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1.

Alzheimer disease

Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by dementia that typically begins with subtle and poorly recognized failure of memory and slowly becomes more severe and, eventually, incapacitating. Other common findings include confusion, poor judgment, language disturbance, agitation, withdrawal, and hallucinations. Occasionally, seizures, Parkinsonian features, increased muscle tone, myoclonus, incontinence, and mutism occur. Death usually results from general inanition, malnutrition, and pneumonia. The typical clinical duration of the disease is eight to ten years, with a range from one to 25 years. Approximately 25% of all AD is familial (i.e., =2 persons in a family have AD) of which approximately 95% is late onset (age >60-65 years) and 5% is early onset (age <65 years). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1853
Concept ID:
C0002395
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Citicoline

Donor of choline in biosynthesis of choline-containing phosphoglycerides. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
1211
Concept ID:
C0010725
Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide; Pharmacologic Substance
3.

Cerebral blood flow

MedGen UID:
606648
Concept ID:
C0428714
Finding
4.

Dementia

Dementia is the name for a group of symptoms caused by disorders that affect the brain. It is not a specific disease. People with dementia may not be able to think well enough to do normal activities, such as getting dressed or eating. They may lose their ability to solve problems or control their emotions. Their personalities may change. They may become agitated or see things that are not there. . Memory loss is a common symptom of dementia. However, memory loss by itself does not mean you have dementia. People with dementia have serious problems with two or more brain functions, such as memory and language. Although dementia is common in very elderly people, it is not part of normal aging. Many different diseases can cause dementia, including Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Drugs are available to treat some of these diseases. While these drugs cannot cure dementia or repair brain damage, they may improve symptoms or slow down the disease. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
99229
Concept ID:
C0497327
Finding; Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
5.

Stroke

A stroke is a medical emergency. Strokes happen when blood flow to your brain stops. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke. The more common kind, called ischemic stroke, is caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other kind, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused by a blood vessel that breaks and bleeds into the brain. Mini-strokes or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), occur when the blood supply to the brain is briefly interrupted. Symptoms of stroke are . -Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg (especially on one side of the body). -Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech. -Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes. -Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination. -Sudden severe headache with no known cause. If you have any of these symptoms, you must get to a hospital quickly to begin treatment. Acute stroke therapies try to stop a stroke while it is happening by quickly dissolving the blood clot or by stopping the bleeding. Post-stroke rehabilitation helps individuals overcome disabilities that result from stroke damage. Drug therapy with blood thinners is the most common treatment for stroke. . NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
52522
Concept ID:
C0038454
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Acetylcholine

A chemical made by some types of nerve cells. It is used to send messages to other cells, including other nerve cells, muscle cells, and gland cells. It is released from the nerve ending and carries signals to cells on the other side of a synapse (space between nerve cells and other cells). Acetylcholine helps control memory and the action of certain muscles. It is a type of neurotransmitter. [from NCI_NCI-GLOSS]

MedGen UID:
7841
Concept ID:
C0001041
Biologically Active Substance; Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
7.

Aging

Progressive damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) during life is thought to contribute to aging processes. This notion is supported by the observation of an aging-related accumulation in human mtDNA of oxidative and alkylation derivatives of nucleotides, of small deletions and insertions, and of large deletions, although their low frequency raises questions about their functional significance (Michikawa et al., 1999). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1376
Concept ID:
C0001811
Organism Function
8.

Autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome

MedGen UID:
798916
Concept ID:
CN204088
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Mild dementia

MedGen UID:
781819
Concept ID:
C3494623
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
10.

Left

Being located on the left side of the body. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
618170
Concept ID:
C0443246
Spatial Concept
11.

Moderate

Having a medium degree of severity. For quantitative traits, a deviation of between three and four standard deviations from the appropriate population mean. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
525853
Concept ID:
C0205081
Qualitative Concept
12.

Improved

Condition changed and/or recovered [from CCC]

MedGen UID:
512204
Concept ID:
C0184511
Finding
13.

Alzheimer disease

A degenerative disease of the brain characterized by the insidious onset of dementia. Impairment of memory, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe apraxia and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuropil threads. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
505259
Concept ID:
CN002282
Finding
14.

Stroke

MedGen UID:
340407
Concept ID:
C1849743
15.

Mild

Mild; asymptomatic or mild symptoms; clinical or diagnostic observations only; intervention not indicated. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
268697
Concept ID:
C1513302
Finding
16.

Mental deterioration

Loss of previously present mental abilities, generally in adults. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
66713
Concept ID:
C0234985
Pathologic Function
17.

Senile dementia

Loss of intellectual abilities in an elderly person, interfering with this person's activities. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
8279
Concept ID:
C0011268
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
18.

Neurocognitive disorder

A disorder characterized by a decline primarily in intellectual function due to disease of the brain caused by a variety of acquired conditions such as cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, infections, adverse drug reactions and trauma. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
873945
Concept ID:
C4041080
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
19.

Ceplene

Tradename for histamine dihydrochloride. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
258525
Concept ID:
C1449658
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
20.

Histamine Hydrochloride

MedGen UID:
257897
Concept ID:
C1166177
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
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