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Items: 3

1.

Susceptibility to malaria

Malaria, a major cause of child mortality worldwide, is caused by mosquito-borne hematoprotozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Of the 4 species that infect humans, P. falciparum causes the most severe forms of malaria and is the major cause of death and disease. Although less fatal, P. malariae, P. ovale, and, in particular, P. vivax infections are major causes of morbidity. The parasite cycle involves a first stage in liver cells and a subsequent stage at erythrocytes, when malaria symptoms occur. A wide spectrum of phenotypes are observed, from asymptomatic infection to mild disease, including fever and mild anemia, to severe disease, including cerebral malaria, profound anemia, and respiratory distress. Genetic factors influence the response to infection, as well as disease progression and severity. Malaria is the strongest known selective pressure in the recent history of the human genome, and it is the evolutionary driving force behind sickle-cell disease (603903), thalassemia (see 141800), glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (300908), and other erythrocyte defects that together constitute the most common mendelian diseases of humans (Kwiatkowski, 2005; Campino et al., 2006). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
370149
Concept ID:
C1970028
Finding
2.

Asthma, susceptibility to

Bronchial asthma is the most common chronic disease affecting children and young adults. It is a complex genetic disorder with a heterogeneous phenotype, largely attributed to the interactions among many genes and between these genes and the environment. Asthma-related traits include clinical symptoms of asthma, such as coughing, wheezing, and dyspnea; bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) as assessed by methacholine challenge test; serum IgE levels; atopy; and atopic dermatitis (Laitinen et al., 2001; Illig and Wjst, 2002; Pillai et al., 2006). See 147050 for information on the asthma-associated phenotype atopy. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
358271
Concept ID:
C1869116
Finding
3.

Migraine

Migraine is the most common type of chronic, episodic headache, as summarized by Featherstone (1985). One locus for migraine with or without aura (MGR1) has been identified on chromosome 4q24. Other loci for migraine have been identified on 6p21.1-p12.2 (MGR3; 607498), 14q21.2-q22.3 (MGR4; 607501), 19p13 (MGR5; 607508), 1q31 (MGR6; 607516), 15q11-q13 (MGR7; 609179), 5q21 (with or without aura, MGR8, 609570; with aura, MGR9, 609670), 17p13 (MGR10; 610208), 18q12 (MGR11; 610209), 10q22-q23 (MGR12; 611706), and the X chromosome (MGR2; 300125). Mutation in the KCNK18 gene (613655) on chromosome 10q25 causes migraine with aura (MGR13; 613656). A subtype of autosomal dominant migraine with aura (MA), familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM; see 141500), is caused by mutation in the CACNA1A gene (601011) on chromosome 19p13 (FHM1; 141500), by mutation in the ATP1A2 gene (182340) on chromosome 1q21 (FHM2; 602481), or by mutation in the SCN1A gene (182389) on chromosome 2q24 (FHM3; 609634). Another locus for FHM has been mapped to chromosome 1q31 (FHM4; see 607516). There is evidence that a polymorphism in the estrogen receptor gene (ESR1; 133430.0005) and a polymorphism in the TNF gene (191160.0004) may confer susceptibility to migraine. A polymorphism in the endothelin receptor type A gene (EDNRA; 131243.0001) may confer resistance to migraine. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
57451
Concept ID:
C0149931
Disease or Syndrome
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