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Surfactant metabolism dysfunction, pulmonary, 1(SMDP1)

MedGen UID:
368844
Concept ID:
C1968602
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE DUE TO SURFACTANT PROTEIN B DEFICIENCY; INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE, NONSPECIFIC, DUE TO SURFACTANT PROTEIN B DEFICIENCY; PULMONARY ALVEOLAR PROTEINOSIS, CONGENITAL, 1; SFTPB-Related Pulmonary Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction; SMDP1
Modes of inheritance:
Heterogeneous
MedGen UID:
67020
Concept ID:
C0242960
Organism Attribute
Source: HPO
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in homozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, autosomal recessive disorders manifest in homozygotes (with two copies of the mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Autosomal recessive inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
 
Gene (location): SFTPB (2p11.2)
OMIM®: 265120
Orphanet: ORPHA217563

Definition

Inborn errors of pulmonary surfactant metabolism are genetically heterogeneous disorders resulting in severe respiratory insufficiency or failure in full-term neonates or infants. These disorders are associated with various pathologic entities, including pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), desquamative interstitial pneumonitis (DIP), or cellular nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (NSIP) (Clark and Clark, 2005). A clinically similar disorder characterized by respiratory distress (267450) can affect preterm infants, who show developmental deficiency of surfactant. Acquired PAP (610910) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the presence of autoantobodies to CSF2 (138960). Genetic Heterogeneity of Pulmonary Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction See also SMDP2 (610913), caused by mutation in the SPTPC gene (178620) on 8p21; SMDP3 (610921), caused by mutation in the ABCA3 gene (601615) on 16p13; SMDP4 (300770), caused by mutation in the CSF2RA gene (306250) on Xp22; and SMDP5 (614370), caused by mutation in the CSF2RB gene (138981) on 22q12. [from OMIM]

Additional description

From GHR
Surfactant dysfunction is a lung disorder that causes breathing problems. This condition results from abnormalities in the composition or function of surfactant, a mixture of certain fats (called phospholipids) and proteins that lines the lung tissue and makes breathing easy. Without normal surfactant, the tissue surrounding the air sacs in the lungs (the alveoli) sticks together (because of a force called surface tension) after exhalation, causing the alveoli to collapse. As a result, filling the lungs with air on each breath becomes very difficult, and the delivery of oxygen to the body is impaired.The signs and symptoms of surfactant dysfunction can vary in severity. The most severe form of this condition causes respiratory distress syndrome in newborns. Affected babies have extreme difficulty breathing and are unable to get enough oxygen. The lack of oxygen can damage the baby's brain and other organs. This syndrome leads to respiratory failure, and most babies with this form of the condition do not survive more than a few months.Less severe forms of surfactant dysfunction cause gradual onset of breathing problems in children or adults. Signs and symptoms of these milder forms are abnormally rapid breathing (tachypnea); low concentrations of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia); and an inability to grow or gain weight at the expected rate (failure to thrive).There are several types of surfactant dysfunction, which are identified by the genetic cause of the condition. One type, called SP-B deficiency, causes respiratory distress syndrome in newborns. Other types, known as SP-C dysfunction and ABCA3 deficiency, have signs and symptoms that range from mild to severe.  https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/surfactant-dysfunction

Clinical features

Apnea
MedGen UID:
2009
Concept ID:
C0003578
Sign or Symptom
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Cyanosis
MedGen UID:
1189
Concept ID:
C0010520
Sign or Symptom
A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an increase in the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule.
Dyspnea
MedGen UID:
3938
Concept ID:
C0013404
Sign or Symptom
Difficult or labored breathing.
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
MedGen UID:
18760
Concept ID:
C0034050
Disease or Syndrome
A PULMONARY ALVEOLI-filling disease, characterized by dense phospholipoproteinaceous deposits in the alveoli, cough, and DYSPNEA. This disease is often related to, congenital or acquired, impaired processing of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS by alveolar macrophages, a process dependent on GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR.
Clubbing
MedGen UID:
57692
Concept ID:
C0149651
Sign or Symptom
Broadening of the soft tissues (non-edematous swelling of soft tissues) of the digital tips in all dimensions associated with an increased longitudinal and lateral curvature of the nails.
Interstitial pulmonary abnormality
MedGen UID:
60064
Concept ID:
C0206062
Disease or Syndrome
A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.
Tachypnea
MedGen UID:
66669
Concept ID:
C0231835
Finding
Abnormal increase of rate of breathing.
Desquamative interstitial pneumonia
MedGen UID:
65962
Concept ID:
C0238378
Disease or Syndrome
Interstitial lung disease (ILD), or pneumonitis, is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized pathologically by expansion of the interstitial compartment of the lung by inflammatory cells. Fibrosis occurs in many cases (Visscher and Myers, 2006). Desquamative interstitial pneumonitis (DIP) was originally described as a pathologic entity by Liebow et al. (1965). Lung biopsy shows diffuse and uniform filling of alveoli by clusters of cells which Liebow et al. (1965) speculated to be 'desquamated pneumocytes.' Since then, these cells have been shown primarily to be pigmented alveolar macrophages. Other features include thickened alveolar septa with an infiltrate of inflammatory cells and plump, cuboidal type II pneumocytes. Mild collagen deposition without architectural distortion or honeycombing may be present. Different forms of ILD represent pathologic classifications based on histologic patterns rather than clinical diagnoses and may occur in a variety of clinical contexts (Visscher and Myers, 2006). See also usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP; see 178500), which is associated with pulmonary fibrosis. Although DIP occurs most often as a sporadic disorder in adults during the third to fifth decade of life and is highly associated with smoking (Carrington et al., 1978), reports of a familial form with onset in infancy and early death suggest a genetic basis (Sharief et al., 1994). Cases of DIP reported in infants are often more severe and refractory to treatment than those reported in adults (Nogee et al., 2001). With the advent of molecular genetic analysis, some cases of familial early-onset respiratory insufficiency associated with a pathologic diagnosis of DIP have been shown to result from congenital dysfunction of surfactant metabolism (see, e.g., SMDP1, 265120) due to mutations in genes involved in surfactant metabolism (Nogee et al., 2001; Whitsett and Weaver, 2002).
Respiratory distress
MedGen UID:
96907
Concept ID:
C0476273
Sign or Symptom
A pathological increase in the effort and frequency of breathing movements.
Respiratory failure
MedGen UID:
257837
Concept ID:
C1145670
Disease or Syndrome
A severe form of respiratory insufficiency characterized by inadequate gas exchange such that the levels of oxygen or carbon dioxide cannot be maintained within normal limits.
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension
MedGen UID:
425404
Concept ID:
C2973725
Disease or Syndrome
Pulmonary hypertension is defined mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25mmHg or more and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 15mmHg or less when measured by right heart catheterisation at rest and in a supine position.
Abnormality of metabolism/homeostasis
MedGen UID:
867398
Concept ID:
C4021768
Finding

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Nattes E, Lejeune S, Carsin A, Borie R, Gibertini I, Balinotti J, Nathan N, Marchand-Adam S, Thumerelle C, Fauroux B, Bosdure E, Houdouin V, Delestrain C, Louha M, Couderc R, De Becdelievre A, Fanen P, Funalot B, Crestani B, Deschildre A, Dubus JC, Epaud R
Respir Med 2017 Aug;129:16-23. Epub 2017 May 26 doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2017.05.014. PMID: 28732825

Diagnosis

Nattes E, Lejeune S, Carsin A, Borie R, Gibertini I, Balinotti J, Nathan N, Marchand-Adam S, Thumerelle C, Fauroux B, Bosdure E, Houdouin V, Delestrain C, Louha M, Couderc R, De Becdelievre A, Fanen P, Funalot B, Crestani B, Deschildre A, Dubus JC, Epaud R
Respir Med 2017 Aug;129:16-23. Epub 2017 May 26 doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2017.05.014. PMID: 28732825
Griese M, Lorenz E, Hengst M, Schams A, Wesselak T, Rauch D, Wittmann T, Kirchberger V, Escribano A, Schaible T, Baden W, Schulze J, Krude H, Aslanidis C, Schwerk N, Kappler M, Hartl D, Lohse P, Zarbock R
Pediatr Res 2016 Jan;79(1-1):34-41. Epub 2015 Sep 16 doi: 10.1038/pr.2015.173. PMID: 26375475

Therapy

Nattes E, Lejeune S, Carsin A, Borie R, Gibertini I, Balinotti J, Nathan N, Marchand-Adam S, Thumerelle C, Fauroux B, Bosdure E, Houdouin V, Delestrain C, Louha M, Couderc R, De Becdelievre A, Fanen P, Funalot B, Crestani B, Deschildre A, Dubus JC, Epaud R
Respir Med 2017 Aug;129:16-23. Epub 2017 May 26 doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2017.05.014. PMID: 28732825

Prognosis

Nattes E, Lejeune S, Carsin A, Borie R, Gibertini I, Balinotti J, Nathan N, Marchand-Adam S, Thumerelle C, Fauroux B, Bosdure E, Houdouin V, Delestrain C, Louha M, Couderc R, De Becdelievre A, Fanen P, Funalot B, Crestani B, Deschildre A, Dubus JC, Epaud R
Respir Med 2017 Aug;129:16-23. Epub 2017 May 26 doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2017.05.014. PMID: 28732825

Clinical prediction guides

Griese M, Lorenz E, Hengst M, Schams A, Wesselak T, Rauch D, Wittmann T, Kirchberger V, Escribano A, Schaible T, Baden W, Schulze J, Krude H, Aslanidis C, Schwerk N, Kappler M, Hartl D, Lohse P, Zarbock R
Pediatr Res 2016 Jan;79(1-1):34-41. Epub 2015 Sep 16 doi: 10.1038/pr.2015.173. PMID: 26375475

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