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Tetraamelia, autosomal recessive(TETAMS)

MedGen UID:
411798
Concept ID:
C2749279
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: TETAMS; Tetra-amelia; Tetra-Amelia Syndrome; TETRAAMELIA SYNDROME, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE
Modes of inheritance:
Heterogeneous
MedGen UID:
67020
Concept ID:
C0242960
Organism Attribute
Source: HPO
The production of the same or similar phenotypes (observed biochemical, physiological, and morphological characteristics of a person determined by his/her genotype) by different genetic mechanisms. There are two types: (1) allelic heterogeneity - when different alleles at a locus can produce variable expression of a condition; and (2) locus heterogeneity - the term used to describe disease in which mutations at different loci can produce the same disease phenotype.
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in homozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, autosomal recessive disorders manifest in homozygotes (with two copies of the mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Autosomal recessive inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
 
Gene (location): WNT3 (17q21.31-21.32)
OMIM®: 273395

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Tetra-Amelia Syndrome
Tetra-amelia syndrome is characterized by the (complete) absence of all four limbs and anomalies involving the cranium and the face (cleft lip/cleft palate, micrognathia, microtia, single naris, choanal atresia, absence of nose); eyes (microphthalmia, microcornea, cataract, coloboma, palpebral fusion); urogenital system (renal agenesis, persistence of cloaca, absence of external genitalia, atresia of vagina); anus (atresia); heart; lungs (hypoplasia/aplasia), skeleton (hypoplasia/absence of pelvic bones, absence of ribs, absence of vertebrae), and central nervous system (agenesis of olfactory nerves, agenesis of optic nerves, agenesis of corpus callosum, hydrocephalus). Affected infants are often stillborn or die shortly after birth. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Stephan Niemann   view full author information

Additional description

From GHR
Tetra-amelia syndrome is a very rare disorder characterized by the absence of all four limbs. ("Tetra" is the Greek word for "four," and "amelia" refers to the failure of an arm or leg to develop before birth.) This syndrome can also cause severe malformations of other parts of the body, including the face and head, heart, nervous system, skeleton, and genitalia. The lungs are underdeveloped in many cases, which makes breathing difficult or impossible. Because children with tetra-amelia syndrome have such serious medical problems, most are stillborn or die shortly after birth.  https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/tetra-amelia-syndrome

Clinical features

Adrenal gland agenesis
MedGen UID:
472999
Concept ID:
C0266273
Congenital Abnormality
Absent development of the adrenal gland.
Microphthalmos
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.People with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.People with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.Between one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Acquired Abnormality
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in your eye. It affects your vision. Cataracts are very common in older people. By age 80, more than half of all Americans either have a cataract or have had cataract surgery. A cataract can occur in either or both eyes. It cannot spread from one eye to the other. Common symptoms are. -Blurry vision. -Colors that seem faded. -Glare - headlights, lamps or sunlight may seem too bright. You may also see a halo around lights. -Not being able to see well at night. -Double vision . -Frequent prescription changes in your eye wear . Cataracts usually develop slowly. New glasses, brighter lighting, anti-glare sunglasses or magnifying lenses can help at first. Surgery is also an option. It involves removing the cloudy lens and replacing it with an artificial lens. Wearing sunglasses and a hat with a brim to block ultraviolet sunlight may help to delay cataracts. NIH: National Eye Institute.
Tetraamelia
MedGen UID:
444004
Concept ID:
C2931216
Finding
A genetic syndrome characterized by the absence of all four limbs.
Single umbilical artery
MedGen UID:
278026
Concept ID:
C1384670
Congenital Abnormality
Single umbilical artery (SUA) is the absence of one of the two umbilical arteries surrounding the fetal bladder and in the fetal umbilical cord.
Peripheral pulmonary vessel aplasia
MedGen UID:
376462
Concept ID:
C1848877
Finding
Imperforate anus
MedGen UID:
1997
Concept ID:
C0003466
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality characterized by the persistence of the anal membrane, resulting in a thin membrane covering the normal ANAL CANAL. Imperforation is not always complete and is treated by surgery in infancy. This defect is often associated with NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS; MENTAL RETARDATION; and DOWN SYNDROME.
Gastroschisis
MedGen UID:
82721
Concept ID:
C0265706
Congenital Abnormality
Gastroschisis is a congenital defect of the abdominal wall that occurs laterally to, and often to the right of, a normally closed umbilical ring. Visceral organs that herniate through the defect are not covered by a membrane. Gastroschisis is distinct from omphalocele (164750), which is characterized by herniation of abdominal contents through the base of the umbilical cord; in omphalocele, the visceral organs are covered by membranes (summary by Mastroiacovo et al., 2007). Both omphalocele and gastroschisis, when they occur without other malformations, are probably multifactorial (Baird and MacDonald, 1981).
Asplenia
MedGen UID:
108652
Concept ID:
C0600031
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital or functional absence of spleen
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
9335
Concept ID:
C0020255
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hydrocephalus is characterized by onset in utero of enlarged ventricles due to a disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid accumulation. Affected individuals may have neurologic impairment (summary by Drielsma et al., 2012). Hydrocephalus can also be caused by Arnold-Chiari malformation, atresia of foramen of Magendie, stenosis of aqueduct of Sylvius (307000), toxoplasmosis, hydranencephaly, etc. Furthermore, it develops in infancy or childhood in achondroplasia (100800) and in Hurler disease (607014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Hydrocephalus See also autosomal recessive HYC2 (615219), caused by mutation in the MPDZ gene (603785) on chromosome 9p. An X-linked form (307000) is caused by mutation in the L1CAM gene on (308840) on chromosome Xq28.
Pulmonary hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
78574
Concept ID:
C0265783
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality in which the lung parenchyma is not fully developed. It may be associated with other congenital abnormalities.
Peripheral pulmonary vessel aplasia
MedGen UID:
376462
Concept ID:
C1848877
Finding
Renal agenesis
MedGen UID:
154237
Concept ID:
C0542519
Congenital Abnormality
Agenesis, that is, failure of the kidney to develop during embryogenesis and development.
Vaginal atresia
MedGen UID:
232948
Concept ID:
C1321884
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital occlusion of the vagina or adhesion of the walls of the vagina causing occlusion.
Urethral atresia
MedGen UID:
294337
Concept ID:
C1610065
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital anomaly characterized by closure or failure to develop an opening in the urethra.
Absent external genitalia
MedGen UID:
338563
Concept ID:
C1848869
Finding
Lack of external genitalia in a male or female individual.
Hypoplasia of the fallopian tube
MedGen UID:
409653
Concept ID:
C1968706
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the fallopian tube.
Abnormality of the diaphragm
MedGen UID:
338566
Concept ID:
C1848873
Finding
Any abnormality of the diaphragm, the sheet of skeletal muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
Asplenia
MedGen UID:
108652
Concept ID:
C0600031
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital or functional absence of spleen
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Tetraamelia
MedGen UID:
444004
Concept ID:
C2931216
Finding
A genetic syndrome characterized by the absence of all four limbs.
Hypoplastic pelvis
MedGen UID:
760700
Concept ID:
C3536734
Anatomical Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the bony pelvis.
Abnormality of the clavicle
MedGen UID:
867420
Concept ID:
C4021792
Anatomical Abnormality
Any abnormality of the clavicles (collar bones).
Choanal atresia
MedGen UID:
3395
Concept ID:
C0008297
Congenital Abnormality
Absence or abnormal closure of the choana (the posterior nasal aperture).
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Microphthalmos
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.People with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.People with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.Between one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Single naris
MedGen UID:
146897
Concept ID:
C0685682
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of only a single nostril.
Cleft secondary palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Cleft upper lip
MedGen UID:
892653
Concept ID:
C4020893
Anatomical Abnormality
A gap in the upper lip. This is a congenital defect resulting from nonfusion of tissues of the lip during embryonal development.
Single umbilical artery
MedGen UID:
278026
Concept ID:
C1384670
Congenital Abnormality
Single umbilical artery (SUA) is the absence of one of the two umbilical arteries surrounding the fetal bladder and in the fetal umbilical cord.

Recent clinical studies

Diagnosis

Vadi MG, Ghazal EA, Malkin MR, Ayodeji A, Applegate RL 2nd
A A Case Rep 2016 Sep 15;7(6):123-4. doi: 10.1213/XAA.0000000000000361. PMID: 27513971

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