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1.

Xeroderma

A non-neoplastic disorder characterized by abnormally dry skin. Causes include vitamin A deficiency, sunlight exposure, medications, metabolic disorders, autoimmune disorders, and hereditary genetic disorders. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
53106
Concept ID:
C0043345
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Xeroderma pigmentosum

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure in ~60% of affected individuals), with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years in most affected individuals; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma). Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and progressive cognitive impairment). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
21943
Concept ID:
C0043346
Congenital Abnormality
3.

Neurologic

MedGen UID:
880863
Concept ID:
CN236425
Finding
4.

Proportionate short stature; mild intellectual disability; dysmorphic facial features; precocious puberty

MedGen UID:
850705
Concept ID:
CN231399
Finding
5.

Degenerative abnormality

Disturbance of cell integrity and deterioration of normal tissue, cells or organs. [from NCI_CDISC]

MedGen UID:
3705
Concept ID:
C0011164
Pathologic Function
6.

Neurological symptom

A term that refers to the clinical manifestations resulting from pathologic processes that affect the central and peripheral nervous system. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
66714
Concept ID:
C0235031
Sign or Symptom
7.

Cockayne syndrome

Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or “moderate” form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome (COFS) or Pena-Shokeir syndrome type II; CS type III, a milder form; Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome (XP-CS). CS type I (moderate CS) is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II (severe CS or early-onset CS) is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age seven years. CS type III (mild CS or late-onset CS) is characterized by essentially normal growth and cognitive development or by late onset. Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome (XP-CS) includes facial freckling and early skin cancers typical of XP and some features typical of CS, including intellectual disability, spasticity, short stature, and hypogonadism. XP-CS does not include skeletal involvement, the facial phenotype of CS, or CNS dysmyelination and calcifications. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
40363
Concept ID:
C0009207
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Syndrome

A characteristic symptom complex. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
11688
Concept ID:
C0039082
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome complex

Xeroderma pigmentosum/Cockayne syndrome complex (XP/CS complex) is characterized by the cutaneous features of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) (see this term) together with the systemic and neurological features of Cockayne syndrome (CS; see this term). [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
798223
Concept ID:
CN201205
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Agree

To concur. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
770467
Concept ID:
C3641827
Finding
11.

Very low

MedGen UID:
617805
Concept ID:
C0442811
Finding
12.

Borries syndrome

MedGen UID:
542920
Concept ID:
C0270677
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Maternal

A designation that has some relationship to motherhood. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
348949
Concept ID:
C1858460
Finding
14.

Severe photosensitivity

A severe degree of photosensitivity of the skin. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
341399
Concept ID:
C1849186
Finding
15.

Mild

Having a relatively minor degree of severity. For quantitative traits, a deviation of between two and three standard deviations from the appropriate population mean. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
268697
Concept ID:
C1513302
Finding
16.

Impairment

MedGen UID:
151925
Concept ID:
C0684336
Pathologic Function
17.

Abnormality of the nervous system

An abnormality of the nervous system that is present at birth or detected in the neonatal period. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
105425
Concept ID:
C0497552
Congenital Abnormality
18.

Severe

Having a high degree of severity. For quantitative traits, a deviation of between four and five standard deviations from the appropriate population mean. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
104640
Concept ID:
C0205082
Qualitative Concept
19.

Cutaneous photosensitivity

An increased sensitivity of the skin to light. Photosensitivity may result in a rash upon exposure to the sun (which is known as photodermatosis). Photosensitivity can be diagnosed by phototests in which light is shone on small areas of skin. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
87601
Concept ID:
C0349506
Finding; Pathologic Function
20.

Xeroderma pigmentosum, group G

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure in ~60% of affected individuals), with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years in most affected individuals; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma). Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and progressive cognitive impairment). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
75657
Concept ID:
C0268141
Disease or Syndrome
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