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Items: 17

1.

Regular insulin

A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1). [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
5827
Concept ID:
C0021641
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Hormone; Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Malignant Breast Neoplasm

A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm involving the breast. The vast majority of cases are carcinomas arising from the breast parenchyma or the nipple. Malignant breast neoplasms occur more frequently in females than in males. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
651
Concept ID:
C0006142
Neoplastic Process
3.

breast cancer

MedGen UID:
880206
Concept ID:
CN235590
Finding
4.

Sporadic

Cases of the disease in question occur without a previous family history, i.e., as isolated cases without being transmitted from a parent and without other siblings being affected. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
342827
Concept ID:
C1853237
Finding
5.

Neoplasm of the breast

Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in the breast become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably to form a tumor. Although breast cancer is much more common in women, this form of cancer can also develop in men. In both women and men, the most common form of breast cancer begins in cells lining the milk ducts (ductal cancer). In women, cancer can also develop in the glands that produce milk (lobular cancer). Most men have little or no lobular tissue, so lobular cancer in men is very rare.In its early stages, breast cancer usually does not cause pain and may exhibit no noticeable symptoms. As the cancer progresses, signs and symptoms can include a lump or thickening in or near the breast; a change in the size or shape of the breast; nipple discharge, tenderness, or retraction (turning inward); and skin irritation, dimpling, or scaliness. However, these changes can occur as part of many different conditions. Having one or more of these symptoms does not mean that a person definitely has breast cancer.In some cases, cancerous tumors can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body. If breast cancer spreads, cancerous cells most often appear in the bones, liver, lungs, or brain. Tumors that begin at one site and then spread to other areas of the body are called metastatic cancers.A small percentage of all breast cancers cluster in families. These cancers are described as hereditary and are associated with inherited gene mutations. Hereditary breast cancers tend to develop earlier in life than noninherited (sporadic) cases, and new (primary) tumors are more likely to develop in both breasts. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
264172
Concept ID:
C1458155
Neoplastic Process
6.

Breast carcinoma

A carcinoma arising from the breast, most commonly the terminal ductal-lobular unit. It is the most common malignant tumor in females. Risk factors include country of birth, family history, menstrual and reproductive history, fibrocystic disease and epithelial hyperplasia, exogenous estrogens, contraceptive agents, and ionizing radiation. The vast majority of breast carcinomas are adenocarcinomas (ductal or lobular). Breast carcinoma spreads by direct invasion, by the lymphatic route, and by the blood vessel route. The most common site of lymph node involvement is the axilla. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
146260
Concept ID:
C0678222
Neoplastic Process
7.

Familial cancer of breast

BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) is characterized by an increased risk for female and male breast cancer, ovarian cancer (includes fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers), and to a lesser extent other cancers such as prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, and melanoma primarily in individuals with a BRCA2 pathogenic variant. The exact cancer risks differ slightly depending on whether HBOC is caused by a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
87542
Concept ID:
C0346153
Neoplastic Process
8.

Human insulin product

Regular insulin preparations that contain the HUMAN insulin peptide sequence. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
162753
Concept ID:
C0795635
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Hormone; Pharmacologic Substance
9.

Normal tissue

MedGen UID:
568338
Concept ID:
C0332441
Finding
10.

History

The aggregate of past events; the continuum of events occurring in succession leading from the past to the present; a record or narrative description of past events. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
389153
Concept ID:
C2004062
Finding
11.

History of

A record of a patient's background regarding health and the occurrence of disease events of the individual. In addition, personal medical history may be a variable in epidemiologic studies. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
82657
Concept ID:
C0262926
Finding
12.

Family history

A record of a patient's background regarding health and disease events of blood relatives. A patient's family medical history may be important in diagnosing existing conditions. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
69143
Concept ID:
C0241889
Finding
13.

Risk factor

An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiological evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
48477
Concept ID:
C0035648
Finding
14.

Genetic predisposition

A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
137259
Concept ID:
C0314657
Organism Attribute
15.

Skin and Connective Tissue Diseases

A collective term for diseases of the skin and its appendages and of connective tissue. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
59786
Concept ID:
C0175166
Disease or Syndrome
16.

dermopathy

An abnormality of the skin. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
20777
Concept ID:
C0037274
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Disorder of breast

A non-neoplastic or neoplastic disorder that affects the breast. Representative examples of non-neoplastic disorders include fibrocystic disease, gynecomastia, and mastitis. Representative examples of neoplastic disorders include fibroadenoma, lobular neoplasia, carcinoma, lymphoma, and sarcoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
652
Concept ID:
C0006145
Disease or Syndrome
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