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Items: 1 to 20 of 26

1.

Mania

A state of abnormally elevated or irritable mood, arousal, and or energy levels. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
137909
Concept ID:
C0338831
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
2.

Bipolar affective disorder

A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
2649
Concept ID:
C0005586
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
3.

Bipolar

MedGen UID:
912721
Concept ID:
CN244029
Finding
4.

Major affective disorder 1

Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition that causes extreme shifts in mood, energy, and behavior. This disorder most often appears in late adolescence or early adulthood, although symptoms can begin at any time of life.People with bipolar disorder experience both dramatic "highs," called manic episodes, and "lows," called depressive episodes. These episodes can last from hours to weeks, and many people have no symptoms between episodes. Manic episodes are characterized by increased energy and activity, irritability, restlessness, an inability to sleep, and reckless behavior. Depressive episodes are marked by low energy and activity, a feeling of hopelessness, and an inability to perform everyday tasks. People with bipolar disorder often have repeated thoughts of death and suicide, and they have a much greater risk of dying by suicide than the general population.Manic and depressive episodes can include psychotic symptoms, such as false perceptions (hallucinations) or strongly held false beliefs (delusions). Mixed episodes, which have features of manic and depressive episodes at the same time, also occur in some affected individuals.Bipolar disorder often occurs with other mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders (such as panic attacks), behavioral disorders (such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder), and substance abuse. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
377615
Concept ID:
C1852197
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
5.

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is highly heritable, as shown by family, twin, and adoption studies. For example, for identical twins, if one twin develops schizophrenia, the other twin has about a 50% chance of also developing the disease. The risk of the general population developing the schizophrenia is about 0.3-0.7% worldwide. The search for “schizophrenia genes” has been elusive. Initial linkage studies looked at parts of the genome associated with schizophrenia, and many candidate genes were identified, including APOE, COMT, DAO, DRD1, DRD2, DRD4, DTNBP1, GABRB2, GRIN2B, HP, IL1B, MTHFR, PLXNA2, SLC6A4, TP53, and TPH1. However, some of these have later been questioned. Microdeletions and microduplications have been found to be three times more common in individuals with schizophrenia, compared to controls. Because these deletions and duplications are in genes that are overexpressed in pathways related to brain development, it is possible that the inheritance of multiple rare variants may contribute to the development of schizophrenia. Several genetic disorders feature schizophrenia as a clinical feature. The 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome comprises many different syndromes, of which one of the most serious is DiGeorge syndrome. Children born with DiGeorge syndrome typically have heart defects, cleft palate, learning difficulties, and immune deficiency. Schizophrenia is a late manifestation, affecting around 30% of individuals. Microdeletions and duplications in chromosome 1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 16 have also been associated with schizophrenia. In 2014, a genome-wide association study looked at the genomes of over 35,000 patients and 110,00 controls. The study identified 108 SNPs that were associated with schizophrenia, 83 of which had not been previously reported. As expected, many of these loci occurred in genes that are expressed in the brain. For example, the SNPs included a gene that encodes the dopamine D2 receptor, DRD2 (the target of antipsychotic drugs), and many genes involved in glutamine neurotransmitter pathways and synaptic plasticity (e.g., GRM3, GRIN2A, SRR, GRIA1). More surprisingly, however, associations were also enriched among genes expressed in tissues with important immune functions. In 2016, a study based on nearly 65,000 people investigated the association between schizophrenia and variation in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) locus—a region on chromosome 6 that is important for immune function. The study focused on the C4 gene (complement component 4) that exists as two distinct genes: C4A and C4B, which encode particularly structurally diverse alleles. The study found that the alleles which promoted greater expression of C4A in the brain were associated with a greater risk of schizophrenia. By using mice models, the study showed that C4 is involved in the elimination of synapses during brain maturation. In humans, “synaptic pruning” is most active during late adolescence, which coincides with the typical onset of symptoms of schizophrenia. It is therefore possible that the inheritance of specific C4A alleles could lead to “run away” synaptic pruning, increasing the risk of schizophrenia. Further research may even determine C4 as a potential therapeutic target. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
48574
Concept ID:
C0036341
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
6.

Racing thoughts

Abnormally rapid thoughts with or without abrupt changes from one topic to another. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
640668
Concept ID:
C0554978
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
7.

Flight of ideas

Rapid succession of thoughts pertaining to different subjects that are still connected. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
535446
Concept ID:
C0233657
Finding
8.

Elation

MedGen UID:
535328
Concept ID:
C0233492
Finding
9.

Schizophrenia

A mental disorder characterized by a disintegration of thought processes and of emotional responsiveness. It most commonly manifests as auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, or disorganized speech and thinking, and it is accompanied by significant social or occupational dysfunction. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in young adulthood, with a global lifetime prevalence of about 0.3-0.7%. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
506532
Concept ID:
CN117643
Finding
10.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests at age 2-3 years or by first grade at the latest. The main symptoms are distractibility, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and often trouble organizing tasks and projects, difficulty going to sleep, and social problems from being aggressive, loud, or impatient. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
506017
Concept ID:
CN006126
Finding
11.

Symptom

Subjective evidence of disease perceived by the patient. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
306142
Concept ID:
C1457887
Sign or Symptom
12.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
13.

Hyperactivity

Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
98406
Concept ID:
C0424295
Finding; Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
14.

Bipolar and Related Disorders

These disorders are related to both SCHIZOPHRENIA SPECTRUM AND RELATED DISORDERS and DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS in terms of symptomatology, family history, and genetics. (DSM-V) . [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
875788
Concept ID:
C4042924
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
15.

Neurodevelopmental disorder

Neurodevelopmental disorder is a behavioral and cognitive disorder with onset during the developmental period that involve impaired or aberrant development of intellectual, motor, or social functions. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
453059
Concept ID:
C1535926
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
16.

Diagnosis, Psychiatric

MedGen UID:
138165
Concept ID:
C0376338
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
17.

Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders

Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
68635
Concept ID:
C0236964
Pathologic Function
18.

Mental disorder

A disorder characterized by behavioral and/or psychological abnormalities, often accompanied by physical symptoms. The symptoms may cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social and occupational areas of functioning. Representative examples include anxiety disorders, cognitive disorders, mood disorders and schizophrenia. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
14047
Concept ID:
C0004936
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
19.

Bipolar affective disorder, current episode depression

The depressive stage of bipolar disorder. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
585
Concept ID:
C0005587
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
20.

Symptom findings in relation to frequency

MedGen UID:
668399
Concept ID:
C0586403
Sign or Symptom
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