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Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, type 2w(CMT2W)

MedGen UID:
898344
Concept ID:
C4225265
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE, AXONAL, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT, TYPE 2W; CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH NEUROPATHY, TYPE 2W; CMT2W
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
 
Gene (location): HARS1 (5q31.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014711
OMIM®: 616625
Orphanet: ORPHA488333

Definition

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2W is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by a peripheral neuropathy mainly affecting the lower limbs and resulting in gait difficulties and distal sensory impairment, although most patients also have upper limb involvement. The age at onset is highly variable, ranging from childhood to late adulthood (summary by Safka Brozkova et al., 2015). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT, see CMT2A1 (118210). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Absent Achilles reflex
MedGen UID:
108240
Concept ID:
C0558845
Finding
Absence of the Achilles reflex (also known as the ankle jerk reflex), which can normally be elicited by tapping the tendon is tapped while the foot is dorsiflexed.
Pes cavus
MedGen UID:
675590
Concept ID:
C0728829
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of an unusually high plantar arch. Also called high instep, pes cavus refers to a distinctly hollow form of the sole of the foot when it is bearing weight.
Hammertoe
MedGen UID:
209712
Concept ID:
C1136179
Anatomical Abnormality
Hyperextension of the metatarsal-phalangeal joint with hyperflexion of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint.
Peripheral neuropathy
MedGen UID:
18386
Concept ID:
C0031117
Disease or Syndrome
A disorder affecting the peripheral nervous system. It manifests with pain, tingling, numbness, and muscle weakness. It may be the result of physical injury, toxic substances, viral diseases, diabetes, renal failure, cancer, and drugs.
Hyperactive patellar reflex
MedGen UID:
66003
Concept ID:
C0240116
Finding
Steppage gait
MedGen UID:
98105
Concept ID:
C0427149
Finding
An abnormal gait pattern that arises from weakness of the pretibial and peroneal muscles due to a lower motor neuron lesion. Affected patients have footdrop and are unable to dorsiflex and evert the foot. The leg is lifted high on walking so that the toes clear the ground, and there may be a slapping noise when the foot strikes the ground again.
Absent Achilles reflex
MedGen UID:
108240
Concept ID:
C0558845
Finding
Absence of the Achilles reflex (also known as the ankle jerk reflex), which can normally be elicited by tapping the tendon is tapped while the foot is dorsiflexed.
Gait disturbance
MedGen UID:
107895
Concept ID:
C0575081
Finding
The term gait disturbance can refer to any disruption of the ability to walk. In general, this can refer to neurological diseases but also fractures or other sources of pain that is triggered upon walking. However, in the current context gait disturbance refers to difficulty walking on the basis of a neurological or muscular disease.
Distal sensory impairment
MedGen UID:
335722
Concept ID:
C1847584
Finding
An abnormal reduction in sensation in the distal portions of the extremities.
Distal muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
140883
Concept ID:
C0427065
Finding
Reduced strength of the musculature of the distal extremities.
Hammertoe
MedGen UID:
209712
Concept ID:
C1136179
Anatomical Abnormality
Hyperextension of the metatarsal-phalangeal joint with hyperflexion of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint.
Distal amyotrophy
MedGen UID:
338530
Concept ID:
C1848736
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular atrophy affecting muscles in the distal portions of the extremities.

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