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Items: 17

1.

Human insulin product

Regular insulin preparations that contain the HUMAN insulin peptide sequence. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
162753
Concept ID:
C0795635
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Hormone; Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Linoleic acid

A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
9773
Concept ID:
C0023749
Biologically Active Substance; Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
3.

Regular insulin

A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1). [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
5827
Concept ID:
C0021641
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Hormone; Pharmacologic Substance
4.

Familial colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is common in both men and women. In addition to lifestyle and environmental risk factors, gene defects can contribute to an inherited predisposition to CRC. CRC is caused by changes in different molecular pathogenic pathways, such as chromosomal instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, and microsatellite instability. Chromosome instability is the most common alteration and is present in almost 85% of all cases (review by Schweiger et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Colorectal Cancer Mutations in a single gene result in a marked predisposition to colorectal cancer in 2 distinct syndromes: familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP; 175100) and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; see 120435). FAP is caused by mutations in the APC gene (611731), whereas HNPCC is caused by mutations in several genes, including MSH2 (609309), MLH1 (120436), PMS1 (600258), PMS2 (600259), MSH6 (600678), TGFBR2 (190182), and MLH3 (604395). Epigenetic silencing of MSH2 results in a form of HNPCC (see HNPCC8, 613244). Other colorectal cancer syndromes include autosomal recessive adenomatous polyposis (608456), which is caused by mutations in the MUTYH gene (604933), and oligodontia-colorectal cancer syndrome (608615), which is caused by mutations in the AXIN2 gene (604025). The CHEK2 gene (604373) has been implicated in susceptibility to colorectal cancer in Finnish patients. A germline mutation in the PLA2G2A gene (172411) was identified in a patient with colorectal cancer. Germline susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer have also been identified. CRCS1 (608812) is conferred by mutation in the GALNT12 gene (610290) on chromosome 9q22; CRCS2 (611469) maps to chromosome 8q24; CRCS3 (612229) is conferred by variation in the SMAD7 gene (602932) on chromosome 18; CRCS4 (601228) is conferred by variation on 15q that causes increased and ectopic expression of the GREM1 gene (603054); CRCS5 (612230) maps to chromosome 10p14; CRCS6 (612231) maps to chromosome 8q23; CRCS7 (612232) maps to chromosome 11q23; CRCS8 (612589) maps to chromosome 14q22; CRCS9 (612590) maps to 16q22; CRCS10 (612591) is conferred by mutation in the POLD1 gene (174761) on chromosome 19q13; CRCS11 (612592) maps to chromosome 20p12; and CRCS12 (615083) is conferred by mutation in the POLE gene (174762) on chromosome 12q24. Somatic mutations in many different genes, including KRAS (190070), PIK3CA (171834), BRAF (164757), CTNNB1 (116806), FGFR3 (134934), AXIN2 (604025), AKT1 (164730), MCC (159350), MYH11 (160745), PARK2 (602544), and RNF43 (612482), have been identified in colorectal cancer. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
430218
Concept ID:
CN029768
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Insulin-Like Growth Factor II

Insulin-like growth factor II (180 aa, ~20 kDa) is encoded by the human IGF2 gene. This protein plays a role in cellular growth, development, and mitogenesis. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
345018
Concept ID:
C1569730
Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein; Biologically Active Substance; Pharmacologic Substance
6.

Carcinoma of colon

Lynch syndrome, caused by a germline pathogenic variant in a mismatch repair gene and associated with tumors exhibiting microsatellite instability (MSI), is characterized by an increased risk for colon cancer and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small intestine, hepatobiliary tract, urinary tract, brain, and skin. In individuals with Lynch syndrome the following life time risks for cancer are seen: 52%-82% for colorectal cancer (mean age at diagnosis 44-61 years); 25%-60% for endometrial cancer in women (mean age at diagnosis 48-62 years); 6% to 13% for gastric cancer (mean age at diagnosis 56 years); and 4%-12% for ovarian cancer (mean age at diagnosis 42.5 years; approximately 30% are diagnosed before age 40 years). The risk for other Lynch syndrome-related cancers is lower, though substantially increased over general population rates. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
147065
Concept ID:
C0699790
Neoplastic Process
7.

Colon cancer

A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm that affects the colon. Representative examples include carcinoma, lymphoma, and sarcoma. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
2839
Concept ID:
C0007102
Neoplastic Process
8.

Decreasing

MedGen UID:
617794
Concept ID:
C0442797
Finding
9.

Linoleic Acids, Conjugated

A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
263454
Concept ID:
C1257880
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
10.

Intestinal Neoplasm

A benign or malignant neoplasm involving the small or large intestine. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
43932
Concept ID:
C0021841
Neoplastic Process
11.

Gastrointestinal disease

A non-neoplastic or neoplastic disorder that affects the gastrointestinal tract, anus, liver, biliary system, and pancreas. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
8970
Concept ID:
C0017178
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Neoplasm of digestive tract

Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
8398
Concept ID:
C0012243
Neoplastic Process
13.

Abnormality of the intestine

A non-neoplastic or neoplastic disorder that affects the small or large intestine. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
7130
Concept ID:
C0021831
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract

A benign or malignant neoplasm involving any part of the digestive system. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
4846
Concept ID:
C0017185
Neoplastic Process
15.

Neoplasm of the large intestine

A benign or malignant neoplasm that affects the colon or rectum. Representative examples of benign neoplasms include lipoma and leiomyoma. Representative examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinoma, lymphoma, and sarcoma. Colorectal adenomas always exhibit epithelial dysplasia and are considered premalignant neoplasms. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
3171
Concept ID:
C0009404
Neoplastic Process
16.

Colonic Neoplasms

A benign or malignant neoplasm that affects the colon. Representative examples of benign neoplasms include lipoma and leiomyoma. Representative examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinoma, lymphoma, and sarcoma. Colonic adenomas always exhibit epithelial dysplasia and are considered premalignant neoplasms. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
3165
Concept ID:
C0009375
Neoplastic Process
17.

Disorder of colon

Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE). [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
1049
Concept ID:
C0009373
Disease or Syndrome
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