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1.

calcium phosphate

calcium salts containing the phosphate radical (PO4), frequently used as calcium supplements. [from CRISP]

MedGen UID:
14282
Concept ID:
C0006711
Inorganic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
2.

Calcium

You have more calcium in your body than any other mineral. Calcium has many important jobs. The body stores more than 99 percent of its calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and keep them strong. The rest is throughout the body in blood, muscle and the fluid between cells. Your body needs calcium to help muscles and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. . It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include dairy products such as milk, cheese and yogurt, and leafy, green vegetables. The exact amount of calcium you need depends on your age and other factors. Growing children and teenagers need more calcium than young adults. Older women need plenty of calcium to prevent osteoporosis. People who do not eat enough high-calcium foods should take a calcium supplement. NIH: National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
710
Concept ID:
C0006675
Biologically Active Substance; Element, Ion, or Isotope; Pharmacologic Substance
3.

Calculus = phosphate

MedGen UID:
508042
Concept ID:
C0031600
Finding
4.

Dent disease 1

Dent disease, an X-linked disorder of proximal renal tubular dysfunction, is characterized by low molecular-weight (LMW) proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Males younger than age ten years may manifest only low molecular-weight (LMW) proteinuria and/or hypercalciuria, which are usually asymptomatic. Thirty to 80% of affected males develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between ages 30 and 50 years; in some instances ESRD does not develop until the sixth decade of life or later. Rickets or osteomalacia are occasionally observed, and mild short stature, although underappreciated, may be a common occurrence. Disease severity can vary within the same family. Males with Dent disease 2 (caused by mutation of OCRL) are at increased risk for intellectual disability. Due to random X-chromosome inactivation, some female carriers may manifest hypercalciuria and, rarely, renal calculi and moderate LMW proteinuria. Females rarely if ever develop CKD. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
336322
Concept ID:
C1848336
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Phosphate

Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
18434
Concept ID:
C0031603
Inorganic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
6.

Nephrolithiasis

The presence of calculi (stones) in the kidneys. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
98227
Concept ID:
C0392525
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Hypercalciuria

Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
43775
Concept ID:
C0020438
Disease or Syndrome
8.

progressive

MedGen UID:
851455
Concept ID:
CN232553
Finding
9.

oxalate

A salt or ester of oxalic acid. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
837017
Concept ID:
C3669135
Organic Chemical; Pharmacologic Substance
10.

Calcium phosphate nephrolithiasis

Urolithiasis in which the composition of the stones is predominantly calcium phosphate.(NICHD) [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
786048
Concept ID:
C3671880
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
11.

Phosphorus intake

MedGen UID:
644394
Concept ID:
C0559872
Finding
12.

Calcium oxalate urolithiasis

Kleta (2006) reviewed aspects of renal stone disease. Nephrolithiasis and urolithiasis remain major public health problems of largely unknown cause. While disorders such as cystinuria (220100) and primary hyperoxaluria (see 259900) that have nephrolithiasis as a major feature have advanced understanding of the metabolic and physiologic processes of stone formation in general, they have not addressed the etiology of calcium oxalate stone formation, responsible for approximately 75% of urolithiasis cases in humans. Men are affected twice as often as women, but children show no such gender bias. The recurrence rate is also high. In populations of European ancestry, 5 to 10% of adults experience the painful precipitation of calcium oxalate in their urinary tracts. Thorleifsson et al. (2009) noted that between 35 and 65% of hypercalciuric stone formers and up to 70% of subjects with hypercalciuria have relatives with nephrolithiasis, and twin studies have estimated the heritability of kidney stones to be 56%. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
318935
Concept ID:
C1833683
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Abnormality

A condition that differs from the usual physical or mental state. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
309940
Concept ID:
C1704258
Finding
14.

Thymus Epithelial Neoplasm

An epithelial neoplasm that affects the thymus gland. This category includes thymomas and carcinomas. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
220416
Concept ID:
C1266101
Neoplastic Process
15.

Fish-eye disease

Fish-eye disease, also called partial LCAT deficiency, is a disorder that causes the clear front surface of the eyes (the corneas) to gradually become cloudy. The cloudiness, which generally first appears in adolescence or early adulthood, consists of small grayish dots of cholesterol (opacities) distributed across the corneas. Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that is produced in the body and obtained from foods that come from animals; it aids in many functions of the body but can become harmful in excessive amounts. As fish-eye disease progresses, the corneal cloudiness worsens and can lead to severely impaired vision. [from GHR]

MedGen UID:
83354
Concept ID:
C0342895
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Progressive

Advancing in extent or severity. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
64400
Concept ID:
C0205329
Functional Concept
17.

Kidney stone

A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in the kidney from substances in the urine. It may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a pearl. Most kidney stones pass out of the body without help from a doctor. But sometimes a stone will not go away. It may get stuck in the urinary tract, block the flow of urine and cause great pain. . The following may be signs of kidney stones that need a doctor's help:. - Extreme pain in your back or side that will not go away. - Blood in your urine. - Fever and chills. - Vomiting. - Urine that smells bad or looks cloudy. - A burning feeling when you urinate. Your doctor will diagnose a kidney stone with urine, blood, and imaging tests. If you have a stone that won't pass on its own, you may need treatment. It can be done with shock waves; with a scope inserted through the tube that carries urine out of the body, called the urethra; or with surgery. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
7209
Concept ID:
C0022650
Disease or Syndrome; Pathologic Function
18.

Male Urogenital Diseases

Pathological processes of the male URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, MALE). [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
318601
Concept ID:
C1720894
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Female Urogenital Diseases

Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE). [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
318599
Concept ID:
C1720887
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications

Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT, the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE), and disorders related to PREGNANCY. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
318565
Concept ID:
C1720765
Disease or Syndrome
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