
453059
Concept ID:
C1535926
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
13.

Diagnosis, Psychiatric

MedGen UID:
138165
Concept ID:
C0376338
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
14.

Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders

Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
68635
Concept ID:
C0236964
Pathologic Function
15.

Impulsivity

An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
43850
Concept ID:
C0021125
Individual Behavior
16.

Mental disorder

Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including. -Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and phobias. -Bipolar disorder. -Depression. -Mood disorders. -Personality disorders. -Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a role. Your life experiences, such as stress or a history of abuse, may also matter. Biological factors can also be part of the cause. A traumatic brain injury can lead to a mental disorder. A mother's exposure to viruses or toxic chemicals while pregnant may play a part. Other factors may increase your risk, such as use of illegal drugs or having a serious medical condition like cancer. Medications and counseling can help many mental disorders. .  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
14047
Concept ID:
C0004936
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
17.

Heredity

The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
6814
Concept ID:
C0019266
Molecular Function
18.

Memory quantitative trait locus

MedGen UID:
816419
Concept ID:
C3810089
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
19.

Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 7

MedGen UID:
416637
Concept ID:
C2751802
Finding
20.

Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 6

MedGen UID:
393577
Concept ID:
C2676740
Finding
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