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Senior-Loken syndrome 7(SLSN7)

MedGen UID:
462227
Concept ID:
C3150877
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: SLSN7
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in homozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, autosomal recessive disorders manifest in homozygotes (with two copies of the mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Autosomal recessive inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
 
Gene (location): SDCCAG8 (1q43-44)
OMIM®: 613615

Definition

Senior-Løken syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the combination of two specific features: a kidney condition called nephronophthisis and an eye condition known as Leber congenital amaurosis.Nephronophthisis causes fluid-filled cysts to develop in the kidneys beginning in childhood. These cysts impair kidney function, initially causing increased urine production (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), general weakness, and extreme tiredness (fatigue). Nephronophthisis leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) later in childhood or in adolescence. ESRD is a life-threatening failure of kidney function that occurs when the kidneys are no longer able to filter fluids and waste products from the body effectively.Leber congenital amaurosis primarily affects the retina, which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. This condition causes vision problems, including an increased sensitivity to light (photophobia), involuntary movements of the eyes (nystagmus), and extreme farsightedness (hyperopia). Some people with Senior-Løken syndrome develop the signs of Leber congenital amaurosis within the first few years of life, while others do not develop vision problems until later in childhood.
[from GHR]

Clinical features

Retinal degeneration
MedGen UID:
48432
Concept ID:
C0035304
Finding
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
Nephronophthisis
MedGen UID:
146912
Concept ID:
C0687120
Disease or Syndrome
The nephronophthisis (NPH) phenotype is characterized by reduced renal concentrating ability, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystic renal disease, and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before age 30 years. Three age-based clinical subtypes are recongnized: infantile, juvenile, and adolescent/adult. Infantile NPH can present in utero with oligohydramnios sequence (limb contractures, pulmonary hypoplasia and facial dysmorphisms) or postnatally with renal manifestations that progress to ESRD before age 3 years. Juvenile NPH, the most prevalent subtype, typically presents with polydipsia and polyuria, growth retardation, chronic iron-resistant anemia, or other findings related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is typically absent due to salt wasting. ESRD develops at a median age of 13 years. Ultrasound findings are increased echogenicity, reduced corticomedullary differentiation, and renal cysts (in 50% of affected individuals). Histologic findings include tubulointerstitial fibrosis, thickened and disrupted tubular basement membrane, sporadic corticomedullary cysts, and normal or reduced kidney size. Adolescent/ adult NPH is clinically similar to juvenile NPH, but ESRD develops at a median age of 19 years. Within a subtype inter- and intrafamilial variability in rate of progression to ESRD is considerable. Approximately 80%-90% of individuals with the NPH phenotype have no extrarenal features (i.e., they have isolated NPH); ~10%-20% have extrarenal manifestations that constitute a recognizable syndrome (e.g., Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Jeune syndrome and related skeletal disorders, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Senior-Løken syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis, COACH syndrome, and oculomotor apraxia, Cogan type).

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Moalem S, Keating S, Shannon P, Thompson M, Millar K, Nykamp K, Forster A, Noor A, Chitayat D
Am J Med Genet A 2013 Jul;161A(7):1792-6. Epub 2013 May 24 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36036. PMID: 23713026

Diagnosis

Abidi K, Jallouli M, Naija O, Zarrouk C, Gargah T
Arab J Nephrol Transplant 2014 Jan;7(1):41-3. PMID: 24702534
Stone EM, Cideciyan AV, Aleman TS, Scheetz TE, Sumaroka A, Ehlinger MA, Schwartz SB, Fishman GA, Traboulsi EI, Lam BL, Fulton AB, Mullins RF, Sheffield VC, Jacobson SG
Arch Ophthalmol 2011 Jan;129(1):81-7. doi: 10.1001/archophthalmol.2010.330. PMID: 21220633Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Stone EM, Cideciyan AV, Aleman TS, Scheetz TE, Sumaroka A, Ehlinger MA, Schwartz SB, Fishman GA, Traboulsi EI, Lam BL, Fulton AB, Mullins RF, Sheffield VC, Jacobson SG
Arch Ophthalmol 2011 Jan;129(1):81-7. doi: 10.1001/archophthalmol.2010.330. PMID: 21220633Free PMC Article
Salomon R, Saunier S, Niaudet P
Pediatr Nephrol 2009 Dec;24(12):2333-44. Epub 2008 Jul 8 doi: 10.1007/s00467-008-0840-z. PMID: 18607645Free PMC Article

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