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1.

West syndrome

X-linked infantile spasm syndrome is a seizure disorder characterized by a type of seizure known as infantile spasms. The spasms usually appear before the age of 1. Several types of spasms have been described, but the most commonly reported involves bending at the waist and neck with extension of the arms and legs (sometimes called a jackknife spasm). Each spasm lasts only seconds, but they occur in clusters several minutes long. Although individuals are not usually affected while they are sleeping, the spasms commonly occur just after awakening. Infantile spasms usually disappear by age 5, but many children then develop other types of seizures that recur throughout their lives.Most babies with X-linked infantile spasm syndrome have characteristic results on an electroencephalogram (EEG), a test used to measure the electrical activity of the brain. The EEG of these individuals typically shows an irregular pattern known as hypsarrhythmia, and this finding can help differentiate infantile spasms from other types of seizures.Because of the recurrent seizures, babies with X-linked infantile spasm syndrome stop developing normally and begin to lose skills they have acquired (developmental regression), such as sitting, rolling over, and babbling. Subsequently, development in affected children is delayed. Most affected individuals also have intellectual disability throughout their lives.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
11519
Concept ID:
C0037769
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
2.

Infantile spasms

Infantile spasms represent a subset of \ [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
854616
Concept ID:
C3887898
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Has "spasms"

MedGen UID:
605397
Concept ID:
C0427091
Finding
4.

Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 1

Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy is a severe form of epilepsy first reported by Ohtahara et al. (1976). It is characterized by frequent tonic seizures or spasms beginning in infancy with a specific EEG finding of suppression-burst patterns, characterized by high-voltage bursts alternating with almost flat suppression phases. Approximately 75% of EIEE patients progress to 'West syndrome,' which is characterized by tonic spasms with clustering, arrest of psychomotor development, and hypsarrhythmia on EEG (Kato et al., 2007). Deprez et al. (2009) reviewed the genetics of epilepsy syndromes starting in the first year of life and included a diagnostic algorithm. EIEE1 is part of a phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by mutation in the ARX gene comprising a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders ranging from lissencephaly (LISX2; 300215) to Proud syndrome (300004) to infantile spasms without brain malformations (EIEE1) to syndromic (309510) and nonsyndromic (300419) mental retardation. Although males with ARX mutations are often more severely affected, female mutation carriers may also be affected (Kato et al., 2004; Wallerstein et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy EIEE is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. See EIEE2 (300672), caused by mutation in the CDKL5 gene (300203); EIEE3 (609304), caused by mutation in the SLC25A22 gene (609302); EIEE4 (612164), caused by mutation in the STXBP1 gene (602926); EIEE5 (613477), caused by mutation in the SPTAN1 gene (182810); EIEE6 (607208), also known as Dravet syndrome, caused by mutation in the SCN1A gene (182389); EIEE7 (613720), caused by mutation in the KCNQ2 gene (602235); EIEE8 (300607), caused by mutation in the ARHGEF9 gene (300429); EIEE9 (300088), caused by mutation in the PCDH19 gene (300460); EIEE10 (613402), caused by mutation in the PNKP gene (605610); EIEE11 (613721), caused by mutation in the SCN2A gene (182390); EIEE12 (613722), caused by mutation in the PLCB1 gene (607120); EIEE13 (614558), caused by mutation in the SCN8A gene (600702); EIEE14 (614959), caused by mutation in the KCNT1 gene (608167); EIEE15 (615006), caused by mutation in the ST3GAL3 gene (606494); EIEE16 (615338), caused by mutation in the TBC1D24 gene (613577); EIEE17 (615473), caused by mutation in the GNAO1 gene (139311); EIEE18 (615476), caused by mutation in the SZT2 gene (615463); EIEE19 (615744), caused by mutation in the GABRA1 gene (137160); EIEE20 (300868), caused by mutation in the PIGA gene (311770); EIEE21 (615833), caused by mutation in the NECAP1 gene (611623); EIEE22 (300896), caused by mutation in the SLC35A2 gene (314375); EIEE23 (615859), caused by mutation in the DOCK7 gene (615730); EIEE24 (615871), caused by mutation in the HCN1 gene (602780); EIEE25 (615905), caused by mutation in the SLC13A5 gene (608305); EIEE26 (616056), caused by mutation in the KCNB1 gene (600397); EIEE27 (616139), caused by mutation in the GRIN2B gene (138252); EIEE28 (616211), caused by mutation in the WWOX gene (605131); EIEE29 (616339), caused by mutation in the AARS gene (601065); EIEE30 (616341), caused by mutation in the SIK1 gene (605705); EIEE31 (616346), caused by mutation in the DNM1 gene (602377); EIEE32 (616366), caused by mutation in the KCNA2 gene (176262); EIEE33 (616409), caused by mutation in the EEF1A2 gene (602959); EIEE34 (616645), caused by mutation in the SLC12A5 gene (606726); EIEE35 (616647), caused by mutation in the ITPA gene (147520); EIEE36 (300884), caused by mutation in the ALG13 gene (300776); EIEE37 (616981), caused by mutation in the FRRS1L gene (604574); EIEE38 (617020), caused by mutation in the ARV1 gene (611647); EIEE39 (612949), caused by mutation in the SLC25A12 gene (603667); EIEE40 (617065), caused by mutation in the GUF1 gene (617064); EIEE41 (617105), caused by mutation in the SLC1A2 gene (600300); EIEE42 (617106), caused by mutation in the CACNA1A gene (601011); EIEE43 (617113), caused by mutation in the GABRB3 gene (137192); EIEE44 (617132), caused by mutation in the UBA5 gene (610552); EIEE45 (617153), caused by mutation in the GABRB1 gene (137190); EIEE46 (617162), caused by mutation in the GRIN2D gene (602717); EIEE47 (617166), caused by mutation in the FGF12 gene (601513); EIEE48 (617276), caused by mutation in the AP3B2 gene (602166); EIEE49 (617281), caused by mutation in the DENND5A gene (617278); EIEE50 (616457) caused by mutation in the CAD gene (114010); EIEE51 (617339), caused by mutation in the MDH2 gene (154100); EIEE52 (617350), caused by mutation in the SCN1B gene (600235); EIEE53 (617389), caused by mutation in the SYNJ1 gene (604297); and EIEE54 (617391), caused by mutation in the HNRNPU gene (602869). The phenotype is also observed in other genetic disorders, including GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (606777); glycine encephalopathy (605899); Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (225750); and in males with MECP2 mutations (300673), among others. For associations pending confirmation, see MOLECULAR GENETICS. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
483052
Concept ID:
C3463992
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Epileptic spasms

A sudden flexion, extension or mixed extension-flexion of predominantly proximal and truncal muscles which is usually more sustained than a myoclonic movement but not as sustained as a tonic seizure. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
315948
Concept ID:
C1527366
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Confirmation

Having been established or verified. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
148194
Concept ID:
C0750484
Finding; Idea or Concept
7.

X-linked inheritance

A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on the X chromosome. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
66838
Concept ID:
C0241764
Genetic Function
8.

Adrenal hypoplasia

Developmental hypoplasia of the adrenal glands. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
337539
Concept ID:
C1846223
Finding
9.

Hypsarrhythmia

Hypsarrhythmia is abnormal interictal high amplitude waves and a background of irregular spikes. There is continuous (during wakefulness), high-amplitude (>200 Hz), generalized polymorphic slowing with no organized background and multifocal spikes demonstrated by electroencephalography (EEG). [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
195766
Concept ID:
C0684276
Finding
10.

Syndrome

A set of symptoms or conditions that occur together and suggest the presence of a certain disease or an increased chance of developing the disease. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
11688
Concept ID:
C0039082
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Seizure Disorders

Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures. The seizures happen when clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain send out the wrong signals. People may have strange sensations and emotions or behave strangely. They may have violent muscle spasms or lose consciousness. Epilepsy has many possible causes, including illness, brain injury, and abnormal brain development. In many cases, the cause is unknown. Doctors use brain scans and other tests to diagnose epilepsy. It is important to start treatment right away. There is no cure for epilepsy, but medicines can control seizures for most people. When medicines are not working well, surgery or implanted devices such as vagus nerve stimulators may help. Special diets can help some children with epilepsy. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.  [from MedlinePlus]

MedGen UID:
4506
Concept ID:
C0014544
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Intellectual disability

Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabiled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28) [from MeSH]

MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
13.

Borries syndrome

MedGen UID:
542920
Concept ID:
C0270677
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Hypoplasia

Incomplete or arrested development of an organ or a part [from CHV]

MedGen UID:
537146
Concept ID:
C0243069
Pathologic Function
15.

Non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability

MedGen UID:
502019
Concept ID:
C3501611
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Autoimmune interstitial lung, joint, and kidney disease

Autoimmune interstitial lung, joint, and kidney disease is an autosomal dominant systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by interstitial lung disease, inflammatory arthritis, and immune complex-mediated renal disease. Laboratory studies show high-titer autoantibodies. Symptoms appear in the first 2 decades of life, but there is incomplete penetrance (summary by Watkin et al., 2015). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
452265
Concept ID:
C0231330
Temporal Concept
17.

X-linked recessive inheritance

A mode of inheritance that is observed for recessive traits related to a gene encoded on the X chromosome. In the context of medical genetics, X-linked recessive disorders manifest in males (who have one copy of the X chromosome and are thus hemizygotes), but generally not in female heterozygotes who have one mutant and one normal allele. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
375779
Concept ID:
C1845977
Finding
18.

Addison disease

Autoimmune Addison disease affects the function of the adrenal glands, which are small hormone-producing glands located on top of each kidney. It is classified as an autoimmune disorder because it results from a malfunctioning immune system that attacks the adrenal glands. As a result, the production of several hormones is disrupted, which affects many body systems.The signs and symptoms of autoimmune Addison disease can begin at any time, although they most commonly begin between ages 30 and 50. Common features of this condition include extreme tiredness (fatigue), nausea, decreased appetite, and weight loss. In addition, many affected individuals have low blood pressure (hypotension), which can lead to dizziness when standing up quickly; muscle cramps; and a craving for salty foods. A characteristic feature of autoimmune Addison disease is abnormally dark areas of skin (hyperpigmentation), especially in regions that experience a lot of friction, such as the armpits, elbows, knuckles, and palm creases. The lips and the inside lining of the mouth can also be unusually dark. Because of an imbalance of hormones involved in development of sexual characteristics, women with this condition may lose their underarm and pubic hair.Other signs and symptoms of autoimmune Addison disease include low levels of sugar (hypoglycemia) and sodium (hyponatremia) and high levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) in the blood. Affected individuals may also have a shortage of red blood cells (anemia) and an increase in the number of white blood cells (lymphocytosis), particularly those known as eosinophils (eosinophilia).Autoimmune Addison disease can lead to a life-threatening adrenal crisis, characterized by vomiting, abdominal pain, back or leg cramps, and severe hypotension leading to shock. The adrenal crisis is often triggered by a stressor, such as surgery, trauma, or infection.Individuals with autoimmune Addison disease or their family members can have another autoimmune disorder, most commonly autoimmune thyroid disease or type 1 diabetes.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
357032
Concept ID:
C1868690
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Intellectual disability

Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, has been defined as an IQ score below 70. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
334384
Concept ID:
C1843367
Finding
20.

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood

MedGen UID:
90925
Concept ID:
C0338488
Disease or Syndrome
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