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Impaired convergence

MedGen UID:
78768
Concept ID:
C0271379
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
Synonyms: Convergence insufficiency
SNOMED CT: Convergence insufficiency (194131002); CI - Convergence insufficiency (194131002)
 
HPO: HP:0000619

Definition

Reduced ability to turn the eyes inward in order to focus on a nearby object. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Duane syndrome
MedGen UID:
4413
Concept ID:
C0013261
Disease or Syndrome
Duane syndrome is a strabismus syndrome characterized by congenital non-progressive horizontal ophthalmoplegia (inability to move the eyes) primarily affecting the abducens nucleus and nerve and its innervated extraocular muscle, the lateral rectus muscle. At birth, affected infants have restricted ability to move the affected eye(s) outward (abduction) and/or inward (adduction). In addition, the globe retracts into the orbit with attempted adduction, accompanied by narrowing of the palpebral fissure. Most individuals with Duane syndrome have strabismus in primary gaze but can use a compensatory head position to align the eyes, and thus can preserve single binocular vision and avoid diplopia. Individuals with Duane syndrome who lack binocular vision are at risk for amblyopia. Approximately 70% of individuals with Duane syndrome have isolated Duane syndrome (i.e., they do not have other detected congenital anomalies).
Type 1 Duane Retraction Syndrome
MedGen UID:
201329
Concept ID:
C0994516
Disease or Syndrome
Duane-radial ray syndrome
MedGen UID:
301647
Concept ID:
C1623209
Disease or Syndrome
SALL4-related disorders include Duane-radial ray syndrome (DRRS, Okihiro syndrome), acro-renal-ocular syndrome (AROS), and SALL4-related Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS), three phenotypes previously thought to be distinct entities: DRRS is characterized by uni- or bilateral Duane anomaly and radial ray malformation that can include thenar hypoplasia and/or hypoplasia or aplasia of the thumbs, hypoplasia or aplasia of the radii, shortening and radial deviation of the forearms, triphalangeal thumbs, and duplication of the thumb (preaxial polydactyly). AROS is characterized by radial ray malformations, renal abnormalities (mild malrotation, ectopia, horseshoe kidney, renal hypoplasia, vesico-ureteral reflux, bladder diverticula), ocular coloboma, and Duane anomaly. Rarely, pathogenic variants in SALL4 may cause clinically typical HOS (i.e., radial ray malformations and cardiac malformations without additional features).

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

al-Qurainy IA
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1995 Apr;33(2):71-5. PMID: 7772590

Diagnosis

Al-Sofiani M, Lee Kwen P
Am J Case Rep 2015 Oct 8;16:715-8. doi: 10.12659/AJCR.893875. PMID: 26447784Free PMC Article

Therapy

al-Qurainy IA
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1995 Apr;33(2):71-5. PMID: 7772590

Prognosis

Shao M, Liu ZZ, Wang CD, Li HY, Carron C, Zhang HW, Shi DL
Development 2009 Jun;136(12):2121-31. doi: 10.1242/dev.032649. PMID: 19465602

Clinical prediction guides

Shao M, Liu ZZ, Wang CD, Li HY, Carron C, Zhang HW, Shi DL
Development 2009 Jun;136(12):2121-31. doi: 10.1242/dev.032649. PMID: 19465602

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