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Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2J(CMT2J)

MedGen UID:
375107
Concept ID:
C1843153
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, Type 2J; Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Type 2, with hearing loss and pupillary abnormalities; Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy Type 1; CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH NEUROPATHY, TYPE 2J; CMT 2J; CMT2J
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Autosomal dominant inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
 
Gene (location): MPZ (1q23.3)
OMIM®: 607736
Orphanet: ORPHA99943

Definition

Charcot-Marie-Tooth hereditary neuropathy type 2 (CMT2) is an axonal (non-demyelinating) peripheral neuropathy characterized by distal muscle weakness and atrophy, mild sensory loss, and normal or near-normal nerve conduction velocities. CMT2 is clinically similar to CMT1, although typically less severe. Peripheral nerves are not enlarged or hypertrophic. The subtypes of CMT2 are similar clinically and distinguished only by molecular genetic findings. [from GTR]

Additional descriptions

From GeneReviews
Charcot-Marie-Tooth hereditary neuropathy type 2 (CMT2) is an axonal (non-demyelinating) peripheral neuropathy characterized by distal muscle weakness and atrophy, mild sensory loss, and normal or near-normal nerve conduction velocities. CMT2 is clinically similar to CMT1, although typically less severe. Peripheral nerves are not enlarged or hypertrophic. The subtypes of CMT2 are similar clinically and distinguished only by molecular genetic findings.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1285
From OMIM
For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT, see CMT2A1 (118210).  http://www.omim.org/entry/607736
From GHR
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a group of progressive disorders that affect the peripheral nerves. Peripheral nerves connect the brain and spinal cord to muscles and to sensory cells that detect sensations such as touch, pain, heat, and sound. Damage to the peripheral nerves can result in loss of sensation and wasting (atrophy) of muscles in the feet, legs, and hands.Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease usually becomes apparent in adolescence or early adulthood, but onset may occur anytime from early childhood through late adulthood. Symptoms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease vary in severity, even among members of the same family. Some people never realize they have the disorder, but most have a moderate amount of physical disability. A small percentage of people experience severe weakness or other problems which, in rare cases, can be life-threatening. In most affected individuals, however, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease does not affect life expectancy.Typically, the earliest symptoms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease involve balance difficulties, clumsiness, and muscle weakness in the feet. Affected individuals may have foot abnormalities such as high arches (pes cavus), flat feet (pes planus), or curled toes (hammer toes). They often have difficulty flexing the foot or walking on the heel of the foot. These difficulties may cause a higher than normal step (or gait) and increase the risk of ankle injuries and tripping.As the disease progresses, muscles in the lower legs usually weaken, but leg and foot problems rarely require the use of a wheelchair. Affected individuals may also develop weakness in the hands, causing difficulty with daily activities such as writing, fastening buttons, and turning doorknobs. People with this disorder typically experience a decreased sensitivity to touch, heat, and cold in the feet and lower legs, but occasionally feel aching or burning sensations. In some cases, affected individuals experience gradual hearing loss, deafness, or loss of vision.There are several types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Type 1 Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1) is characterized by abnormalities in myelin, the fatty substance that covers nerve cells, protecting them and helping to conduct nerve impulses. These abnormalities slow the transmission of nerve impulses. Type 2 Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2) is characterized by abnormalities in the fiber, or axon, that extends from a nerve cell body and transmits nerve impulses. These abnormalities reduce the strength of the nerve impulse. Type 4 Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT4) affects either the axon or myelin and is distinguished from the other types by its pattern of inheritance. In intermediate forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, the nerve impulses are both slowed and reduced in strength, probably due to abnormalities in both axons and myelin. Type X Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) is caused by mutations in a gene on the X chromosome, one of the two sex chromosomes. Within the various types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, subtypes (such as CMT1A, CMT1B, CMT2A, CMT4A, and CMTX1) are distinguished by the specific gene that is altered.Sometimes other, more historical names are used to describe this disorder. For example, Roussy-Levy syndrome is a form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease defined by the additional feature of rhythmic shaking (tremors). Dejerine-Sottas syndrome is a term sometimes used to describe a severe, early childhood form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease; it is also sometimes called Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 3 (CMT3). Depending on the specific gene that is altered, this severe, early onset form of the disorder may also be classified as CMT1 or CMT4. CMTX5 is also known as Rosenberg-Chutorian syndrome. Some researchers believe that this condition is not actually a form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Instead, they classify it as a separate disorder characterized by peripheral nerve problems, deafness, and vision loss.  https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/charcot-marie-tooth-disease

Clinical features

Congenital anomaly of eye
MedGen UID:
4623
Concept ID:
C0015393
Disease or Syndrome
A disorder of the eye that is present at birth. Representative examples include congenital cataract, congenital glaucoma, and astigmatism.
Footdrop
MedGen UID:
88451
Concept ID:
C0085684
Disease or Syndrome
Weakness of the muscles responsible for dorsiflexion of the foot, that is, of the movement of the toes towards the shin. The foot dorsiflexors include the tibialis anterior, the extensor hallucis longus, the extensor digitorum longus, and the peroneus tertius muscles.
Pes cavus
MedGen UID:
675590
Concept ID:
C0728829
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of an unusually high plantar arch. Also called high instep, pes cavus refers to a distinctly hollow form of the sole of the foot when it is bearing weight.
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
A symptom referring to difficulty in swallowing. It may be observed in patients with stroke, motor neuron disorders, cancer of the throat or mouth, head and neck injuries, Parkinson disease, and multiple sclerosis.
Sensorineural hearing loss
MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve.
Progressive sensorineural hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
335894
Concept ID:
C1843156
Disease or Syndrome
A progressive form of sensorineural hearing impairment.
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
A symptom referring to difficulty in swallowing. It may be observed in patients with stroke, motor neuron disorders, cancer of the throat or mouth, head and neck injuries, Parkinson disease, and multiple sclerosis.
Areflexia
MedGen UID:
115943
Concept ID:
C0234146
Finding
A finding indicating the complete absence of neurological reflexes.
Steppage gait
MedGen UID:
98105
Concept ID:
C0427149
Finding
An abnormal gait pattern that arises from weakness of the pretibial and peroneal muscles due to a lower motor neuron lesion. Affected patients have footdrop and are unable to dorsiflex and evert the foot. The leg is lifted high on walking so that the toes clear the ground, and there may be a slapping noise when the foot strikes the ground again.
Hyporeflexia
MedGen UID:
195967
Concept ID:
C0700078
Sign or Symptom
Reduction of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Peripheral demyelination
MedGen UID:
451074
Concept ID:
C0878575
Pathologic Function
A loss of myelin from the internode regions along myelinated nerve fibers of the peripheral nervous system.
Distal sensory impairment
MedGen UID:
335722
Concept ID:
C1847584
Finding
An abnormal reduction in sensation in the distal portions of the extremities.
Axonal degeneration/regeneration
MedGen UID:
368889
Concept ID:
C1968790
Finding
A pattern of simultaneous degeneration and regeneration of axons (see comment).
Abnormality of the respiratory system
MedGen UID:
866322
Concept ID:
C4018871
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of the respiratory system, which include the airways, lungs, and the respiratory muscles.
Footdrop
MedGen UID:
88451
Concept ID:
C0085684
Disease or Syndrome
Weakness of the muscles responsible for dorsiflexion of the foot, that is, of the movement of the toes towards the shin. The foot dorsiflexors include the tibialis anterior, the extensor hallucis longus, the extensor digitorum longus, and the peroneus tertius muscles.
Distal amyotrophy
MedGen UID:
338530
Concept ID:
C1848736
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular atrophy affecting muscles in the distal portions of the extremities.
Distal muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
355271
Concept ID:
C1864696
Finding
Reduced strength of the musculature of the distal extremities.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
Follow this link to review classifications for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2J in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Aretz S, Rautenstrauss B, Timmerman V
Eur J Hum Genet 2010 Sep;18(9) Epub 2010 May 26 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2010.75. PMID: 20512157Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Diagnosis

Gallardo E, García A, Ramón C, Maraví E, Infante J, Gastón I, Alonso Á, Combarros O, De Jonghe P, Berciano J
J Neurol 2009 Dec;256(12):2061-71. doi: 10.1007/s00415-009-5251-y. PMID: 19629567

Prognosis

Gallardo E, García A, Ramón C, Maraví E, Infante J, Gastón I, Alonso Á, Combarros O, De Jonghe P, Berciano J
J Neurol 2009 Dec;256(12):2061-71. doi: 10.1007/s00415-009-5251-y. PMID: 19629567

Clinical prediction guides

Leal A, Berghoff C, Berghoff M, Rojas-Araya M, Carolina O, Heuss D, Del Valle G, Rautenstrauss B
Rev Biol Trop 2014 Dec;62(4):1285-93. PMID: 25720167
Gallardo E, García A, Ramón C, Maraví E, Infante J, Gastón I, Alonso Á, Combarros O, De Jonghe P, Berciano J
J Neurol 2009 Dec;256(12):2061-71. doi: 10.1007/s00415-009-5251-y. PMID: 19629567

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