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1.

Adenocarcinoma

A common cancer characterized by the presence of malignant glandular cells. Morphologically, adenocarcinomas are classified according to the growth pattern (e.g., papillary, alveolar) or according to the secreting product (e.g., mucinous, serous). Representative examples of adenocarcinoma are ductal and lobular breast carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatoma), colon adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
122
Concept ID:
C0001418
Neoplastic Process
2.

Small Cell Carcinoma

A neuroendocrine carcinoma composed of small malignant cells which are often said to resemble "oat cells" under the microscope. Small cell carcinoma most often affects the lungs. Clinically, this is often a rapidly growing cancer that spreads to distant sites early. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
82650
Concept ID:
C0262584
Neoplastic Process
3.

Cancers, Colorectal

The colon and rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of the large intestine. It is common in both men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more likely to get it if you have colorectal polyps, a family history of colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, eat a diet high in fat, or smoke. Symptoms of colorectal cancer include. -Diarrhea or constipation. -A feeling that your bowel does not empty completely. -Blood (either bright red or very dark) in your stool. -Stools that are narrower than usual. -Frequent gas pains or cramps, or feeling full or bloated. -Weight loss with no known reason. -Fatigue. -Nausea or vomiting. Because you may not have symptoms at first, it's important to have screening tests. Everyone over 50 should get screened. Tests include colonoscopy and tests for blood in the stool. Treatments for colorectal cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, or a combination. Surgery can usually cure it when it is found early. NIH: National Cancer Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
287122
Concept ID:
C1527249
Neoplastic Process
4.

Microsatellite Instability

Genomic instability associated with defective DNA mismatch repair in tumors. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
182529
Concept ID:
C0920269
Pathologic Function
5.

Carcinoma

A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
2867
Concept ID:
C0007097
Neoplastic Process
6.

Abscess morphology

Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
1684
Concept ID:
C0000833
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Colorectal cancer

MedGen UID:
945535
Concept ID:
CN262507
Finding
8.

Carcinoma

MedGen UID:
910818
Concept ID:
CN241453
Finding
9.

Colorectal cancer.

MedGen UID:
910619
Concept ID:
CN240758
Disease or Syndrome
10.

POLYARTERITIS NODOSA, CHILDHOOD-ONSET

MedGen UID:
854497
Concept ID:
C3887654
Disease or Syndrome
11.

progressive

MedGen UID:
851455
Concept ID:
CN232553
Finding
12.

Colorectal cancer

MedGen UID:
808161
Concept ID:
CN221574
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Endocrine tumor

Endocrine tumours, also referred to as neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), are defined by a common phenotype which is characterized by the expression of general markers (neuron specific enolase, chromogranin, synaptophysin) and hormone secretion products. These tumours may be localized in any part of the body and are generally discovered in non-specific situations, i.e. not immediately suggestive of NETs (tests for inherited predisposition to tumours or for a clinical syndrome caused by abnormal hormone secretion). [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
797770
Concept ID:
CN206284
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Alive

MedGen UID:
749206
Concept ID:
C2584946
Finding
15.

Instability

MedGen UID:
731956
Concept ID:
C1444783
Finding
16.

Right

Being located on the right side of the body. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
619189
Concept ID:
C0444532
Spatial Concept
17.

Familial colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is common in both men and women. In addition to lifestyle and environmental risk factors, gene defects can contribute to an inherited predisposition to CRC. CRC is caused by changes in different molecular pathogenic pathways, such as chromosomal instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, and microsatellite instability. Chromosome instability is the most common alteration and is present in almost 85% of all cases (review by Schweiger et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Colorectal Cancer Mutations in a single gene result in a marked predisposition to colorectal cancer in 2 distinct syndromes: familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP; 175100) and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; see 120435). FAP is caused by mutations in the APC gene (611731), whereas HNPCC is caused by mutations in several genes, including MSH2 (609309), MLH1 (120436), PMS1 (600258), PMS2 (600259), MSH6 (600678), TGFBR2 (190182), and MLH3 (604395). Epigenetic silencing of MSH2 results in a form of HNPCC (see HNPCC8, 613244). Other colorectal cancer syndromes include autosomal recessive adenomatous polyposis (608456), which is caused by mutations in the MUTYH gene (604933), and oligodontia-colorectal cancer syndrome (608615), which is caused by mutations in the AXIN2 gene (604025). The CHEK2 gene (604373) has been implicated in susceptibility to colorectal cancer in Finnish patients. A germline mutation in the PLA2G2A gene (172411) was identified in a patient with colorectal cancer. Germline susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer have also been identified. CRCS1 (608812) is conferred by mutation in the GALNT12 gene (610290) on chromosome 9q22; CRCS2 (611469) maps to chromosome 8q24; CRCS3 (612229) is conferred by variation in the SMAD7 gene (602932) on chromosome 18; CRCS4 (601228) is conferred by variation on 15q that causes increased and ectopic expression of the GREM1 gene (603054); CRCS5 (612230) maps to chromosome 10p14; CRCS6 (612231) maps to chromosome 8q23; CRCS7 (612232) maps to chromosome 11q23; CRCS8 (612589) maps to chromosome 14q22; CRCS9 (612590) maps to 16q22; CRCS10 (612591) is conferred by mutation in the POLD1 gene (174761) on chromosome 19q13; CRCS11 (612592) maps to chromosome 20p12; and CRCS12 (615083) is conferred by mutation in the POLE gene (174762) on chromosome 12q24. Somatic mutations in many different genes, including KRAS (190070), PIK3CA (171834), BRAF (164757), CTNNB1 (116806), FGFR3 (134934), AXIN2 (604025), AKT1 (164730), MCC (159350), MYH11 (160745), PARK2 (602544), and RNF43 (612482), have been identified in colorectal cancer. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
430218
Concept ID:
CN029768
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Carcinoma of colon

Lynch syndrome, caused by a germline pathogenic variant in a mismatch repair gene and associated with tumors exhibiting microsatellite instability (MSI), is characterized by an increased risk for colon cancer and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small intestine, hepatobiliary tract, urinary tract, brain, and skin. In individuals with Lynch syndrome the following life time risks for cancer are seen: 52%-82% for colorectal cancer (mean age at diagnosis 44-61 years); 25%-60% for endometrial cancer in women (mean age at diagnosis 48-62 years); 6% to 13% for gastric cancer (mean age at diagnosis 56 years); and 4%-12% for ovarian cancer (mean age at diagnosis 42.5 years; approximately 30% are diagnosed before age 40 years). The risk for other Lynch syndrome-related cancers is lower, though substantially increased over general population rates. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
147065
Concept ID:
C0699790
Neoplastic Process
19.

Intestinal Type Adenocarcinoma

An adenocarcinoma arising from epithelium which has undergone intestinal metaplasia. Representative examples include gastric, gallbladder, and ampulla of Vater intestinal type adenocarcinomas. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
87206
Concept ID:
C0334279
Neoplastic Process
20.

Lesion

A localized pathological or traumatic structural change, damage, deformity, or discontinuity of tissue, organ, or body part. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
65128
Concept ID:
C0221198
Finding
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