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Brain small vessel disease with hemorrhage(BSVD)

MedGen UID:
375217
Concept ID:
C1843512
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: BRAIN SMALL VESSEL DISEASE; BRAIN SMALL VESSEL DISEASE WITH AXENFELD-RIEGER ANOMALY; BRAIN SMALL VESSEL DISEASE WITH OCULAR ANOMALIES; BRAIN SMALL VESSEL DISEASE WITH OR WITHOUT OCULAR ANOMALIES; BSVD; COL4A1-Related Disorders; INFANTILE HEMIPARESIS; LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY WITH AXENFELD-RIEGER ANOMALY; RETINAL ARTERIOLAR TORTUOSITY, INFANTILE HEMIPARESIS, AND LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Autosomal dominant inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
 
Gene (location): COL4A1 (13q34)
OMIM®: 607595

Definition

The spectrum of COL4A1-related disorders includes: small-vessel brain disease of varying severity including porencephaly, variably associated with eye defects (retinal arterial tortuosity, Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly, cataract) and systemic findings (kidney involvement, muscle cramps, cerebral aneurysms, Raynaud phenomenon, cardiac arrhythmia, and hemolytic anemia). On imaging studies, small-vessel brain disease is manifest as diffuse periventricular leukoencephalopathy, lacunar infarcts, microhemorrhage, dilated perivascular spaces, and deep intracerebral hemorrhages. Clinically, small-vessel brain disease manifests as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, single or recurrent hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, and isolated migraine with aura. Porencephaly (fluid-filled cavities in the brain detected by CT or MRI) is typically manifest as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, and intellectual disability; however, on occasion it can be an incidental finding. HANAC (hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps) syndrome usually associates asymptomatic small-vessel brain disease, cerebral large vessel involvement (i.e., aneurysms), and systemic findings involving the kidney, muscle, and small vessels of the eye. Two additional phenotypes include isolated retinal artery tortuosity and nonsyndromic autosomal dominant congenital cataract. [from GTR]

Additional descriptions

From GeneReviews
The spectrum of COL4A1-related disorders includes: small-vessel brain disease of varying severity including porencephaly, variably associated with eye defects (retinal arterial tortuosity, Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly, cataract) and systemic findings (kidney involvement, muscle cramps, cerebral aneurysms, Raynaud phenomenon, cardiac arrhythmia, and hemolytic anemia). On imaging studies, small-vessel brain disease is manifest as diffuse periventricular leukoencephalopathy, lacunar infarcts, microhemorrhage, dilated perivascular spaces, and deep intracerebral hemorrhages. Clinically, small-vessel brain disease manifests as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, single or recurrent hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, and isolated migraine with aura. Porencephaly (fluid-filled cavities in the brain detected by CT or MRI) is typically manifest as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, and intellectual disability; however, on occasion it can be an incidental finding. HANAC (hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps) syndrome usually associates asymptomatic small-vessel brain disease, cerebral large vessel involvement (i.e., aneurysms), and systemic findings involving the kidney, muscle, and small vessels of the eye. Two additional phenotypes include isolated retinal artery tortuosity and nonsyndromic autosomal dominant congenital cataract.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7046
From GHR
COL4A1-related brain small-vessel disease is part of a group of conditions called the COL4A1-related disorders. The conditions in this group have a range of signs and symptoms that involve fragile blood vessels. COL4A1-related brain small-vessel disease is characterized by weakening of the blood vessels in the brain. Stroke is often the first symptom of this condition, typically occurring in mid-adulthood. In affected individuals, stroke is usually caused by bleeding in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke) rather than a lack of blood flow in the brain (ischemic stroke), although either type can occur. Individuals with this condition are at increased risk of having more than one stroke in their lifetime. People with COL4A1-related brain small vessel disease also have leukoencephalopathy, which is a change in a type of brain tissue called white matter that can be seen with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Affected individuals may also experience seizures and migraine headaches accompanied by visual sensations known as auras.Some people with COL4A1-related brain small-vessel disease have an eye abnormality called Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly. Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly involves underdevelopment and eventual tearing of the colored part of the eye (iris) and a pupil that is not in the center of the eye. Other eye problems experienced by people with COL4A1-related brain small-vessel disease include clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and the presence of arteries that twist and turn abnormally within the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (arterial retinal tortuosity). Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly and cataract can cause impaired vision. Arterial retinal tortuosity can cause episodes of bleeding within the eye following any minor trauma to the eye, leading to temporary vision loss.The severity of the condition varies greatly among affected individuals. Some individuals with COL4A1-related brain small-vessel disease do not have any signs or symptoms of the condition.  https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/col4a1-related-brain-small-vessel-disease

Clinical features

Amblyopia
MedGen UID:
8009
Concept ID:
C0002418
Disease or Syndrome
A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.
Astigmatism
MedGen UID:
2473
Concept ID:
C0004106
Disease or Syndrome
Astigmatism (from the Greek 'a' meaning absence and 'stigma' meaning point) is a condition in which the parallel rays of light entering the eye through the refractive media are not focused on a single point. Both corneal and noncorneal factors contribute to refractive astigmatism. Corneal astigmatism is mainly the result of an aspheric anterior surface of the cornea, which can be measured readily by means of a keratometer; in a small fraction of cases (approximately 1 in 10) the effect is neutralized by the back surface. The curvature of the back surface of the cornea is not considered in most studies, because it is more difficult to measure; moreover, in the case of severe corneal astigmatism, there is evidence that both surfaces have the same configuration. Noncorneal factors are errors in the curvature of the 2 surfaces of the crystalline lens, irregularity in the refractive index of the lens, and an eccentric lens position. Since the cornea is the dominant component of the eye's refracting system, a highly astigmatic cornea is likely to result in a similarly astigmatic ocular refraction (summary by Clementi et al., 1998).
Cataract, congenital
MedGen UID:
3202
Concept ID:
C0009691
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital cataract.
Seizure Disorders
MedGen UID:
4506
Concept ID:
C0014544
Disease or Syndrome
A brain disorder characterized by episodes of abnormally increased neuronal discharge resulting in transient episodes of sensory or motor neurological dysfunction, or psychic dysfunction. These episodes may or may not be associated with loss of consciousness or convulsions.
Glaucoma
MedGen UID:
42224
Concept ID:
C0017601
Disease or Syndrome
Glaucoma is a group of eye disorders in which the optic nerves connecting the eyes and the brain are progressively damaged. This damage can lead to reduction in side (peripheral) vision and eventual blindness. Other signs and symptoms may include bulging eyes, excessive tearing, and abnormal sensitivity to light (photophobia). The term "early-onset glaucoma" may be used when the disorder appears before the age of 40.In most people with glaucoma, the damage to the optic nerves is caused by increased pressure within the eyes (intraocular pressure). Intraocular pressure depends on a balance between fluid entering and leaving the eyes.Usually glaucoma develops in older adults, in whom the risk of developing the disorder may be affected by a variety of medical conditions including high blood pressure (hypertension) and diabetes mellitus, as well as family history. The risk of early-onset glaucoma depends mainly on heredity.Structural abnormalities that impede fluid drainage in the eye may be present at birth and usually become apparent during the first year of life. Such abnormalities may be part of a genetic disorder that affects many body systems, called a syndrome. If glaucoma appears before the age of 5 without other associated abnormalities, it is called primary congenital glaucoma.Other individuals experience early onset of primary open-angle glaucoma, the most common adult form of glaucoma. If primary open-angle glaucoma develops during childhood or early adulthood, it is called juvenile open-angle glaucoma.
Hemiparesis
MedGen UID:
6783
Concept ID:
C0018989
Finding
Loss of strength in the arm, leg, and sometimes face on one side of the body. Hemiplegia refers to a complete loss of strength, whereas hemiparesis refers to an incomplete loss of strength.
Hypermetropia
MedGen UID:
43780
Concept ID:
C0020490
Disease or Syndrome
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Microphthalmos
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.People with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.People with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.Between one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Intellectual disability, mild
MedGen UID:
10044
Concept ID:
C0026106
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Mild intellectual disability is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 50-69.
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
Retinal detachment
MedGen UID:
19759
Concept ID:
C0035305
Disease or Syndrome
Primary or spontaneous detachment of the retina occurs due to underlying ocular disease and often involves the vitreous as well as the retina. The precipitating event is formation of a retinal tear or hole, which permits fluid to accumulate under the sensory layers of the retina and creates an intraretinal cleavage that destroys the neurosensory process of visual reception. Vitreoretinal degeneration and tear formation are painless phenomena, and in most cases, significant vitreoretinal pathology is found only after detachment of the retina starts to cause loss of vision or visual field. Without surgical intervention, retinal detachment will almost inevitably lead to total blindness (summary by McNiel and McPherson, 1971).
Scotoma
MedGen UID:
19902
Concept ID:
C0036454
Finding
Scotoma refers to an area or island of loss or impairment of visual acuity surrounded by a field of normal or relatively well-preserved vision.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
Corneal neovascularization
MedGen UID:
43103
Concept ID:
C0085109
Disease or Syndrome
Ingrowth of new blood vessels into the cornea.
Acquired porencephaly
MedGen UID:
508833
Concept ID:
C0151860
Disease or Syndrome
A disorder of the brain in which a cyst or cavity filled with cerebrospinal fluid develops in the cerebral hemisphere.
Hypopigmentation of the fundus
MedGen UID:
101805
Concept ID:
C0151891
Disease or Syndrome
Decreased amount of pigmentation of the retina.
Migraine with aura
MedGen UID:
57822
Concept ID:
C0154723
Disease or Syndrome
A migraine disorder characterized by episodes that are preceded by focal neurological symptoms.
Blurred vision
MedGen UID:
91020
Concept ID:
C0344232
Finding
Blurred vision is the loss of visual acuity (sharpness of vision) resulting in a loss of ability to see small details. (from MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia)
Hypoplasia of the iris
MedGen UID:
91029
Concept ID:
C0344539
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital underdevelopment of the iris.
Polycoria
MedGen UID:
91030
Concept ID:
C0344544
Congenital Abnormality
Multiple pupils.
Corneal clouding
MedGen UID:
636782
Concept ID:
C0521719
Disease or Syndrome
A reduction of corneal clarity.
Decreased corneal diameter
MedGen UID:
892440
Concept ID:
C1167713
Finding
A congenital abnormality of the cornea in which the cornea and the anterior segment of the eye are smaller than normal. The horizontal diameter of the cornea does not reach 10 mm even in adulthood.
Congenital ectopic pupil
MedGen UID:
224790
Concept ID:
C1271219
Congenital Abnormality
Ectopia pupillae is a congenital eye malformation in which the pupils are displaced from their normal central position.
Retinal arteriolar tortuosity
MedGen UID:
334424
Concept ID:
C1843517
Finding
The presence of an increased number of twists and turns of the retinal arterioles.
MedGen UID:
892360
Concept ID:
CN005975

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Meschia JF, Bushnell C, Boden-Albala B, Braun LT, Bravata DM, Chaturvedi S, Creager MA, Eckel RH, Elkind MS, Fornage M, Goldstein LB, Greenberg SM, Horvath SE, Iadecola C, Jauch EC, Moore WS, Wilson JA; American Heart Association Stroke Council.; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing.; Council on Clinical Cardiology.; Council on Functional Genomics and Translational Biology.; Council on Hypertension.
Stroke 2014 Dec;45(12):3754-832. Epub 2014 Oct 28 doi: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000046. PMID: 25355838Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Diagnosis

Giorgio E, Vaula G, Bosco G, Giacone S, Mancini C, Calcia A, Cavalieri S, Di Gregorio E, Rigault De Longrais R, Leombruni S, Pinessi L, Cerrato P, Brusco A, Brussino A
J Neurol Sci 2015 May 15;352(1-2):99-104. Epub 2015 Apr 7 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2015.03.042. PMID: 25873210

Prognosis

Giorgio E, Vaula G, Bosco G, Giacone S, Mancini C, Calcia A, Cavalieri S, Di Gregorio E, Rigault De Longrais R, Leombruni S, Pinessi L, Cerrato P, Brusco A, Brussino A
J Neurol Sci 2015 May 15;352(1-2):99-104. Epub 2015 Apr 7 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2015.03.042. PMID: 25873210

Clinical prediction guides

Giorgio E, Vaula G, Bosco G, Giacone S, Mancini C, Calcia A, Cavalieri S, Di Gregorio E, Rigault De Longrais R, Leombruni S, Pinessi L, Cerrato P, Brusco A, Brussino A
J Neurol Sci 2015 May 15;352(1-2):99-104. Epub 2015 Apr 7 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2015.03.042. PMID: 25873210

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