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1.

Anemia

If you have anemia, your blood does not carry enough oxygen to the rest of your body. The most common cause of anemia is not having enough iron. Your body needs iron to make hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that gives the red color to blood. It carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Anemia has three main causes: blood loss, lack of red blood cell production, and high rates of red blood cell destruction. Conditions that may lead to anemia include. -Heavy periods. -Pregnancy. -Ulcers. -Colon polyps or colon cancer. -Inherited disorders. -A diet that does not have enough iron, folic acid or vitamin B12. -Blood disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, or cancer. -Aplastic anemia, a condition that can be inherited or acquired. -G6PD deficiency, a metabolic disorder. Anemia can make you feel tired, cold, dizzy, and irritable. You may be short of breath or have a headache. Your doctor will diagnose anemia with a physical exam and blood tests. Treatment depends on the kind of anemia you have. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
1526
Concept ID:
C0002871
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Diamond-Blackfan anemia 4

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) in its classic form is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50% of affected individuals, and growth retardation in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia, no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
393906
Concept ID:
C2675860
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Diamond-Blackfan anemia 8

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) in its classic form is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50% of affected individuals, and growth retardation in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia, no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
390817
Concept ID:
C2675511
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Diamond-Blackfan anemia 3

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) in its classic form is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50% of affected individuals, and growth retardation in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia, no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
387892
Concept ID:
C1857719
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Diamond-Blackfan anemia 5

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) in its classic form is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50% of affected individuals, and growth retardation in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia, no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
382705
Concept ID:
C2675859
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Diamond-Blackfan anemia

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) in its classic form is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50% of affected individuals, and growth retardation in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia, no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
266045
Concept ID:
C1260899
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
7.

Adenosine

a kind of nucleic acid [from CHV]

MedGen UID:
127
Concept ID:
C0001443
Biologically Active Substance; Neuroreactive Substance or Biogenic Amine; Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide; Pharmacologic Substance
8.

Macrocytosis

An increase in nuclear size and amount of cytoplasm of a cell. The cells or nucleus may be slightly irregular and/or may be polyploid. [from NCI_CDISC]

MedGen UID:
745490
Concept ID:
C2004480
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
9.

Forster-Fuchs spot

MedGen UID:
573225
Concept ID:
C0339552
Finding
10.

Thyroid hormone plasma membrane transport defect

MedGen UID:
396060
Concept ID:
C1861101
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Diamond-Blackfan anemia 1

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is an inherited red blood cell aplasia that usually presents in the first year of life. The main features are normochromic macrocytic anemia, reticulocytopenia, and nearly absent erythroid progenitors in the bone marrow. Patients show growth retardation, and approximately 30 to 50% have craniofacial, upper limb, heart, and urinary system congenital malformations. The majority of patients have increased mean corpuscular volume, elevated erythrocyte adenosine deaminase activity, and persistence of hemoglobin F. However, some DBA patients do not exhibit these findings, and even in the same family, symptoms can vary between affected family members (summary by Landowski et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Diamond-Blackfan Anemia A locus for DBA (DBA2; 606129) has been mapped to chromosome 8p23-p22. Other forms of DBA include DBA3 (610629), caused by mutation in the RPS24 gene (602412) on 10q22; DBA4 (612527), caused by mutation in the RPS17 gene (180472) on 15q; DBA5 (612528), caused by mutation in the RPL35A gene (180468) on 3q29; DBA6 (612561), caused by mutation in the RPL5 gene (603634) on 1p22.1; DBA7 (612562), caused by mutation in the RPL11 gene (604175) on 1p36; DBA8 (612563), caused by mutation in the RPS7 gene (603658) on 2p25; DBA9 (613308), caused by mutation in the RPS10 gene (603632) on 6p; DBA10 (613309), caused by mutation in the RPS26 (603701) gene on 12q; DBA11 (614900), caused by mutation in the RPL26 gene (603704) on 17p13; DBA12 (615550), caused by mutation in the RPL15 gene (604174) on 3p24; DBA13 (615909), caused by mutation in the RPS29 gene (603633) on 14q; DBA14 (300946), caused by mutation in the TSR2 gene (300945) on Xp11; DBA15 (606164), caused by mutation in the RPS28 gene (603685) on 19p13; DBA16 (617408), caused by mutation in the RPL27 gene (607526) on chromosome 17q21; and DBA17 (617409), caused by mutation in the RPS27 gene (603702) on chromosome 1q21. Boria et al. (2010) reviewed the molecular basis of Diamond-Blackfan anemia, emphasizing that it is a disorder of defective ribosome synthesis. Gazda et al. (2012) completed a large-scale screen of 79 ribosomal protein genes in families with Diamond-Blackfan anemia and stated that of the 10 known DBA-associated genes, RPS19 accounts for approximately 25% of patients; RPS24, 2%; RPS17, 1%; RPL35A, 3.5%; RPL5, 6.6%; RPL11, 4.8%; RPS7, 1%; RPS10, 6.4%; RPS26, 2.6%; and RPL26, 1%. Gazda et al. (2012) stated that in total these mutations account for approximately 54% of all DBA patients. In a study of 98 Japanese patients with DBA, Wang et al. (2015) detected probable causative mutations or large deletions in ribosomal protein genes in 56 (55%) of the patients, involving the RPS19 gene in 16 patients, RPL5 in 12, RPS17 in 7, RPL35A in 7, RPL11 in 5, and RPS26 in 4; RPS7, RPS10, RPL27, and RPS27 were each mutated in 1 patient. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
390966
Concept ID:
C2676137
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
12.

DNA Repair-Deficiency Disorders

Disorders resulting from defective DNA REPAIR processes or the associated cellular responses to DNA DAMAGE. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
327583
Concept ID:
C1563696
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Congenital hypoplastic anemia

An inborn condition characterized by deficiencies of red cell precursors that sometimes also includes LEUKOPENIA and THROMBOCYTOPENIA. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
182696
Concept ID:
C0949116
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Metabolic disease

Metabolism is the process your body uses to get or make energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system break the food parts down into sugars and acids, your body's fuel. Your body can use this fuel right away, or it can store the energy in your body tissues, such as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body disrupt this process. When this happens, you might have too much of some substances or too little of other ones that you need to stay healthy. . You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or pancreas, become diseased or do not function normally. Diabetes is an example. .  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
44376
Concept ID:
C0025517
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Fanconi anemia

Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
41967
Concept ID:
C0015625
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Aplastic anemia

Aplastic anemia is a serious disorder of the bone marrow that affects between 2 and 5 persons per million per year. About 75% of these cases are classified as idiopathic (Young, 2000). In about 15% of cases a drug or infection can be identified that precipitates the aplasia, although why only some individuals are susceptible is unclear. In about 5 to 10% of patients, the aplastic anemia is constitutional--i.e., is familial or presents with one or more associated somatic abnormalities (summary by Vulliamy et al., 2002). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
8063
Concept ID:
C0002874
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Hemic and Lymphatic Diseases

Hematologic diseases and diseases of the lymphatic system collectively. Hemic diseases include disorders involving the formed elements (e.g., ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION, INTRAVASCULAR) and chemical components (e.g., BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS); lymphatic diseases include disorders relating to lymph, lymph nodes, and lymphocytes. [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
6780
Concept ID:
C0018981
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Hematologic disease

Your blood is living tissue made up of liquid and solids. The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood and prevent your blood from doing its job. They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side effects of medicines, and a lack of certain nutrients in your diet. Types of blood disorders include. -Platelet disorders, excessive clotting, and bleeding problems, which affect how your blood clots. -Anemia, which happens when your blood does not carry enough oxygen to the rest of your body. -Cancers of the blood, such as leukemia and myeloma. -Eosinophilic disorders, which are problems with one type of white blood cell.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
5483
Concept ID:
C0018939
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Bone marrow disorder

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The stem cells can develop into the red blood cells that carry oxygen through your body, the white blood cells that fight infections, and the platelets that help with blood clotting. . If you have a bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or how they develop. Leukemia is a cancer in which the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. With aplastic anemia, the bone marrow doesn't make red blood cells. Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone marrow and affect the production of blood cells. Other causes of bone marrow disorders include your genetic makeup and environmental factors. Symptoms of bone marrow diseases vary. Treatments depend on the disorder and how severe it is. They might involve medicines, blood transfusions or a bone marrow transplant. .  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
2311
Concept ID:
C0005956
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Diamond-Blackfan anemia 7

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) in its classic form is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50% of affected individuals, and growth retardation in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia, no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
436451
Concept ID:
C2675512
Disease or Syndrome
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