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1.

Thalidomide

A synthetic derivative of glutamic acid (alpha-phthalimido-glutarimide) with teratogenic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties. Thalidomide acts primarily by inhibiting both the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in stimulated peripheral monocytes and the activities of interleukins and interferons. This agent also inhibits polymorphonuclear chemotaxis and monocyte phagocytosis. In addition, thalidomide inhibits pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), thereby inhibiting angiogenesis. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
11761
Concept ID:
C0039736
Hazardous or Poisonous Substance; Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Oncolysis

The destruction of tumor cells or a reduction in swelling. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
90709
Concept ID:
C0333516
Neoplastic Process
3.

Erythema nodosum

An erythematous eruption commonly associated with drug reactions or infection and characterized by inflammatory nodules that are usually tender, multiple, and bilateral. These nodules are located predominantly on the shins with less common occurrence on the thighs and forearms. They undergo characteristic color changes ending in temporary bruise-like areas. This condition usually subsides in 3-6 weeks without scarring or atrophy. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
41858
Concept ID:
C0014743
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Erythema

Redness of the skin, caused by hyperemia of the capillaries in the lower layers of the skin. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
11999
Concept ID:
C0041834
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Syndrome

A set of symptoms or conditions that occur together and suggest the presence of a certain disease or an increased chance of developing the disease. [from NCI_NCI-GLOSS]

MedGen UID:
11688
Concept ID:
C0039082
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Crohn disease

MedGen UID:
909933
Concept ID:
CN043071
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Profound

Having an extremely high degree of severity. For quantitative traits, a deviation of more than five standard deviations from the appropriate population mean. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
615266
Concept ID:
C0439808
Qualitative Concept
8.

Erythema nodosum leprosum

MedGen UID:
575612
Concept ID:
C0343467
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Borries syndrome

MedGen UID:
542920
Concept ID:
C0270677
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Autoimmunity

The occurrence of an immune reaction against the organism's own cells or tissues. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
505423
Concept ID:
CN002679
Finding
11.

PROGRESSIVE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS WITH RIGIDITY

MedGen UID:
349287
Concept ID:
C1861457
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Autoimmune reaction

A specific humoral or cell-mediated immune response against autologous (self) antigens. An autoimmune process may produce or be caused by autoimmune disease and may be developmentally complex, not necessarily pathological, and possibly pervasive. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
105217
Concept ID:
C0443146
Pathologic Function
13.

Lupus erythematosus

What is lupus? Lupus is an autoimmune disease. This means that your immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues by mistake. This can damage many parts of the body, including the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, and brain. There are several kinds of lupus. -Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the most common type. It can be mild or severe, and can affect many parts of the body. -Discoid lupus causes a red rash that doesn't go away. -Subacute cutaneous lupus causes sores after being out in the sun. -Drug-induced lupus is caused by certain medicines. It usually goes away when you stop taking the medicine. -Neonatal lupus, which is rare, affects newborns. It is probably caused by certain antibodies from the mother. Who gets lupus? Anyone can get lupus, but women are most at risk. Lupus is two to three times more common in African American women than in Caucasian women. It's also more common in Hispanic, Asian, and Native American women. African American and Hispanic women are more likely to have severe forms of lupus. What causes lupus? The cause of lupus is not known. What are the symptoms of lupus? Lupus can have many symptoms, and they differ from person to person. Some of the more common ones are. -Pain or swelling in joints. -Muscle pain. -Fever with no known cause. -Red rashes, most often on the face (also called the butterfly rash). -Chest pain when taking a deep breath. -Hair loss. -Pale or purple fingers or toes. -Sensitivity to the sun. -Swelling in legs or around eyes. -Mouth ulcers. -Swollen glands. -Feeling very tired. Symptoms may come and go. When you are having symptoms, it is called a flare. Flares can range from mild to severe. New symptoms may appear at any time. How do I know if I have lupus? There is no single test to diagnose lupus, and it's often mistaken for other diseases. So it may take months or years for a doctor to diagnose it. Your doctor may use many tools to make a diagnosis:. -Medical history. -Complete exam. -Blood tests. -Skin biopsy (looking at skin samples under a microscope). -Kidney biopsy (looking at tissue from your kidney under a microscope). What are the treatments for lupus? There is no cure for lupus, but medicines and lifestyle changes can help control it. People with lupus often need to see different doctors. You will have a primary care doctor and a rheumatologist (a doctor who specializes in the diseases of joints and muscles). Which other specialists you see depends on how lupus affects your body. For example, if lupus damages your heart or blood vessels, you would see a cardiologist. Your primary care doctor should coordinate care between your different health care providers and treat other problems as they come up. Your doctor will develop a treatment plan to fit your needs. You and your doctor should review the plan often to be sure it is working. You should report new symptoms to your doctor right away so that your treatment plan can be changed if needed. The goals of the treatment plan are to. -Prevent flares. -Treat flares when they occur. -Reduce organ damage and other problems. Treatments may include drugs to. -Reduce swelling and pain. -Prevent or reduce flares. -Help the immune system. -Reduce or prevent damage to joints. -Balance the hormones. Besides taking medicines for lupus, you may need to take medicines for problems that are related to lupus such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or infection. Alternative treatments are those that are not part of standard treatment. At this time, no research shows that alternative medicine can treat lupus. Some alternative or complementary approaches may help you cope or reduce some of the stress associated with living with a chronic illness. You should talk to your doctor before trying any alternative treatments. How can I cope with lupus? It is important to take an active role in your treatment. It helps to learn more about lupus - being able to spot the warning signs of a flare can help you prevent the flare or make the symptoms less severe. It is also important to find ways to cope with the stress of having lupus. Exercising and finding ways to relax may make it easier for you to cope. A good support system can also help. NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
98043
Concept ID:
C0409974
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Cholestasis-edema syndrome, Norwegian type

A rare genetic syndrome which occurs primarily among individuals of Norwegian descent with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. It is caused, in some cases, by the inheritance of a mutation of the LSC1 gene on chromosome 15. Clinical signs include lymphedema of the lower extremities and cholestasis. The clinical course includes giant-cell hepatitis and progression to cirrhosis. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
78658
Concept ID:
C0268314
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Discoid lupus rash

Cutaneous lesion that develops as a dry, scaly, red patch that evolves to an indurated and hyperpigmented plaque with adherent scale. Scarring may result in central white patches (loss of pigmentation) and skin atrophy. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
7402
Concept ID:
C0024138
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Crohn disease

Crohn's disease causes inflammation of the digestive system. It is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn's can affect any area from the mouth to the anus. It often affects the lower part of the small intestine called the ileum. The cause of Crohn's disease is unknown. It may be due to an abnormal reaction by the body's immune system. It also seems to run in some families. It most commonly starts between the ages of 13 and 30. The most common symptoms are pain in the abdomen and diarrhea. Other symptoms include. -Bleeding from the rectum. -Weight loss. -Fever. Your doctor will diagnose Crohn's disease with a physical exam, lab tests, imaging tests, and a colonoscopy. Crohn's can cause complications, such as intestinal blockages, ulcers in the intestine, and problems getting enough nutrients. People with Crohn's can also have joint pain and skin problems. Children with the disease may have growth problems. There is no cure for Crohn's. Treatment can help control symptoms, and may include medicines, nutrition supplements, and/or surgery. Some people have long periods of remission, when they are free of symptoms. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
3664
Concept ID:
C0010346
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Behcet syndrome

Behçet disease is an inflammatory condition that affects many parts of the body. The health problems associated with Behçet disease result from widespread inflammation of blood vessels (vasculitis). This inflammation most commonly affects the mouth, genitals, skin, and eyes.Painful mouth sores called aphthous ulcers are usually the first sign of Behçet disease. These sores occur on the lips and tongue and inside the cheeks. The ulcers look like common canker sores, and they typically heal within one to two weeks. About 75 percent of all people with Behçet disease develop similar ulcers on the genitals. These ulcers occur most frequently on the scrotum in men and on the labia in women.Behçet disease can also cause painful bumps and sores on the skin. Most affected individuals develop pus-filled bumps that resemble acne. These bumps can occur anywhere on the body. Some affected people also have red, tender nodules called erythema nodosum. These nodules usually develop on the legs but can also occur on the face, neck, and arms.An inflammation of the eye called uveitis is found in more than half of people with Behçet disease. Eye problems are more common in younger people with the disease and affect men more often than women. Uveitis can result in blurry vision and an extreme sensitivity to light (photophobia). Rarely, inflammation can also cause eye pain and redness. If untreated, the eye problems associated with Behçet disease can lead to blindness.Less commonly, Behçet disease can affect the joints, gastrointestinal tract, large blood vessels, and brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). Central nervous system abnormalities are among the most serious complications of Behçet disease. Related symptoms can include headaches, confusion, personality changes, memory loss, impaired speech, and problems with balance and movement.The signs and symptoms of Behçet disease usually begin in a person's twenties or thirties, although they can appear at any age. Some affected people have relatively mild symptoms that are limited to sores in the mouth and on the genitals. Others have more severe symptoms affecting many parts of the body, including the central nervous system. The features of Behçet disease typically come and go over a period of months or years. In most affected individuals, the health problems associated with this disorder improve with age.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
2568
Concept ID:
C0004943
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Autoimmune disease

Your body's immune system protects you from disease and infection. But if you have an autoimmune disease, your immune system attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Autoimmune diseases can affect many parts of the body. No one is sure what causes autoimmune diseases. They do tend to run in families. Women - particularly African-American, Hispanic-American, and Native-American women - have a higher risk for some autoimmune diseases. There are more than 80 types of autoimmune diseases, and some have similar symptoms. This makes it hard for your health care provider to know if you really have one of these diseases, and if so, which one. Getting a diagnosis can be frustrating and stressful. Often, the first symptoms are fatigue, muscle aches and a low fever. The classic sign of an autoimmune disease is inflammation, which can cause redness, heat, pain and swelling. The diseases may also have flare-ups, when they get worse, and remissions, when symptoms get better or disappear. Treatment depends on the disease, but in most cases one important goal is to reduce inflammation. Sometimes doctors prescribe corticosteroids or other drugs that reduce your immune response.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
2135
Concept ID:
C0004364
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Immunomodulators

agents of both drug and biological origin often used in immunotherapy to stimulate, potentiate, or depress the immune response; also used to inhibit or enhance specific subclasses of immunocytes. [from CRISP]

MedGen UID:
282900
Concept ID:
C1527392
Immunologic Factor; Pharmacologic Substance
20.

Thalomid

MedGen UID:
148974
Concept ID:
C0723668
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
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