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1.

Iron

Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries oxygen from our lungs throughout our bodies. It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and enzymes. Your body needs the right amount of iron. If you have too little iron, you may develop iron deficiency anemia. Causes of low iron levels include blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from foods. People at higher risk of having too little iron are young children and women who are pregnant or have periods. Too much iron can damage your body. Taking too many iron supplements can cause iron poisoning. Some people have an inherited disease called hemochromatosis. It causes too much iron to build up in the body. . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
137068
Concept ID:
C0302583
Biologically Active Substance; Element, Ion, or Isotope; Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Hypoxia

A decrease in the amount of oxygen in the body. Symptoms range from mild (impaired judgment, memory loss, impaired motor coordination) to severe (seizures and coma). [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
66846
Concept ID:
C0242184
Pathologic Function
3.

Inflammation

A localized protective response resulting from injury or destruction of tissues. Inflammation serves to destroy, dilute, or wall off both the injurious agent and the injured tissue. In the acute phase, inflammation is characterized by the signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Histologically, inflammation involves a complex series of events, including dilatation of arterioles, capillaries, and venules, with increased permeability and blood flow; exudation of fluids, including plasma proteins; and leukocyte migration into the site of inflammation. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
7072
Concept ID:
C0021368
Pathologic Function
4.

Anemia

If you have anemia, your blood does not carry enough oxygen to the rest of your body. The most common cause of anemia is not having enough iron. Your body needs iron to make hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that gives the red color to blood. It carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Anemia has three main causes: blood loss, lack of red blood cell production, and high rates of red blood cell destruction. Conditions that may lead to anemia include. -Heavy periods. -Pregnancy. -Ulcers. -Colon polyps or colon cancer. -Inherited disorders. -A diet that does not have enough iron, folic acid or vitamin B12. -Blood disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, or cancer. -Aplastic anemia, a condition that can be inherited or acquired. -G6PD deficiency, a metabolic disorder. Anemia can make you feel tired, cold, dizzy, and irritable. You may be short of breath or have a headache. Your doctor will diagnose anemia with a physical exam and blood tests. Treatment depends on the kind of anemia you have. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
1526
Concept ID:
C0002871
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Anemia

A reduction in erythrocytes volume or hemoglobin concentration. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
56401
Concept ID:
C0162119
Finding
6.

agonists

Used with chemicals, drugs, and endogenous substances to indicate substances or agents that have affinity for a receptor and intrinsic activity at that receptor. (From Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p.16) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
116746
Concept ID:
C0243192
Pharmacologic Substance
7.

Iron Overload

A condition in which the body takes up and stores more iron than it needs. The extra iron is stored in the liver, heart, and pancreas, which may cause liver disease, heart problems, organ failure, and cancer. It may also cause bronze skin, diabetes, pain in the joints and abdomen, tiredness, and impotence. Iron overload may be inherited, or it may be caused by blood transfusions. [from NCI_NCI-GLOSS]

MedGen UID:
79398
Concept ID:
C0282193
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Hemolysis (disorder)

The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
42402
Concept ID:
C0019054
Pathologic Function
9.

Phenylhydrazine

diazo derivative of aniline used as a reagent for sugars, ketones and aldehydes. [from CRISP]

MedGen UID:
10711
Concept ID:
C0031479
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
10.

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the major histologic type of malignant primary liver neoplasm. It is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. The major risk factors for HCC are chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, prolonged dietary aflatoxin exposure, alcoholic cirrhosis, and cirrhosis due to other causes. Hepatoblastomas comprise 1 to 2% of all malignant neoplasms of childhood, most often occurring in children under 3 years of age. Hepatoblastomas are thought to be derived from undifferentiated hepatocytes (Taniguchi et al., 2002). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
389187
Concept ID:
C2239176
Neoplastic Process
11.

Triggered by

In medicine, a specific event that starts a process or that causes a particular outcome. For example, chemotherapy, painful treatments, or the smells, sounds, and sights that go with them may trigger anxiety and fear in a patient who has cancer. In allergies, exposure to mold, pollen or dust may trigger sneezing, watery eyes, and coughing. [from NCI_NCI-GLOSS]

MedGen UID:
252950
Concept ID:
C1444748
Qualitative Concept
12.

Frequent

Coming at short intervals or in great quantities. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
87144
Concept ID:
C0332183
Temporal Concept
13.

Iron deficiency

MedGen UID:
66001
Concept ID:
C0240066
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Acute

Sudden appearance of disease manifestations over a short period of time. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
61381
Concept ID:
C0205178
Temporal Concept
15.

Hemorrhage

Bleeding is the loss of blood. It can happen inside or outside the body. Bleeding can be a reaction to a cut or other wound. It can also result from an injury to internal organs. There are many situations in which you might bleed. A bruise is bleeding under the skin. Some strokes are caused by bleeding in the brain. Other bleeding, such as gastrointestinal bleeding, coughing up blood, or vaginal bleeding, can be a symptom of a disease. Normally, when you bleed, your blood forms clots to stop the bleeding. Severe bleeding may require first aid or a trip to the emergency room. If you have a bleeding disorder, your blood does not form clots normally.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
5503
Concept ID:
C0019080
Pathologic Function
16.

Hypoxemia

An abnormally low level of blood oxygen. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
152145
Concept ID:
C0700292
Finding
17.

Respiratory symptom

Respiratory system manifestations of diseases of the respiratory tract or of other organs. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
20754
Concept ID:
C0037090
Sign or Symptom
18.

Clinical finding

clinical manifestations that can be either objective when observed by a physician, or subjective when perceived by the patient. [from CRISP]

MedGen UID:
19974
Concept ID:
C0037088
Sign or Symptom
19.

Hemic and Lymphatic Diseases

Hematologic diseases and diseases of the lymphatic system collectively. Hemic diseases include disorders involving the formed elements (e.g., ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION, INTRAVASCULAR) and chemical components (e.g., BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS); lymphatic diseases include disorders relating to lymph, lymph nodes, and lymphocytes. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
6780
Concept ID:
C0018981
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Hematologic disease

Your blood is living tissue made up of liquid and solids. The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood and prevent your blood from doing its job. They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side effects of medicines, and a lack of certain nutrients in your diet. Types of blood disorders include. -Platelet disorders, excessive clotting, and bleeding problems, which affect how your blood clots. -Anemia, which happens when your blood does not carry enough oxygen to the rest of your body. -Cancers of the blood, such as leukemia and myeloma. -Eosinophilic disorders, which are problems with one type of white blood cell.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
5483
Concept ID:
C0018939
Disease or Syndrome
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