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Items: 16

1.

Graves disease

Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies to the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR; 603372) result in constitutive activation of the receptor and increased levels of thyroid hormone. Wilkin (1990) reviewed endocrine disorders of hormone excess and hormone deficiency resulting from receptor autoimmunity. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
6677
Concept ID:
C0018213
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Graves disease

An autoimmune disease where the thyroid is overactive, producing an excessive amount of thyroid hormones (a serious metabolic imbalance known as hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis). This is caused by autoantibodies to the TSH-receptor (TSHR-Ab) that activate that TSH-receptor (TSHR), thereby stimulating thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and thyroid growth (causing a diffusely enlarged goiter). The resulting state of hyperthyroidism can cause a dramatic constellation of neuropsychological and physical signs and symptoms, which can severely compromise the patients. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
830708
Concept ID:
CN117539
Finding
3.

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. You can also have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes. A blood test can show if you have diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor your glucose level and take medicine if prescribed. . NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
8350
Concept ID:
C0011849
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Type 1 diabetes

MedGen UID:
851950
Concept ID:
CN234392
Finding
5.

Diabetes mellitus

A group of abnormalities characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
504609
Concept ID:
CN000766
Finding
6.

Addison disease

Autoimmune Addison disease affects the function of the adrenal glands, which are small hormone-producing glands located on top of each kidney. It is classified as an autoimmune disorder because it results from a malfunctioning immune system that attacks the adrenal glands. As a result, the production of several hormones is disrupted, which affects many body systems.The signs and symptoms of autoimmune Addison disease can begin at any time, although they most commonly begin between ages 30 and 50. Common features of this condition include extreme tiredness (fatigue), nausea, decreased appetite, and weight loss. In addition, many affected individuals have low blood pressure (hypotension), which can lead to dizziness when standing up quickly; muscle cramps; and a craving for salty foods. A characteristic feature of autoimmune Addison disease is abnormally dark areas of skin (hyperpigmentation), especially in regions that experience a lot of friction, such as the armpits, elbows, knuckles, and palm creases. The lips and the inside lining of the mouth can also be unusually dark. Because of an imbalance of hormones involved in development of sexual characteristics, women with this condition may lose their underarm and pubic hair.Other signs and symptoms of autoimmune Addison disease include low levels of sugar (hypoglycemia) and sodium (hyponatremia) and high levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) in the blood. Affected individuals may also have a shortage of red blood cells (anemia) and an increase in the number of white blood cells (lymphocytosis), particularly those known as eosinophils (eosinophilia).Autoimmune Addison disease can lead to a life-threatening adrenal crisis, characterized by vomiting, abdominal pain, back or leg cramps, and severe hypotension leading to shock. The adrenal crisis is often triggered by a stressor, such as surgery, trauma, or infection.Individuals with autoimmune Addison disease or their family members can have another autoimmune disorder, most commonly autoimmune thyroid disease or type 1 diabetes.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
357032
Concept ID:
C1868690
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Primary adrenal insufficiency

MedGen UID:
337538
Concept ID:
C1846222
Finding
8.

Type I diabetes mellitus

MedGen UID:
334999
Concept ID:
C1844664
Finding
9.

Genetic predisposition

A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
137259
Concept ID:
C0314657
Organism Attribute
10.

Diabetes mellitus type 1

The type of diabetes mellitus called IDDM is a disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is a genetically heterogeneous autoimmune disease affecting about 0.3% of Caucasian populations (Todd, 1990). Genetic studies of IDDM have focused on the identification of loci associated with increased susceptibility to this multifactorial phenotype. The classical phenotype of diabetes mellitus is polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
41522
Concept ID:
C0011854
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Hyperthyroidism

Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in your neck, just above your collarbone. It is one of your endocrine glands, which make hormones. Thyroid hormones control the rate of many activities in your body. These include how fast you burn calories and how fast your heart beats. All of these activities are your body's metabolism. If your thyroid is too active, it makes more thyroid hormones than your body needs. This is called hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is more common in women, people with other thyroid problems, and those over 60 years old. Grave's disease, an autoimmune disorder, is the most common cause. Other causes include thyroid nodules, thyroiditis, consuming too much iodine, and taking too much synthetic thyroid hormone. The symptoms can vary from person to person. They may include. -Being nervous or irritable. -Mood swings. -Fatigue or muscle weakness. -Heat intolerance. -Trouble sleeping. -Hand tremors. -Rapid and irregular heartbeat. -Frequent bowel movements or diarrhea. -Weight loss. -Goiter, which is an enlarged thyroid that may cause the neck to look swollen. To diagnose hyperthyroidism, your doctor will look at your symptoms, blood tests, and sometimes a thyroid scan. Treatment is with medicines, radioiodine therapy, or thyroid surgery. No single treatment works for everyone. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
6972
Concept ID:
C0020550
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Disorder of endocrine system

Your endocrine system includes eight major glands throughout your body. These glands make hormones. Hormones are chemical messengers. They travel through your bloodstream to tissues or organs. Hormones work slowly and affect body processes from head to toe. These include. -Growth and development. -Metabolism - digestion, elimination, breathing, blood circulation and maintaining body temperature . -Sexual function. -Reproduction. -Mood. If your hormone levels are too high or too low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond to hormones the way it is supposed to. Stress, infection and changes in your blood's fluid and electrolyte balance can also influence hormone levels. In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are usually treated by controlling how much hormone your body makes. Hormone supplements can help if the problem is too little of a hormone.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
4043
Concept ID:
C0014130
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Autoimmune disease

Your body's immune system protects you from disease and infection. But if you have an autoimmune disease, your immune system attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Autoimmune diseases can affect many parts of the body. No one is sure what causes autoimmune diseases. They do tend to run in families. Women - particularly African-American, Hispanic-American, and Native-American women - have a higher risk for some autoimmune diseases. There are more than 80 types of autoimmune diseases, and some have similar symptoms. This makes it hard for your health care provider to know if you really have one of these diseases, and if so, which one. Getting a diagnosis can be frustrating and stressful. Often, the first symptoms are fatigue, muscle aches and a low fever. The classic sign of an autoimmune disease is inflammation, which can cause redness, heat, pain and swelling. The diseases may also have flare-ups, when they get worse, and remissions, when symptoms get better or disappear. Treatment depends on the disease, but in most cases one important goal is to reduce inflammation. Sometimes doctors prescribe corticosteroids or other drugs that reduce your immune response.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
2135
Concept ID:
C0004364
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Hypocortisolemia

A reduced concentration of cortisol in the blood. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
318778
Concept ID:
C1833054
Finding; Finding
15.

Autoimmune thyroid disease 3

MedGen UID:
374932
Concept ID:
C1842444
Finding
16.

Autoimmune thyroid disease 4

MedGen UID:
334080
Concept ID:
C1842443
Disease or Syndrome
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