Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Breast-ovarian cancer, familial 2(BROVCA2)

MedGen UID:
382625
Concept ID:
C2675520
Finding
Synonyms: BRCA2 Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer; Breast cancer, familial 2; BREAST CANCER, FAMILIAL, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, 2; BREAST-OVARIAN CANCER, FAMILIAL, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, 2; BROVCA2
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Multifactorial inheritance
MedGen UID:
109109
Concept ID:
C0600599
Genetic Function
Source: HPO
A mode of inheritance that depends on a mixture of major and minor genetic determinants possibly together with environmental factors. Diseases inherited in this manner are termed complex diseases.
 
Gene (location): BRCA2 (13q13.1)
 
OMIM®: 612555

Disease characteristics

BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) is characterized by an increased risk for female and male breast cancer, ovarian cancer (includes fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers), and to a lesser extent other cancers such as prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, and melanoma primarily in individuals with a BRCA2 pathogenic variant. The exact cancer risks differ slightly depending on whether HBOC is caused by a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Nancie Petrucelli  |  Mary B Daly  |  Tuya Pal   view full author information

Clinical features

From HPO
Breast carcinoma
MedGen UID:
146260
Concept ID:
C0678222
Neoplastic Process
A carcinoma arising from the breast, most commonly the terminal ductal-lobular unit. It is the most common malignant tumor in females. Risk factors include country of birth, family history, menstrual and reproductive history, fibrocystic disease and epithelial hyperplasia, exogenous estrogens, contraceptive agents, and ionizing radiation. The vast majority of breast carcinomas are adenocarcinomas (ductal or lobular). Breast carcinoma spreads by direct invasion, by the lymphatic route, and by the blood vessel route. The most common site of lymph node involvement is the axilla.
Neoplasm of ovary
MedGen UID:
181539
Concept ID:
C0919267
Neoplastic Process
Ovarian cancer, the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy, is characterized by advanced presentation with loco-regional dissemination in the peritoneal cavity and the rare incidence of visceral metastases (Chi et al., 2001). These typical features relate to the biology of the disease, which is a principal determinant of outcome (Auersperg et al., 2001). Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most common form and encompasses 5 major histologic subtypes: papillary serous, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell, and transitional cell. Epithelial ovarian cancer arises as a result of genetic alterations sustained by the ovarian surface epithelium (Stany et al., 2008; Soslow, 2008).
Neoplasm of ovary
MedGen UID:
181539
Concept ID:
C0919267
Neoplastic Process
Ovarian cancer, the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy, is characterized by advanced presentation with loco-regional dissemination in the peritoneal cavity and the rare incidence of visceral metastases (Chi et al., 2001). These typical features relate to the biology of the disease, which is a principal determinant of outcome (Auersperg et al., 2001). Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most common form and encompasses 5 major histologic subtypes: papillary serous, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell, and transitional cell. Epithelial ovarian cancer arises as a result of genetic alterations sustained by the ovarian surface epithelium (Stany et al., 2008; Soslow, 2008).
Breast carcinoma
MedGen UID:
146260
Concept ID:
C0678222
Neoplastic Process
A carcinoma arising from the breast, most commonly the terminal ductal-lobular unit. It is the most common malignant tumor in females. Risk factors include country of birth, family history, menstrual and reproductive history, fibrocystic disease and epithelial hyperplasia, exogenous estrogens, contraceptive agents, and ionizing radiation. The vast majority of breast carcinomas are adenocarcinomas (ductal or lobular). Breast carcinoma spreads by direct invasion, by the lymphatic route, and by the blood vessel route. The most common site of lymph node involvement is the axilla.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Hampel H, Bennett RL, Buchanan A, Pearlman R, Wiesner GL; Guideline Development Group, American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics Professional Practice and Guidelines Committee and National Society of Genetic Counselors Practice Guidelines Committee.
Genet Med 2015 Jan;17(1):70-87. Epub 2014 Nov 13 doi: 10.1038/gim.2014.147. PMID: 25394175
ACMG Board of Directors.
Genet Med 2015 Jan;17(1):68-9. Epub 2014 Nov 13 doi: 10.1038/gim.2014.151. PMID: 25356965
Lu KH, Wood ME, Daniels M, Burke C, Ford J, Kauff ND, Kohlmann W, Lindor NM, Mulvey TM, Robinson L, Rubinstein WS, Stoffel EM, Snyder C, Syngal S, Merrill JK, Wollins DS, Hughes KS; American Society of Clinical Oncology.
J Clin Oncol 2014 Mar 10;32(8):833-40. Epub 2014 Feb 3 doi: 10.1200/JCO.2013.50.9257. PMID: 24493721Free PMC Article
Ann Intern Med 2014 Feb 18;160(4):I-16. doi: 10.7326/P14-9008. PMID: 24366402
Moyer VA; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
Ann Intern Med 2014 Feb 18;160(4):271-81. doi: 10.7326/M13-2747. PMID: 24366376
Nelson HD, Fu R, Goddard K, Mitchell JP, Okinaka-Hu L, Pappas M, Zakher B
Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2013 Dec; PMID: 24432435Books & Documents
Green RC, Berg JS, Grody WW, Kalia SS, Korf BR, Martin CL, McGuire AL, Nussbaum RL, O'Daniel JM, Ormond KE, Rehm HL, Watson MS, Williams MS, Biesecker LG; American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.
Genet Med 2013 Jul;15(7):565-74. Epub 2013 Jun 20 doi: 10.1038/gim.2013.73. PMID: 23788249Free PMC Article
Berliner JL, Fay AM, Cummings SA, Burnett B, Tillmanns T
J Genet Couns 2013 Apr;22(2):155-63. Epub 2012 Nov 28 doi: 10.1007/s10897-012-9547-1. PMID: 23188549
Canto MI, Harinck F, Hruban RH, Offerhaus GJ, Poley JW, Kamel I, Nio Y, Schulick RS, Bassi C, Kluijt I, Levy MJ, Chak A, Fockens P, Goggins M, Bruno M; International Cancer of Pancreas Screening (CAPS) Consortium.
Gut 2013 Mar;62(3):339-47. Epub 2012 Nov 7 doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2012-303108. PMID: 23135763Free PMC Article
Robson ME, Storm CD, Weitzel J, Wollins DS, Offit K; American Society of Clinical Oncology.
J Clin Oncol 2010 Feb 10;28(5):893-901. Epub 2010 Jan 11 doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.27.0660. PMID: 20065170
Obstet Gynecol 2009 Apr;113(4):957-966. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181a106d4. PMID: 19305347
Berliner JL, Fay AM; Practice Issues Subcommittee of the National Society of Genetic Counselors' Familial Cancer Risk Counseling Special Interest Group.
J Genet Couns 2007 Jun;16(3):241-60. Epub 2007 May 17 doi: 10.1007/s10897-007-9090-7. PMID: 17508274
Saslow D, Boetes C, Burke W, Harms S, Leach MO, Lehman CD, Morris E, Pisano E, Schnall M, Sener S, Smith RA, Warner E, Yaffe M, Andrews KS, Russell CA; American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Advisory Group.
CA Cancer J Clin 2007 Mar-Apr;57(2):75-89. doi: 10.3322/canjclin.57.2.75. PMID: 17392385
Trepanier A, Ahrens M, McKinnon W, Peters J, Stopfer J, Grumet SC, Manley S, Culver JO, Acton R, Larsen-Haidle J, Correia LA, Bennett R, Pettersen B, Ferlita TD, Costalas JW, Hunt K, Donlon S, Skrzynia C, Farrell C, Callif-Daley F, Vockley CW; National Society of Genetic Counselors.
J Genet Couns 2004 Apr;13(2):83-114. doi: 10.1023/B:JOGC.0000018821.48330.77. PMID: 15604628

External

Recommendations for reporting of secondary findings in clinical exome and genome sequencing, 2016 update (ACMG SF v2.0): a policy statement of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.

National Comprehensive Cancer Network practice guidelines in oncology. Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian

ACMG SF v3.0, 2021

Suggested Reading

PubMed

Phillips KA, Milne RL, Rookus MA, Daly MB, Antoniou AC, Peock S, Frost D, Easton DF, Ellis S, Friedlander ML, Buys SS, Andrieu N, Noguès C, Stoppa-Lyonnet D, Bonadona V, Pujol P, McLachlan SA, John EM, Hooning MJ, Seynaeve C, Tollenaar RA, Goldgar DE, Terry MB, Caldes T, Weideman PC, Andrulis IL, Singer CF, Birch K, Simard J, Southey MC, Olsson HL, Jakubowska A, Olah E, Gerdes AM, Foretova L, Hopper JL
J Clin Oncol 2013 Sep 1;31(25):3091-9. Epub 2013 Aug 5 doi: 10.1200/JCO.2012.47.8313. PMID: 23918944Free PMC Article
Domchek SM, Friebel TM, Singer CF, Evans DG, Lynch HT, Isaacs C, Garber JE, Neuhausen SL, Matloff E, Eeles R, Pichert G, Van t'veer L, Tung N, Weitzel JN, Couch FJ, Rubinstein WS, Ganz PA, Daly MB, Olopade OI, Tomlinson G, Schildkraut J, Blum JL, Rebbeck TR
JAMA 2010 Sep 1;304(9):967-75. doi: 10.1001/jama.2010.1237. PMID: 20810374Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Samadder NJ, Giridhar KV, Baffy N, Riegert-Johnson D, Couch FJ
Mayo Clin Proc 2019 Jun;94(6):1084-1098. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2019.02.017. PMID: 31171119
Wang J, Li W, Shi Y, Huang Y, Sun T, Tang L, Lu Q, Lei Q, Liao N, Jin F, Li H, Huang T, Qian J, Pang D, Wang S, Fan P, Wu X, Lin Y, Qin H, Xu B
Cancer Med 2019 May;8(5):2074-2084. Epub 2019 Apr 13 doi: 10.1002/cam4.2093. PMID: 30982232Free PMC Article
Stuebs F, Heidemann S, Caliebe A, Mundhenke C, Arnold N
Arch Gynecol Obstet 2018 Jan;297(1):147-152. Epub 2017 Oct 9 doi: 10.1007/s00404-017-4551-1. PMID: 28993866
Rashid MU, Muhammad N, Amin A, Loya A, Hamann U
Breast Cancer Res Treat 2017 Jan;161(2):191-201. Epub 2016 Nov 8 doi: 10.1007/s10549-016-4044-0. PMID: 27826754
Cao WM, Gao Y, Yang HJ, Xie SN, Ding XW, Pan ZW, Ye WW, Wang XJ
BMC Cancer 2016 Feb 6;16:64. doi: 10.1186/s12885-016-2107-6. PMID: 26852015Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Daly MB
Can J Urol 2019 Oct;26(5 Suppl 2):29-30. PMID: 31629424
Samadder NJ, Giridhar KV, Baffy N, Riegert-Johnson D, Couch FJ
Mayo Clin Proc 2019 Jun;94(6):1084-1098. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2019.02.017. PMID: 31171119
Stuebs F, Heidemann S, Caliebe A, Mundhenke C, Arnold N
Arch Gynecol Obstet 2018 Jan;297(1):147-152. Epub 2017 Oct 9 doi: 10.1007/s00404-017-4551-1. PMID: 28993866
Rashid MU, Muhammad N, Amin A, Loya A, Hamann U
Breast Cancer Res Treat 2017 Jan;161(2):191-201. Epub 2016 Nov 8 doi: 10.1007/s10549-016-4044-0. PMID: 27826754
Kraus C, Hoyer J, Vasileiou G, Wunderle M, Lux MP, Fasching PA, Krumbiegel M, Uebe S, Reuter M, Beckmann MW, Reis A
Int J Cancer 2017 Jan 1;140(1):95-102. Epub 2016 Sep 23 doi: 10.1002/ijc.30428. PMID: 27616075

Therapy

Okano N, Morizane C, Nomura S, Takahashi H, Tsumura H, Satake H, Mizuno N, Tsuji K, Shioji K, Asagi A, Yasui K, Kitagawa S, Kashiwada T, Ishiguro A, Kanai M, Ueno M, Ogura T, Shimizu S, Tobimatsu K, Motoya M, Nakashima K, Ikeda M, Okusaka T, Furuse J
Int J Clin Oncol 2020 Oct;25(10):1835-1843. Epub 2020 Jun 13 doi: 10.1007/s10147-020-01721-x. PMID: 32535711
Zeinomar N, Knight JA, Genkinger JM, Phillips KA, Daly MB, Milne RL, Dite GS, Kehm RD, Liao Y, Southey MC, Chung WK, Giles GG, McLachlan SA, Friedlander ML, Weideman PC, Glendon G, Nesci S; kConFab Investigators., Andrulis IL, Buys SS, John EM, MacInnis RJ, Hopper JL, Terry MB
Breast Cancer Res 2019 Nov 28;21(1):128. doi: 10.1186/s13058-019-1213-1. PMID: 31779655Free PMC Article
Kwiatkowski F, Dessenne P, Laquet C, Daures JP, Gay-Bellile M, Bignon YJ
Trials 2016 Oct 21;17(1):509. doi: 10.1186/s13063-016-1642-4. PMID: 27769293Free PMC Article
Lawrenson K, Kar S, McCue K, Kuchenbaeker K, Michailidou K, Tyrer J, Beesley J, Ramus SJ, Li Q, Delgado MK, Lee JM, Aittomäki K, Andrulis IL, Anton-Culver H, Arndt V, Arun BK, Arver B, Bandera EV, Barile M, Barkardottir RB, Barrowdale D, Beckmann MW, Benitez J, Berchuck A, Bisogna M, Bjorge L, Blomqvist C, Blot W, Bogdanova N, Bojesen A, Bojesen SE, Bolla MK, Bonanni B, Børresen-Dale AL, Brauch H, Brennan P, Brenner H, Bruinsma F, Brunet J, Buhari SA, Burwinkel B, Butzow R, Buys SS, Cai Q, Caldes T, Campbell I, Canniotto R, Chang-Claude J, Chiquette J, Choi JY, Claes KB; GEMO Study Collaborators., Cook LS, Cox A, Cramer DW, Cross SS, Cybulski C, Czene K, Daly MB, Damiola F, Dansonka-Mieszkowska A, Darabi H, Dennis J, Devilee P, Diez O, Doherty JA, Domchek SM, Dorfling CM, Dörk T, Dumont M, Ehrencrona H, Ejlertsen B, Ellis S; EMBRACE., Engel C, Lee E, Evans DG, Fasching PA, Feliubadalo L, Figueroa J, Flesch-Janys D, Fletcher O, Flyger H, Foretova L, Fostira F, Foulkes WD, Fridley BL, Friedman E, Frost D, Gambino G, Ganz PA, Garber J, García-Closas M, Gentry-Maharaj A, Ghoussaini M, Giles GG, Glasspool R, Godwin AK, Goldberg MS, Goldgar DE, González-Neira A, Goode EL, Goodman MT, Greene MH, Gronwald J, Guénel P, Haiman CA, Hall P, Hallberg E, Hamann U, Hansen TV, Harrington PA, Hartman M, Hassan N, Healey S; Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Research Group Netherlands (HEBON)., Heitz F, Herzog J, Høgdall E, Høgdall CK, Hogervorst FB, Hollestelle A, Hopper JL, Hulick PJ, Huzarski T, Imyanitov EN; KConFab Investigators.; Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group., Isaacs C, Ito H, Jakubowska A, Janavicius R, Jensen A, John EM, Johnson N, Kabisch M, Kang D, Kapuscinski M, Karlan BY, Khan S, Kiemeney LA, Kjaer SK, Knight JA, Konstantopoulou I, Kosma VM, Kristensen V, Kupryjanczyk J, Kwong A, de la Hoya M, Laitman Y, Lambrechts D, Le N, De Leeneer K, Lester J, Levine DA, Li J, Lindblom A, Long J, Lophatananon A, Loud JT, Lu K, Lubinski J, Mannermaa A, Manoukian S, Le Marchand L, Margolin S, Marme F, Massuger LF, Matsuo K, Mazoyer S, McGuffog L, McLean C, McNeish I, Meindl A, Menon U, Mensenkamp AR, Milne RL, Montagna M, Moysich KB, Muir K, Mulligan AM, Nathanson KL, Ness RB, Neuhausen SL, Nevanlinna H, Nord S, Nussbaum RL, Odunsi K, Offit K, Olah E, Olopade OI, Olson JE, Olswold C, O'Malley D, Orlow I, Orr N, Osorio A, Park SK, Pearce CL, Pejovic T, Peterlongo P, Pfeiler G, Phelan CM, Poole EM, Pylkäs K, Radice P, Rantala J, Rashid MU, Rennert G, Rhenius V, Rhiem K, Risch HA, Rodriguez G, Rossing MA, Rudolph A, Salvesen HB, Sangrajrang S, Sawyer EJ, Schildkraut JM, Schmidt MK, Schmutzler RK, Sellers TA, Seynaeve C, Shah M, Shen CY, Shu XO, Sieh W, Singer CF, Sinilnikova OM, Slager S, Song H, Soucy P, Southey MC, Stenmark-Askmalm M, Stoppa-Lyonnet D, Sutter C, Swerdlow A, Tchatchou S, Teixeira MR, Teo SH, Terry KL, Terry MB, Thomassen M, Tibiletti MG, Tihomirova L, Tognazzo S, Toland AE, Tomlinson I, Torres D, Truong T, Tseng CC, Tung N, Tworoger SS, Vachon C, van den Ouweland AM, van Doorn HC, van Rensburg EJ, Van't Veer LJ, Vanderstichele A, Vergote I, Vijai J, Wang Q, Wang-Gohrke S, Weitzel JN, Wentzensen N, Whittemore AS, Wildiers H, Winqvist R, Wu AH, Yannoukakos D, Yoon SY, Yu JC, Zheng W, Zheng Y, Khanna KK, Simard J, Monteiro AN, French JD, Couch FJ, Freedman ML, Easton DF, Dunning AM, Pharoah PD, Edwards SL, Chenevix-Trench G, Antoniou AC, Gayther SA
Nat Commun 2016 Sep 7;7:12675. doi: 10.1038/ncomms12675. PMID: 27601076Free PMC Article
Kwiatkowski F, Dessenne P, Laquet C, Petit MF, Bignon YJ
Eur J Hum Genet 2012 Feb;20(2):141-7. Epub 2011 Sep 21 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2011.169. PMID: 21934710Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Okano N, Morizane C, Nomura S, Takahashi H, Tsumura H, Satake H, Mizuno N, Tsuji K, Shioji K, Asagi A, Yasui K, Kitagawa S, Kashiwada T, Ishiguro A, Kanai M, Ueno M, Ogura T, Shimizu S, Tobimatsu K, Motoya M, Nakashima K, Ikeda M, Okusaka T, Furuse J
Int J Clin Oncol 2020 Oct;25(10):1835-1843. Epub 2020 Jun 13 doi: 10.1007/s10147-020-01721-x. PMID: 32535711
Kuchenbaecker KB, Hopper JL, Barnes DR, Phillips KA, Mooij TM, Roos-Blom MJ, Jervis S, van Leeuwen FE, Milne RL, Andrieu N, Goldgar DE, Terry MB, Rookus MA, Easton DF, Antoniou AC; BRCA1 and BRCA2 Cohort Consortium., McGuffog L, Evans DG, Barrowdale D, Frost D, Adlard J, Ong KR, Izatt L, Tischkowitz M, Eeles R, Davidson R, Hodgson S, Ellis S, Nogues C, Lasset C, Stoppa-Lyonnet D, Fricker JP, Faivre L, Berthet P, Hooning MJ, van der Kolk LE, Kets CM, Adank MA, John EM, Chung WK, Andrulis IL, Southey M, Daly MB, Buys SS, Osorio A, Engel C, Kast K, Schmutzler RK, Caldes T, Jakubowska A, Simard J, Friedlander ML, McLachlan SA, Machackova E, Foretova L, Tan YY, Singer CF, Olah E, Gerdes AM, Arver B, Olsson H
JAMA 2017 Jun 20;317(23):2402-2416. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.7112. PMID: 28632866
Cao WM, Gao Y, Yang HJ, Xie SN, Ding XW, Pan ZW, Ye WW, Wang XJ
BMC Cancer 2016 Feb 6;16:64. doi: 10.1186/s12885-016-2107-6. PMID: 26852015Free PMC Article
Riahi A, Kharrat M, Ghourabi ME, Khomsi F, Gamoudi A, Lariani I, May AE, Rahal K, Chaabouni-Bouhamed H
Clin Genet 2015 Feb;87(2):155-60. Epub 2014 Feb 23 doi: 10.1111/cge.12337. PMID: 24372583
Blanco A, de la Hoya M, Osorio A, Diez O, Miramar MD, Infante M, Martinez-Bouzas C, Torres A, Lasa A, Llort G, Brunet J, Graña B, Perez Segura P, Garcia MJ, Gutiérrez-Enríquez S, Carracedo Á, Tejada MI, Velasco EA, Calvo MT, Balmaña J, Benitez J, Caldés T, Vega A
PLoS One 2013;8(7):e67538. Epub 2013 Jul 23 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067538. PMID: 23935836Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Foglietta J, Ludovini V, Bianconi F, Pistola L, Reda MS, Al-Refaie A, Tofanetti FR, Mosconi A, Minenza E, Anastasi P, Molica C, Stracci F, Roila F
Genes (Basel) 2020 Aug 12;11(8) doi: 10.3390/genes11080925. PMID: 32806537Free PMC Article
Okano N, Morizane C, Nomura S, Takahashi H, Tsumura H, Satake H, Mizuno N, Tsuji K, Shioji K, Asagi A, Yasui K, Kitagawa S, Kashiwada T, Ishiguro A, Kanai M, Ueno M, Ogura T, Shimizu S, Tobimatsu K, Motoya M, Nakashima K, Ikeda M, Okusaka T, Furuse J
Int J Clin Oncol 2020 Oct;25(10):1835-1843. Epub 2020 Jun 13 doi: 10.1007/s10147-020-01721-x. PMID: 32535711
Rashid MU, Muhammad N, Amin A, Loya A, Hamann U
Breast Cancer Res Treat 2017 Jan;161(2):191-201. Epub 2016 Nov 8 doi: 10.1007/s10549-016-4044-0. PMID: 27826754
Byers H, Wallis Y, van Veen EM, Lalloo F, Reay K, Smith P, Wallace AJ, Bowers N, Newman WG, Evans DG
Eur J Hum Genet 2016 Nov;24(11):1591-1597. Epub 2016 Jun 8 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2016.57. PMID: 27273131Free PMC Article
Cao WM, Gao Y, Yang HJ, Xie SN, Ding XW, Pan ZW, Ye WW, Wang XJ
BMC Cancer 2016 Feb 6;16:64. doi: 10.1186/s12885-016-2107-6. PMID: 26852015Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Suszynska M, Klonowska K, Jasinska AJ, Kozlowski P
Gynecol Oncol 2019 May;153(2):452-462. Epub 2019 Feb 4 doi: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2019.01.027. PMID: 30733081
D'Andrea E, Marzuillo C, De Vito C, Di Marco M, Pitini E, Vacchio MR, Villari P
Genet Med 2016 Dec;18(12):1171-1180. Epub 2016 Apr 14 doi: 10.1038/gim.2016.29. PMID: 27906166Free PMC Article
Kwong A, Chen JW, Shin VY
Hong Kong Med J 2016 Apr;22(2):171-7. Epub 2016 Mar 14 doi: 10.12809/hkmj154634. PMID: 26980575

Supplemental Content

Recent activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...
Support Center