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Paragangliomas 4(PGL4)

MedGen UID:
349380
Concept ID:
C1861848
Neoplastic Process
Synonyms: CAROTID BODY TUMORS AND MULTIPLE EXTRAADRENAL PHEOCHROMOCYTOMAS; Paraganglioma, familial malignant; Paragangliomas, hereditary extraadrenal; PGL4; Pheochromocytoma, extraadrenal and cervical paraganglioma; Pheochromocytoma, familial extraadrenal; SDHB-Related Hereditary Paraganglioma-Pheochromocytoma Syndrome; SDHB-Related Hereditary Paraganglioma-Pheochromocytoma Syndrome (Paragangliomas 4)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Autosomal dominant inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
 
Gene (location): SDHB (1p36.13)
OMIM®: 115310

Definition

Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes are characterized by paragangliomas (tumors that arise from neuroendocrine tissues symmetrically distributed along the paravertebral axis from the base of the skull to the pelvis) and by pheochromocytomas (paragangliomas that are confined to the adrenal medulla). Sympathetic paragangliomas hypersecrete catecholamines; parasympathetic paragangliomas are most often nonsecretory. Extra-adrenal parasympathetic paragangliomas are located predominantly in the skull base, neck, and upper medistinum; approximately 95% of such tumors are nonsecretory. In contrast, sympathetic extra-adrenal paragangliomas are generally confined to the lower mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis, and are typically secretory. Pheochromocytomas, which arise from the adrenal medulla, typically hypersecrete catecholamines. Symptoms of PGL/PCC result either from mass effects or catecholamine hypersecretion (e.g., sustained or paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure, headache, episodic profuse sweating, forceful palpitations, pallor, and apprehension or anxiety). The risk for malignant transformation is greater for extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas than for pheochromocytomas or skull base and neck paragangliomas. [from GTR]

Additional descriptions

From GeneReviews
Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes are characterized by paragangliomas (tumors that arise from neuroendocrine tissues symmetrically distributed along the paravertebral axis from the base of the skull to the pelvis) and by pheochromocytomas (paragangliomas that are confined to the adrenal medulla). Sympathetic paragangliomas hypersecrete catecholamines; parasympathetic paragangliomas are most often nonsecretory. Extra-adrenal parasympathetic paragangliomas are located predominantly in the skull base, neck, and upper medistinum; approximately 95% of such tumors are nonsecretory. In contrast, sympathetic extra-adrenal paragangliomas are generally confined to the lower mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis, and are typically secretory. Pheochromocytomas, which arise from the adrenal medulla, typically hypersecrete catecholamines. Symptoms of PGL/PCC result either from mass effects or catecholamine hypersecretion (e.g., sustained or paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure, headache, episodic profuse sweating, forceful palpitations, pallor, and apprehension or anxiety). The risk for malignant transformation is greater for extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas than for pheochromocytomas or skull base and neck paragangliomas.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1548
From GHR
Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma is an inherited condition characterized by the growth of noncancerous (benign) tumors in structures called paraganglia. Paraganglia are groups of cells that are found near nerve cell bunches called ganglia. A tumor involving the paraganglia is known as a paraganglioma. A type of paraganglioma known as a pheochromocytoma develops in the adrenal glands, which are located on top of each kidney and produce hormones in response to stress. Other types of paraganglioma are usually found in the head, neck, or trunk. People with hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma develop one or more paragangliomas, which may include pheochromocytomas.Pheochromocytomas and some other paragangliomas are associated with ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system controls the "fight-or-flight" response, a series of changes in the body due to hormones released in response to stress. Sympathetic paragangliomas found outside the adrenal glands, usually in the abdomen, are called extra-adrenal paragangliomas. Most sympathetic paragangliomas, including pheochromocytomas, produce hormones called catecholamines, such as epinephrine (adrenaline) or norepinephrine. These excess catecholamines can cause signs and symptoms such as high blood pressure (hypertension), episodes of rapid heartbeat (palpitations), headaches, or sweating.Most paragangliomas are associated with ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, which controls involuntary body functions such as digestion and saliva formation. Parasympathetic paragangliomas, typically found in the head and neck, usually do not produce hormones. However, large tumors may cause signs and symptoms such as coughing, hearing loss in one ear, or difficulty swallowing.Although most paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas are noncancerous, some can become cancerous (malignant) and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). Extra-adrenal paragangliomas become malignant more often than other types of paraganglioma or pheochromocytoma.Researchers have identified several types of hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma. Each type is distinguished by its genetic cause. People with types 1, 2, and 3 typically develop paragangliomas in the head or neck region. People with type 4 usually develop extra-adrenal paragangliomas in the abdomen and are at higher risk for malignant tumors that metastasize. The other types are very rare. Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma is typically diagnosed in a person's 30s.Paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas can occur in individuals with other inherited disorders, such as von-Hippel Lindau syndrome, Carney-Stratakis syndrome, and certain types of multiple endocrine neoplasia. These other disorders feature additional tumor types and have different genetic causes. Some paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas occur in people with no history of the tumors in their families and appear not to be inherited. These cases are designated as sporadic.  https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/hereditary-paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma

Clinical features

Carotid body paraganglioma
MedGen UID:
2853
Concept ID:
C0007279
Neoplastic Process
A benign or malignant extra-adrenal parasympathetic paraganglioma arising from paraganglia adjacent to or in the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. Most patients present with a slow growing, painless mass in the neck.
Glomus jugular tumor
MedGen UID:
4905
Concept ID:
C0017671
Neoplastic Process
A benign or malignant extra-adrenal parasympathetic paraganglioma arising from paraganglia in the base of the skull and middle ear.
Pheochromocytoma
MedGen UID:
18419
Concept ID:
C0031511
Neoplastic Process
Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes are characterized by paragangliomas (tumors that arise from neuroendocrine tissues symmetrically distributed along the paravertebral axis from the base of the skull to the pelvis) and by pheochromocytomas (paragangliomas that are confined to the adrenal medulla). Sympathetic paragangliomas hypersecrete catecholamines; parasympathetic paragangliomas are most often nonsecretory. Extra-adrenal parasympathetic paragangliomas are located predominantly in the skull base, neck, and upper medistinum; approximately 95% of such tumors are nonsecretory. In contrast, sympathetic extra-adrenal paragangliomas are generally confined to the lower mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis, and are typically secretory. Pheochromocytomas, which arise from the adrenal medulla, typically hypersecrete catecholamines. Symptoms of PGL/PCC result either from mass effects or catecholamine hypersecretion (e.g., sustained or paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure, headache, episodic profuse sweating, forceful palpitations, pallor, and apprehension or anxiety). The risk for malignant transformation is greater for extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas than for pheochromocytomas or skull base and neck paragangliomas.
Extraadrenal pheochromocytoma
MedGen UID:
263453
Concept ID:
C1257877
Neoplastic Process
A benign or malignant sympathetic paraganglioma arising from paraganglia outside the adrenal gland. Clinical symptoms are related to secretion of catecholamines. Representative examples include the superior and inferior paraaortic and bladder paragangliomas.
Renal cell carcinoma, papillary, 1
MedGen UID:
766
Concept ID:
C0007134
Neoplastic Process
Hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma is characterized by the development of multiple, bilateral papillary renal tumors (Zbar et al., 1995). The transmission pattern is consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Papillary renal cell carcinoma is histologically and genetically distinct from 2 other forms of inherited renal carcinoma, von Hippel Lindau disease (193300), caused by mutation in the VHL gene (608537) on chromosome 3, and a form associated with the chromosome translocation t(3;8), as described by Cohen et al. (1979). Bodmer et al. (2002) reviewed the molecular genetics of familial and nonfamilial cases of renal cell carcinoma, including the roles of VHL, MET, and translocations involving chromosomes 1, 3, and X. For background information and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nonpapillary renal cell carcinoma, see RCC (144700). See also a hereditary syndrome of predisposition to uterine leiomyomas and papillary renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC; 150800) caused by germline mutation in the FH gene (136850).
Carotid body paraganglioma
MedGen UID:
2853
Concept ID:
C0007279
Neoplastic Process
A benign or malignant extra-adrenal parasympathetic paraganglioma arising from paraganglia adjacent to or in the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. Most patients present with a slow growing, painless mass in the neck.
Glomus jugular tumor
MedGen UID:
4905
Concept ID:
C0017671
Neoplastic Process
A benign or malignant extra-adrenal parasympathetic paraganglioma arising from paraganglia in the base of the skull and middle ear.
Neuroblastoma
MedGen UID:
18012
Concept ID:
C0027819
Neoplastic Process
ALK-related neuroblastic tumor susceptibility results from heterozygosity for a germline ALK activating pathogenic variant in the tyrosine kinase domain that predisposes to neuroblastic tumors. The spectrum of neuroblastic tumors includes neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma. Neuroblastoma is a more malignant tumor and ganglioneuroma a more benign tumor. Depending on the histologic findings ganglioneuroblastoma can behave in a more aggressive fashion, like neuroblastoma, or in a benign fashion, like ganglioneuroma. At present there are no data regarding the lifetime risk to an individual with a germline ALK pathogenic variant of developing a neuroblastic tumor. Preliminary data from the ten reported families with ALK-related neuroblastic tumor susceptibility suggest that the overall penetrance is around 57% with the risk for neuroblastic tumor development highest in infancy and decreasing by late childhood.
Pheochromocytoma
MedGen UID:
18419
Concept ID:
C0031511
Neoplastic Process
Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes are characterized by paragangliomas (tumors that arise from neuroendocrine tissues symmetrically distributed along the paravertebral axis from the base of the skull to the pelvis) and by pheochromocytomas (paragangliomas that are confined to the adrenal medulla). Sympathetic paragangliomas hypersecrete catecholamines; parasympathetic paragangliomas are most often nonsecretory. Extra-adrenal parasympathetic paragangliomas are located predominantly in the skull base, neck, and upper medistinum; approximately 95% of such tumors are nonsecretory. In contrast, sympathetic extra-adrenal paragangliomas are generally confined to the lower mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis, and are typically secretory. Pheochromocytomas, which arise from the adrenal medulla, typically hypersecrete catecholamines. Symptoms of PGL/PCC result either from mass effects or catecholamine hypersecretion (e.g., sustained or paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure, headache, episodic profuse sweating, forceful palpitations, pallor, and apprehension or anxiety). The risk for malignant transformation is greater for extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas than for pheochromocytomas or skull base and neck paragangliomas.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
MedGen UID:
116049
Concept ID:
C0238198
Neoplastic Process
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors found in the gastrointestinal tract that originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal, the pacemaker cells that regulate peristalsis in the digestive tract. Approximately 70% of GISTs develop in the stomach, 20% in the small intestine, and less than 10% in the esophagus, colon, and rectum. GISTs are typically more cellular than other gastrointestinal sarcomas. They occur predominantly in patients who are 40 to 70 years old but in rare cases may occur in younger persons (Miettinen et al., 1999, 1999). GISTs can also be seen in neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1; 162200) due to mutations in the NF1 gene, and are thus distinct from the GISTs described here. Sandberg and Bridge (2002) reviewed the cytogenetics and molecular genetics of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Coffey et al. (2007) reviewed the clinical features, pathogenesis, and molecular treatments of Menetrier disease (137280) and GIST, both of which are hyperproliferative disorders of the stomach caused by dysregulated receptor tyrosine kinases.
Extraadrenal pheochromocytoma
MedGen UID:
263453
Concept ID:
C1257877
Neoplastic Process
A benign or malignant sympathetic paraganglioma arising from paraganglia outside the adrenal gland. Clinical symptoms are related to secretion of catecholamines. Representative examples include the superior and inferior paraaortic and bladder paragangliomas.
Renal cell carcinoma, papillary, 1
MedGen UID:
766
Concept ID:
C0007134
Neoplastic Process
Hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma is characterized by the development of multiple, bilateral papillary renal tumors (Zbar et al., 1995). The transmission pattern is consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Papillary renal cell carcinoma is histologically and genetically distinct from 2 other forms of inherited renal carcinoma, von Hippel Lindau disease (193300), caused by mutation in the VHL gene (608537) on chromosome 3, and a form associated with the chromosome translocation t(3;8), as described by Cohen et al. (1979). Bodmer et al. (2002) reviewed the molecular genetics of familial and nonfamilial cases of renal cell carcinoma, including the roles of VHL, MET, and translocations involving chromosomes 1, 3, and X. For background information and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nonpapillary renal cell carcinoma, see RCC (144700). See also a hereditary syndrome of predisposition to uterine leiomyomas and papillary renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC; 150800) caused by germline mutation in the FH gene (136850).
Palpitations
MedGen UID:
14579
Concept ID:
C0030252
Finding
A sensation that the heart is pounding or racing, which is a non-specific sign but may be a manifestation of arrhythmia.
Tachycardia
MedGen UID:
21453
Concept ID:
C0039231
Pathologic Function
A rapid heartrate that exceeds the range of the normal resting heartrate for age.
Hypertension associated with pheochromocytoma
MedGen UID:
871214
Concept ID:
C4025693
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hypertension associated with pheochromocytoma.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
MedGen UID:
116049
Concept ID:
C0238198
Neoplastic Process
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors found in the gastrointestinal tract that originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal, the pacemaker cells that regulate peristalsis in the digestive tract. Approximately 70% of GISTs develop in the stomach, 20% in the small intestine, and less than 10% in the esophagus, colon, and rectum. GISTs are typically more cellular than other gastrointestinal sarcomas. They occur predominantly in patients who are 40 to 70 years old but in rare cases may occur in younger persons (Miettinen et al., 1999, 1999). GISTs can also be seen in neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1; 162200) due to mutations in the NF1 gene, and are thus distinct from the GISTs described here. Sandberg and Bridge (2002) reviewed the cytogenetics and molecular genetics of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Coffey et al. (2007) reviewed the clinical features, pathogenesis, and molecular treatments of Menetrier disease (137280) and GIST, both of which are hyperproliferative disorders of the stomach caused by dysregulated receptor tyrosine kinases.
Pulsatile tinnitus
MedGen UID:
148340
Concept ID:
C0751559
Sign or Symptom
Pulsatile tinnitus is generally classified a kind of objective tinnitus, meaning that it is not only audible to the patient but also to the examiner on auscultation of the auditory canal and/or of surrounding structures with use of an auscultation tube or stethoscope. Usually, pulsatile tinnitus is heard as a lower pitched thumping or booming, a rougher blowing sound which is coincidental with respiration, or as a clicking, higher pitched rhythmic sensation. Pulsatile tinnitus may be associated with vascular abnormalities such as arterioevenous shunts or glomus tumors or the jugular vein, arterial bruits related to a high-riding carotid artery (close to the auditory areas) or carotid stenosis, or venous abnormalities such as a dehiscent jugular bulb or to hypertension. Finally, in some patients, mechanical abnormalities such a spatulous eustachian tubes, palatomyoclonus (small spasms of muscles in the soft palate area), or idiopathic stapedial muscle spasm may represent the underlying cause of pulsatile tinnitus.
Carotid body paraganglioma
MedGen UID:
2853
Concept ID:
C0007279
Neoplastic Process
A benign or malignant extra-adrenal parasympathetic paraganglioma arising from paraganglia adjacent to or in the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. Most patients present with a slow growing, painless mass in the neck.
Glomus jugular tumor
MedGen UID:
4905
Concept ID:
C0017671
Neoplastic Process
A benign or malignant extra-adrenal parasympathetic paraganglioma arising from paraganglia in the base of the skull and middle ear.
Neuroblastoma
MedGen UID:
18012
Concept ID:
C0027819
Neoplastic Process
ALK-related neuroblastic tumor susceptibility results from heterozygosity for a germline ALK activating pathogenic variant in the tyrosine kinase domain that predisposes to neuroblastic tumors. The spectrum of neuroblastic tumors includes neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma. Neuroblastoma is a more malignant tumor and ganglioneuroma a more benign tumor. Depending on the histologic findings ganglioneuroblastoma can behave in a more aggressive fashion, like neuroblastoma, or in a benign fashion, like ganglioneuroma. At present there are no data regarding the lifetime risk to an individual with a germline ALK pathogenic variant of developing a neuroblastic tumor. Preliminary data from the ten reported families with ALK-related neuroblastic tumor susceptibility suggest that the overall penetrance is around 57% with the risk for neuroblastic tumor development highest in infancy and decreasing by late childhood.
Pheochromocytoma
MedGen UID:
18419
Concept ID:
C0031511
Neoplastic Process
Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes are characterized by paragangliomas (tumors that arise from neuroendocrine tissues symmetrically distributed along the paravertebral axis from the base of the skull to the pelvis) and by pheochromocytomas (paragangliomas that are confined to the adrenal medulla). Sympathetic paragangliomas hypersecrete catecholamines; parasympathetic paragangliomas are most often nonsecretory. Extra-adrenal parasympathetic paragangliomas are located predominantly in the skull base, neck, and upper medistinum; approximately 95% of such tumors are nonsecretory. In contrast, sympathetic extra-adrenal paragangliomas are generally confined to the lower mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis, and are typically secretory. Pheochromocytomas, which arise from the adrenal medulla, typically hypersecrete catecholamines. Symptoms of PGL/PCC result either from mass effects or catecholamine hypersecretion (e.g., sustained or paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure, headache, episodic profuse sweating, forceful palpitations, pallor, and apprehension or anxiety). The risk for malignant transformation is greater for extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas than for pheochromocytomas or skull base and neck paragangliomas.
Extraadrenal pheochromocytoma
MedGen UID:
263453
Concept ID:
C1257877
Neoplastic Process
A benign or malignant sympathetic paraganglioma arising from paraganglia outside the adrenal gland. Clinical symptoms are related to secretion of catecholamines. Representative examples include the superior and inferior paraaortic and bladder paragangliomas.
Recurrent paroxysmal headache
MedGen UID:
340201
Concept ID:
C1854337
Finding
Repeated episodes of headache with rapid onset, reaching a peak within minutes and of short duration (less than one hour) with pain that is throbbing, pulsating, or bursting in quality.
Episodic paroxysmal anxiety
MedGen UID:
340203
Concept ID:
C1854339
Finding
Recurrent attacks of severe anxiety, whose occurence is not restricted to any particular situation or set of circumstances and is therefore unpredictable.
Renal cell carcinoma, papillary, 1
MedGen UID:
766
Concept ID:
C0007134
Neoplastic Process
Hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma is characterized by the development of multiple, bilateral papillary renal tumors (Zbar et al., 1995). The transmission pattern is consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Papillary renal cell carcinoma is histologically and genetically distinct from 2 other forms of inherited renal carcinoma, von Hippel Lindau disease (193300), caused by mutation in the VHL gene (608537) on chromosome 3, and a form associated with the chromosome translocation t(3;8), as described by Cohen et al. (1979). Bodmer et al. (2002) reviewed the molecular genetics of familial and nonfamilial cases of renal cell carcinoma, including the roles of VHL, MET, and translocations involving chromosomes 1, 3, and X. For background information and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nonpapillary renal cell carcinoma, see RCC (144700). See also a hereditary syndrome of predisposition to uterine leiomyomas and papillary renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC; 150800) caused by germline mutation in the FH gene (136850).
Hyperhidrosis
MedGen UID:
11680
Concept ID:
C0038990
Finding
A watery secretion by the sweat glands that is primarily composed of salt, urea and minerals.
Carotid body paraganglioma
MedGen UID:
2853
Concept ID:
C0007279
Neoplastic Process
A benign or malignant extra-adrenal parasympathetic paraganglioma arising from paraganglia adjacent to or in the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. Most patients present with a slow growing, painless mass in the neck.
Glomus jugular tumor
MedGen UID:
4905
Concept ID:
C0017671
Neoplastic Process
A benign or malignant extra-adrenal parasympathetic paraganglioma arising from paraganglia in the base of the skull and middle ear.
Pheochromocytoma
MedGen UID:
18419
Concept ID:
C0031511
Neoplastic Process
Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes are characterized by paragangliomas (tumors that arise from neuroendocrine tissues symmetrically distributed along the paravertebral axis from the base of the skull to the pelvis) and by pheochromocytomas (paragangliomas that are confined to the adrenal medulla). Sympathetic paragangliomas hypersecrete catecholamines; parasympathetic paragangliomas are most often nonsecretory. Extra-adrenal parasympathetic paragangliomas are located predominantly in the skull base, neck, and upper medistinum; approximately 95% of such tumors are nonsecretory. In contrast, sympathetic extra-adrenal paragangliomas are generally confined to the lower mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis, and are typically secretory. Pheochromocytomas, which arise from the adrenal medulla, typically hypersecrete catecholamines. Symptoms of PGL/PCC result either from mass effects or catecholamine hypersecretion (e.g., sustained or paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure, headache, episodic profuse sweating, forceful palpitations, pallor, and apprehension or anxiety). The risk for malignant transformation is greater for extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas than for pheochromocytomas or skull base and neck paragangliomas.
Extraadrenal pheochromocytoma
MedGen UID:
263453
Concept ID:
C1257877
Neoplastic Process
A benign or malignant sympathetic paraganglioma arising from paraganglia outside the adrenal gland. Clinical symptoms are related to secretion of catecholamines. Representative examples include the superior and inferior paraaortic and bladder paragangliomas.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Hampel H, Bennett RL, Buchanan A, Pearlman R, Wiesner GL; Guideline Development Group, American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics Professional Practice and Guidelines Committee and National Society of Genetic Counselors Practice Guidelines Committee.
Genet Med 2015 Jan;17(1):70-87. Epub 2014 Nov 13 doi: 10.1038/gim.2014.147. PMID: 25394175
ACMG Board of Directors.
Genet Med 2015 Jan;17(1):68-9. Epub 2014 Nov 13 doi: 10.1038/gim.2014.151. PMID: 25356965
Lenders JW, Duh QY, Eisenhofer G, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Grebe SK, Murad MH, Naruse M, Pacak K, Young WF Jr; Endocrine Society.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014 Jun;99(6):1915-42. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-1498. PMID: 24893135
Reaume MN, Graham GE, Tomiak E, Kamel-Reid S, Jewett MA, Bjarnason GA, Blais N, Care M, Drachenberg D, Gedye C, Grant R, Heng DY, Kapoor A, Kollmannsberger C, Lattouf JB, Maher ER, Pause A, Ruether D, Soulieres D, Tanguay S, Turcotte S, Violette PD, Wood L, Basiuk J, Pautler SE; Kidney Cancer Research Network of Canada.
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Green RC, Berg JS, Grody WW, Kalia SS, Korf BR, Martin CL, McGuire AL, Nussbaum RL, O'Daniel JM, Ormond KE, Rehm HL, Watson MS, Williams MS, Biesecker LG; American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.
Genet Med 2013 Jul;15(7):565-74. Epub 2013 Jun 20 doi: 10.1038/gim.2013.73. PMID: 23788249Free PMC Article
Chen H, Sippel RS, O'Dorisio MS, Vinik AI, Lloyd RV, Pacak K; North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (NANETS).
Pancreas 2010 Aug;39(6):775-83. doi: 10.1097/MPA.0b013e3181ebb4f0. PMID: 20664475Free PMC Article
Robson ME, Storm CD, Weitzel J, Wollins DS, Offit K; American Society of Clinical Oncology.
J Clin Oncol 2010 Feb 10;28(5):893-901. Epub 2010 Jan 11 doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.27.0660. PMID: 20065170
Zon RT, Goss E, Vogel VG, Chlebowski RT, Jatoi I, Robson ME, Wollins DS, Garber JE, Brown P, Kramer BS; American Society of Clinical Oncology.
J Clin Oncol 2009 Feb 20;27(6):986-93. Epub 2008 Dec 15 doi: 10.1200/JCO.2008.16.3691. PMID: 19075281Free PMC Article

External

Recommendations for reporting of secondary findings in clinical exome and genome sequencing, 2016 update (ACMG SF v2.0): a policy statement of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Niemeijer ND, Rijken JA, Eijkelenkamp K, van der Horst-Schrivers ANA, Kerstens MN, Tops CMJ, van Berkel A, Timmers HJLM, Kunst HPM, Leemans CR, Bisschop PH, Dreijerink KMA, van Dooren MF, Bayley JP, Pereira AM, Jansen JC, Hes FJ, Hensen EF, Corssmit EPM
Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Aug;177(2):115-125. Epub 2017 May 10 doi: 10.1530/EJE-17-0074. PMID: 28490599
Piazza P, Di Lella F, Bacciu A, Di Trapani G, Ait Mimoune H, Sanna M
Audiol Neurootol 2013;18(6):345-52. Epub 2013 Oct 4 doi: 10.1159/000354158. PMID: 24107406
Destito D, Bucolo S, Florio A, Quattrocchi C
Ear Nose Throat J 2012 Aug;91(8):366-75. PMID: 22930086
Naji M, Zhao C, Welsh SJ, Meades R, Win Z, Ferrarese A, Tan T, Rubello D, Al-Nahhas A
Mol Imaging Biol 2011 Aug;13(4):769-75. doi: 10.1007/s11307-010-0396-8. PMID: 20700766

Diagnosis

Niemeijer ND, Rijken JA, Eijkelenkamp K, van der Horst-Schrivers ANA, Kerstens MN, Tops CMJ, van Berkel A, Timmers HJLM, Kunst HPM, Leemans CR, Bisschop PH, Dreijerink KMA, van Dooren MF, Bayley JP, Pereira AM, Jansen JC, Hes FJ, Hensen EF, Corssmit EPM
Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Aug;177(2):115-125. Epub 2017 May 10 doi: 10.1530/EJE-17-0074. PMID: 28490599
Destito D, Bucolo S, Florio A, Quattrocchi C
Ear Nose Throat J 2012 Aug;91(8):366-75. PMID: 22930086
Naji M, Zhao C, Welsh SJ, Meades R, Win Z, Ferrarese A, Tan T, Rubello D, Al-Nahhas A
Mol Imaging Biol 2011 Aug;13(4):769-75. doi: 10.1007/s11307-010-0396-8. PMID: 20700766

Prognosis

Niemeijer ND, Rijken JA, Eijkelenkamp K, van der Horst-Schrivers ANA, Kerstens MN, Tops CMJ, van Berkel A, Timmers HJLM, Kunst HPM, Leemans CR, Bisschop PH, Dreijerink KMA, van Dooren MF, Bayley JP, Pereira AM, Jansen JC, Hes FJ, Hensen EF, Corssmit EPM
Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Aug;177(2):115-125. Epub 2017 May 10 doi: 10.1530/EJE-17-0074. PMID: 28490599
Piazza P, Di Lella F, Bacciu A, Di Trapani G, Ait Mimoune H, Sanna M
Audiol Neurootol 2013;18(6):345-52. Epub 2013 Oct 4 doi: 10.1159/000354158. PMID: 24107406

Clinical prediction guides

Niemeijer ND, Rijken JA, Eijkelenkamp K, van der Horst-Schrivers ANA, Kerstens MN, Tops CMJ, van Berkel A, Timmers HJLM, Kunst HPM, Leemans CR, Bisschop PH, Dreijerink KMA, van Dooren MF, Bayley JP, Pereira AM, Jansen JC, Hes FJ, Hensen EF, Corssmit EPM
Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Aug;177(2):115-125. Epub 2017 May 10 doi: 10.1530/EJE-17-0074. PMID: 28490599

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