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Delayed gross motor development

MedGen UID:
332508
Concept ID:
C1837658
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
Synonyms: Delayed gross motor skills; Developmental delay, gross motor; Gross motor delay; Gross motor development delay; Gross motor developmental delay
SNOMED CT: Gross motor development delay (430099007)
 
HPO: HP:0002194

Definition

A type of motor delay characterized by a delay in acquiring the ability to control the large muscles of the body for walking, running, sitting, and crawling. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Duchenne muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
3925
Concept ID:
C0013264
Disease or Syndrome
The dystrophinopathies cover a spectrum of X-linked muscle disease ranging from mild to severe that includes Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Becker muscular dystrophy, and DMD-associated dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The mild end of the spectrum includes the phenotypes of asymptomatic increase in serum concentration of creatine phosphokinase (CK) and muscle cramps with myoglobinuria. The severe end of the spectrum includes progressive muscle diseases that are classified as Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy when skeletal muscle is primarily affected and as DMD-associated DCM when the heart is primarily affected. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) usually presents in early childhood with delayed motor milestones including delays in walking independently and standing up from a supine position. Proximal weakness causes a waddling gait and difficulty climbing stairs, running, jumping, and standing up from a squatting position. DMD is rapidly progressive, with affected children being wheelchair dependent by age 12 years. Cardiomyopathy occurs in almost all individuals with DMD after age 18 years. Few survive beyond the third decade, with respiratory complications and progressive cardiomyopathy being common causes of death. Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is characterized by later-onset skeletal muscle weakness. With improved diagnostic techniques, it has been recognized that the mild end of the spectrum includes men with onset of symptoms after age 30 years who remain ambulatory even into their 60s. Despite the milder skeletal muscle involvement, heart failure from DCM is a common cause of morbidity and the most common cause of death in BMD. Mean age of death is in the mid-40s. DMD-associated DCM is characterized by left ventricular dilation and congestive heart failure. Females heterozygous for a DMD pathogenic variant are at increased risk for DCM.
Fucosidosis
MedGen UID:
5288
Concept ID:
C0016788
Disease or Syndrome
Fucosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by defective alpha-L-fucosidase with accumulation of fucose in the tissues. Clinical features include angiokeratoma, progressive psychomotor retardation, neurologic signs, coarse facial features, and dysostosis multiplex. Fucosidosis has been classified into 2 major types. Type 1 is characterized by rapid psychomotor regression and severe neurologic deterioration beginning at about 6 months of age, elevated sweat sodium chloride, and death within the first decade of life. Type 2 is characterized by milder psychomotor retardation and neurologic signs, the development of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum, normal sweat salinity, and longer survival (Kousseff et al., 1976).
Purine-nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency
MedGen UID:
75653
Concept ID:
C0268125
Disease or Syndrome
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive immunodeficiency disorder characterized mainly by decreased T-cell function. Some patients also have neurologic impairment (review by Aust et al., 1992).
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliotic type 1
MedGen UID:
75672
Concept ID:
C0268342
Disease or Syndrome
PLOD1-related kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (kEDS) is an autosomal recessive generalized connective tissue disorder characterized by hypotonia, early-onset kyphoscoliosis, and generalized joint hypermobility in association with skin fragility and ocular abnormality. Intelligence is normal. Life span may be normal, but affected individuals are at risk for rupture of medium-sized arteries. Adults with severe kyphoscoliosis are at risk for complications from restrictive lung disease, recurrent pneumonia, and cardiac failure.
Hyperphosphatasemia with bone disease
MedGen UID:
75678
Concept ID:
C0268414
Disease or Syndrome
Paget disease of bone-5 is an autosomal recessive, juvenile-onset form of Paget disease, a disorder of the skeleton resulting from abnormal bone resorption and formation. Clinical manifestations include short stature, progressive long bone deformities, fractures, vertebral collapse, skull enlargement, and hyperostosis with progressive deafness. There is phenotypic variability, with some patients presenting in infancy, while others present later in childhood (summary by Naot et al., 2014). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Paget disease of bone, see 167250.
Familial X-linked hypophosphatemic vitamin D refractory rickets
MedGen UID:
196551
Concept ID:
C0733682
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) ranges from isolated hypophosphatemia to severe lower-extremity bowing. XLH frequently manifests in the first two years of life when lower-extremity bowing becomes evident with the onset of weight bearing; however, it sometimes is not manifest until adulthood, as previously unevaluated short stature. In adults, enthesopathy (calcification of the tendons, ligaments, and joint capsules) associated with joint pain and impaired mobility may be the initial presenting complaint. Persons with XLH are prone to spontaneous dental abscesses; sensorineural hearing loss has also been reported.
UDPglucose-4-epimerase deficiency
MedGen UID:
199598
Concept ID:
C0751161
Disease or Syndrome
Epimerase deficiency galactosemia (GALE deficiency galactosemia) is generally considered a continuum comprising several forms: Generalized. Enzyme activity is profoundly decreased in all tissues tested. Peripheral. Enzyme activity is deficient in red blood cells (RBC) and circulating white blood cells, but normal or near normal in all other tissues. Intermediate. Enzyme activity is deficient in red blood cells and circulating white blood cells and less than 50% of normal levels in other cells tested. Infants with generalized epimerase deficiency galactosemia develop clinical findings on a regular milk diet (which contains lactose, a disaccharide of galactose and glucose); manifestations include hypotonia, poor feeding, vomiting, weight loss, jaundice, hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, aminoaciduria, and cataracts. Prompt removal of galactose/lactose from their diet resolves or prevents these acute symptoms. Longer-term features that may be seen in those with generalized epimerase deficiency include short stature, developmental delay, sensorineural hearing loss, and skeletal anomalies. In contrast, neonates with the peripheral or intermediate form generally remain clinically well even on a regular milk diet and are usually only identified by biochemical testing, often in newborn screening programs.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 9
MedGen UID:
167112
Concept ID:
C0796215
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
X-linked intellectual developmental disorder-9 (XLID9) is characterized by moderately to severely impaired intellectual development. Some patients have also been reported with delayed motor development, seizures, and/or behavioral problems (Hamel et al., 1999; Froyen et al., 2007).
Intellectual disability, X-linked 30
MedGen UID:
163235
Concept ID:
C0796237
Disease or Syndrome
Any non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PAK3 gene.
Human HOXA1 syndromes
MedGen UID:
330410
Concept ID:
C1832215
Disease or Syndrome
Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the HOXA1 gene result in disorders with variable phenotypic expressivity that span a spectrum. Two related, but somewhat distinctive, phenotypes have been described in different populations: the Athabaskan brainstem dysgenesis syndrome (ABDS) in Native Americans, and Bosley-Salih-Alorainy syndrome (BSAS) in individuals from the Middle East, including Turkey and Saudi Arabia. Features common to both disorders include Duane retraction syndrome with variable gaze palsies, sensorineural deafness associated with inner ear abnormalities, and delayed motor development. More variable features, observed in both disorders, include conotruncal cardiac malformations, cerebral vascular malformations, and impaired intellectual development with autism. Unique to ABDS are central hypoventilation, often resulting in early death, facial weakness, and more severe cognitive deficits. These features are thought to be due to a more severe malformation of the hindbrain in ABDS compared to BSAS (summary by Tischfield et al., 2005).
Platyspondylic dysplasia, Torrance type
MedGen UID:
331974
Concept ID:
C1835437
Disease or Syndrome
The Torrance type of platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia (PLSDT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by varying platyspondyly, short ribs with anterior cupping, hypoplasia of the lower ilia with broad ischial and pubic bones, and shortening of the tubular bones with splayed and cupped metaphyses. Histology of the growth plate typically shows focal hypercellularity with slightly enlarged chondrocytes in the resting cartilage and relatively well-preserved columnar formation and ossification at the chondroosseous junction. Though generally lethal in the perinatal period, longer survival has been reported (summary by Zankl et al., 2005).
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with congenital joint dislocations
MedGen UID:
373381
Concept ID:
C1837657
Disease or Syndrome
CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal.
Joubert syndrome with renal defect
MedGen UID:
335526
Concept ID:
C1846790
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B5
MedGen UID:
335764
Concept ID:
C1847759
Disease or Syndrome
MDDGB5 is an autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy with impaired intellectual development and structural brain abnormalities (Brockington et al., 2001). It is part of a group of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Mercuri et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B, see MDDGB1 (613155).
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type 7B
MedGen UID:
342092
Concept ID:
C1851801
Disease or Syndrome
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of disorders that affect connective tissues supporting the skin, bones, blood vessels, and many other organs and tissues. Defects in connective tissues cause the signs and symptoms of these conditions, which range from mildly loose joints to life-threatening complications.\n\nThe various forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have been classified in several different ways. Originally, 11 forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome were named using Roman numerals to indicate the types (type I, type II, and so on). In 1997, researchers proposed a simpler classification (the Villefranche nomenclature) that reduced the number of types to six and gave them descriptive names based on their major features. In 2017, the classification was updated to include rare forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that were identified more recently. The 2017 classification describes 13 types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.\n\nAn unusually large range of joint movement (hypermobility) occurs in most forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and it is a hallmark feature of the hypermobile type. Infants and children with hypermobility often have weak muscle tone (hypotonia), which can delay the development of motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking. The loose joints are unstable and prone to dislocation and chronic pain. In the arthrochalasia type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, infants have hypermobility and dislocations of both hips at birth.\n\nMany people with the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes have soft, velvety skin that is highly stretchy (elastic) and fragile. Affected individuals tend to bruise easily, and some types of the condition also cause abnormal scarring. People with the classical form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome experience wounds that split open with little bleeding and leave scars that widen over time to create characteristic "cigarette paper" scars. The dermatosparaxis type of the disorder is characterized by loose skin that sags and wrinkles, and extra (redundant) folds of skin may be present.\n\nOther types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have additional signs and symptoms. The cardiac-valvular type causes severe problems with the valves that control the movement of blood through the heart. People with the kyphoscoliotic type experience severe curvature of the spine that worsens over time and can interfere with breathing by restricting lung expansion. A type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome called brittle cornea syndrome is characterized by thinness of the clear covering of the eye (the cornea) and other eye abnormalities. The spondylodysplastic type features short stature and skeletal abnormalities such as abnormally curved (bowed) limbs. Abnormalities of muscles, including hypotonia and permanently bent joints (contractures), are among the characteristic signs of the musculocontractural and myopathic forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The periodontal type causes abnormalities of the teeth and gums.\n\nBleeding problems are common in the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and are caused by unpredictable tearing (rupture) of blood vessels and organs. These complications can lead to easy bruising, internal bleeding, a hole in the wall of the intestine (intestinal perforation), or stroke. During pregnancy, women with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome may experience rupture of the uterus. Additional forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that involve rupture of the blood vessels include the kyphoscoliotic, classical, and classical-like types.
Deafness with labyrinthine aplasia, microtia, and microdontia
MedGen UID:
342803
Concept ID:
C1853144
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital deafness with labyrinthine aplasia, microtia, and microdontia (LAMM syndrome) is characterized by: profound bilateral congenital sensorineural deafness associated with inner ear anomalies (most often bilateral complete labyrinthine aplasia); microtia (type I) that is typically bilateral (although unilateral microtia and normal external ears are observed on occasion); and microdontia (small teeth). Individuals with LAMM syndrome commonly have motor delays during infancy presumably due to impaired balance from inner ear (vestibular) abnormalities. Growth, physical development, and cognition are normal.
Nemaline myopathy 7
MedGen UID:
343979
Concept ID:
C1853154
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-7 is an autosomal recessive congenital myopathy characterized by very early onset of hypotonia and delayed motor development. Affected individuals have difficulty walking and running due to proximal muscle weakness. The disorder is slowly progressive, and patients may lose independent ambulation. Muscle biopsy shows nemaline rods and may later show minicores, abnormal protein aggregates, and dystrophic changes (summary by Ockeloen et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see 161800.
Nemaline myopathy 5
MedGen UID:
344273
Concept ID:
C1854380
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive severe infantile nemaline myopathy-5A (NEM5A) is a skeletal muscle disorder characterized by symptom onset soon after birth or in early infancy. Affected infants show axial hypotonia, stiffness, rigid spine with progressive kyphosis, pectus deformities, and contractures or limited movement of the large joints. Some patients show transient tremors. There is muscle atrophy and poor gross motor development. Respiratory insufficiency develops in the first years of life, often leading to death. Muscle biopsy shows nemaline rods (Johnston et al., 2000; Geraud et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM2 (256030).
Methylmalonic aciduria, cblB type
MedGen UID:
344420
Concept ID:
C1855102
Disease or Syndrome
For this GeneReview, the term "isolated methylmalonic acidemia" refers to a group of inborn errors of metabolism associated with elevated methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentration in the blood and urine that result from the failure to isomerize (convert) methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) into succinyl-CoA during propionyl-CoA metabolism in the mitochondrial matrix, without hyperhomocysteinemia or homocystinuria, hypomethioninemia, or variations in other metabolites, such as malonic acid. Isolated MMA is caused by complete or partial deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (mut0 enzymatic subtype or mut– enzymatic subtype, respectively), a defect in the transport or synthesis of its cofactor, 5-deoxy-adenosyl-cobalamin (cblA, cblB, or cblD-MMA), or deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. Prior to the advent of newborn screening, common phenotypes included: Infantile/non-B12-responsive form (mut0 enzymatic subtype, cblB), the most common phenotype, associated with infantile-onset lethargy, tachypnea, hypothermia, vomiting, and dehydration on initiation of protein-containing feeds. Without appropriate treatment, the infantile/non-B12-responsive phenotype could rapidly progress to coma due to hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Partially deficient or B12-responsive phenotypes (mut– enzymatic subtype, cblA, cblB [rare], cblD-MMA), in which symptoms occur in the first few months or years of life and are characterized by feeding problems, failure to thrive, hypotonia, and developmental delay marked by episodes of metabolic decompensation. Methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase deficiency, in which findings range from complete absence of symptoms to severe metabolic acidosis. Affected individuals can also develop ataxia, dysarthria, hypotonia, mild spastic paraparesis, and seizures. In those individuals diagnosed by newborn screening and treated from an early age, there appears to be decreased early mortality, less severe symptoms at diagnosis, favorable short-term neurodevelopmental outcome, and lower incidence of movement disorders and irreversible cerebral damage. However, secondary complications may still occur and can include intellectual disability, tubulointerstitial nephritis with progressive impairment of renal function, "metabolic stroke" (bilateral lacunar infarction of the basal ganglia during acute metabolic decompensation), pancreatitis, growth failure, functional immune impairment, bone marrow failure, optic nerve atrophy, arrhythmias and/or cardiomyopathy (dilated or hypertrophic), liver steatosis/fibrosis/cancer, and renal cancer.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 deficiency
MedGen UID:
343386
Concept ID:
C1855565
Disease or Syndrome
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of neurological problems. Signs and symptoms of this condition usually first appear shortly after birth, and they can vary widely among affected individuals. The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, vomiting, severe breathing problems, and an abnormal heartbeat. People with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency usually have neurological problems as well. Most have delayed development of mental abilities and motor skills such as sitting and walking. Other neurological problems can include intellectual disability, seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), poor coordination, and difficulty walking. Some affected individuals have abnormal brain structures, such as underdevelopment of the tissue connecting the left and right halves of the brain (corpus callosum), wasting away (atrophy) of the exterior part of the brain known as the cerebral cortex, or patches of damaged tissue (lesions) on some parts of the brain. Because of the severe health effects, many individuals with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency do not survive past childhood, although some may live into adolescence or adulthood.
Cenani-Lenz syndactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
395226
Concept ID:
C1859309
Disease or Syndrome
Cenani-Lenz syndactyly syndrome (CLSS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by mainly by anomalies of distal limb development, with fusion and disorganization of metacarpal and phalangeal bones, radius and ulnar shortening, radioulnar synostosis, and severe syndactyly of hands and feet. Mild facial dysmorphism is present in most patients. Kidney anomalies, including renal agenesis and hypoplasia, occur in over half of patients (summary by Li et al., 2010).
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 29
MedGen UID:
350085
Concept ID:
C1861732
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-29 (SCA29) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by onset in infancy of delayed motor development and mild cognitive delay. Affected individuals develop a very slowly progressive or nonprogressive gait and limb ataxia associated with cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging. Additional variable features include nystagmus, dysarthria, and tremor (summary by Huang et al., 2012). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, musculocontractural type
MedGen UID:
356497
Concept ID:
C1866294
Disease or Syndrome
Bleeding problems are common in the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and are caused by unpredictable tearing (rupture) of blood vessels and organs. These complications can lead to easy bruising, internal bleeding, a hole in the wall of the intestine (intestinal perforation), or stroke. During pregnancy, women with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome may experience rupture of the uterus. Additional forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that involve rupture of the blood vessels include the kyphoscoliotic, classical, and classical-like types.\n\nOther types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have additional signs and symptoms. The cardiac-valvular type causes severe problems with the valves that control the movement of blood through the heart. People with the kyphoscoliotic type experience severe curvature of the spine that worsens over time and can interfere with breathing by restricting lung expansion. A type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome called brittle cornea syndrome is characterized by thinness of the clear covering of the eye (the cornea) and other eye abnormalities. The spondylodysplastic type features short stature and skeletal abnormalities such as abnormally curved (bowed) limbs. Abnormalities of muscles, including hypotonia and permanently bent joints (contractures), are among the characteristic signs of the musculocontractural and myopathic forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The periodontal type causes abnormalities of the teeth and gums.\n\nMany people with the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes have soft, velvety skin that is highly stretchy (elastic) and fragile. Affected individuals tend to bruise easily, and some types of the condition also cause abnormal scarring. People with the classical form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome experience wounds that split open with little bleeding and leave scars that widen over time to create characteristic "cigarette paper" scars. The dermatosparaxis type of the disorder is characterized by loose skin that sags and wrinkles, and extra (redundant) folds of skin may be present.\n\nAn unusually large range of joint movement (hypermobility) occurs in most forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and it is a hallmark feature of the hypermobile type. Infants and children with hypermobility often have weak muscle tone (hypotonia), which can delay the development of motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking. The loose joints are unstable and prone to dislocation and chronic pain. In the arthrochalasia type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, infants have hypermobility and dislocations of both hips at birth.\n\nThe various forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have been classified in several different ways. Originally, 11 forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome were named using Roman numerals to indicate the types (type I, type II, and so on). In 1997, researchers proposed a simpler classification (the Villefranche nomenclature) that reduced the number of types to six and gave them descriptive names based on their major features. In 2017, the classification was updated to include rare forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that were identified more recently. The 2017 classification describes 13 types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.\n\nEhlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of disorders that affect connective tissues supporting the skin, bones, blood vessels, and many other organs and tissues. Defects in connective tissues cause the signs and symptoms of these conditions, which range from mildly loose joints to life-threatening complications.
Oculodentodigital dysplasia, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
412708
Concept ID:
C2749477
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive form of oculodentodigital dysplasia.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, encephalomyopathic form with methylmalonic aciduria
MedGen UID:
413170
Concept ID:
C2749864
Disease or Syndrome
SUCLA2-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome, encephalomyopathic form with methylmalonic aciduria is characterized by onset of the following features in infancy or childhood (median age of onset 2 months; range of onset birth to 6 years): psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, dystonia, muscular atrophy, sensorineural hearing impairment, postnatal growth retardation, and feeding difficulties. Other less frequent features include distinctive facial features, contractures, kyphoscoliosis, gastroesophageal reflux, ptosis, choreoathetosis, ophthalmoplegia, and epilepsy (infantile spasms or generalized convulsions). The median survival is 20 years; approximately 30% of affected individuals succumb during childhood. Affected individuals may have hyperintensities in the basal ganglia, cerebral atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy on head MRI. Elevation of methylmalonic acid (MMA) in the urine and plasma is found in a vast majority of affected individuals, although at levels that are far below those typically seen in individuals with classic methylmalonic aciduria.
Cortical dysplasia-focal epilepsy syndrome
MedGen UID:
413258
Concept ID:
C2750246
Disease or Syndrome
Pitt-Hopkins-like syndrome-1 (PTHSL1) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, severe speech impairment or regression, and behavioral abnormalities. Most patients have onset of seizures within the first years of life. Some patients may have cortical dysplasia on brain imaging (summary by Smogavec et al., 2016).
Oxoglutaricaciduria
MedGen UID:
414553
Concept ID:
C2752074
Disease or Syndrome
Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase deficiency (OGDHD) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with features of infantile- and pediatric-onset basal ganglia-associated movement disorders, hypotonia, developmental delays, ataxia, and seizures (summary by Yap et al., 2021).
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, myopathic form
MedGen UID:
461100
Concept ID:
C3149750
Disease or Syndrome
TK2-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance defect is a phenotypic continuum that ranges from severe to mild. To date, approximately 107 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis have been reported. Three main subtypes of presentation have been described: Infantile-onset myopathy with neurologic involvement and rapid progression to early death. Affected individuals experience progressive muscle weakness leading to respiratory failure. Some individuals develop dysarthria, dysphagia, and/or hearing loss. Cognitive function is typically spared. Juvenile/childhood onset with generalized proximal weakness and survival to at least 13 years. Late-/adult-onset myopathy with facial and limb weakness and mtDNA deletions. Some affected individuals develop respiratory insufficiency, chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, dysphagia, and dysarthria.
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome due to EP300 haploinsufficiency
MedGen UID:
462291
Concept ID:
C3150941
Disease or Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, short stature, and moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low-hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal, then height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Short stature is typical in adulthood. Obesity may develop in childhood or adolescence. Average IQ ranges between 35 and 50; however, developmental outcome varies considerably. Some individuals with EP300-RSTS have normal intellect. Additional features include ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, respiratory difficulties, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, feeding problems, recurrent infections, and severe constipation.
CHROMOSOME 1p32-p31 DELETION SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
462386
Concept ID:
C3151036
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type 3B
MedGen UID:
482696
Concept ID:
C3281066
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type III is characterized by postlingual, progressive hearing loss, variable vestibular dysfunction, and onset of retinitis pigmentosa symptoms, including nyctalopia, constriction of the visual fields, and loss of central visual acuity, usually by the second decade of life (Karjalainen et al., 1983; Pakarinen et al., 1995). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of type III Usher syndrome, see USH3A (276902).
Adams-Oliver syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
766662
Concept ID:
C3553748
Disease or Syndrome
Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is characterized by aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) of the scalp and terminal transverse limb defects (TTLD). ACC lesions usually occur in the midline of the parietal or occipital regions, but can also occur on the abdomen or limbs. At birth, an ACC lesion may already have the appearance of a healed scar. ACC lesions less than 5 cm often involve only the skin and almost always heal over a period of months; larger lesions are more likely to involve the skull and possibly the dura, and are at greater risk for complications, which can include infection, hemorrhage, or thrombosis, and can result in death. The limb defects range from mild (unilateral or bilateral short distal phalanges) to severe (complete absence of all toes or fingers, feet or hands, or more, often resembling an amputation). The lower extremities are almost always more severely affected than the upper extremities. Additional major features frequently include cardiovascular malformations/dysfunction (23%), brain anomalies, and less frequently renal, liver, and eye anomalies.
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 13
MedGen UID:
766801
Concept ID:
C3553887
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. Due to considerable phenotypic variability, Sillence et al. (1979) developed a classification of OI subtypes based on clinical features and disease severity: OI type I, with blue sclerae (166200); perinatal lethal OI type II, also known as congenital OI (166210); OI type III, a progressively deforming form with normal sclerae (259420); and OI type IV, with normal sclerae (166220). Most cases of OI are autosomal dominant with mutations in 1 of the 2 genes that code for type I collagen alpha chains, COL1A1 (120150) and COL1A2 (120160). Martinez-Glez et al. (2012) described osteogenesis imperfecta type XIII, an autosomal recessive form of the disorder characterized by normal teeth, faint blue sclerae, severe growth deficiency, borderline osteoporosis, and an average of 10 to 15 fractures a year affecting both upper and lower limbs and with severe bone deformity.
Infantile liver failure syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
815852
Concept ID:
C3809522
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, parenchymal hepatic disease characterized by acute liver failure, that occurs in the first year of life, which manifests with failure to thrive, hypotonia, moderate global developmental delay, seizures, abnormal liver function tests, microcytic anemia and elevated serum lactate. Other associated features include hepatosteatosis and fibrosis, abnormal brain morphology, and renal tubulopathy. Minor illness exacerbates deterioration of liver failure.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, musculocontractural type 2
MedGen UID:
816175
Concept ID:
C3809845
Disease or Syndrome
The musculocontractural type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDSMC2) is characterized by progressive multisystem fragility-related manifestations, including joint dislocations and deformities; skin hyperextensibility, bruisability, and fragility, with recurrent large subcutaneous hematomas; cardiac valvular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and ophthalmologic complications; and myopathy, featuring muscle hypoplasia, muscle weakness, and an abnormal muscle fiber pattern in histology in adulthood, resulting in gross motor developmental delay (summary by Muller et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the musculocontractural type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, see EDSMC1 (601776).
Rienhoff syndrome
MedGen UID:
816342
Concept ID:
C3810012
Disease or Syndrome
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant.
Hyperphosphatasia with intellectual disability syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
816684
Concept ID:
C3810354
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome-4 (HPMRS4) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development, impaired intellectual development, lack of speech acquisition, seizures, and dysmorphic facial features. Laboratory studies show increased serum alkaline phosphatase (summary by Howard et al., 2014). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HPMRS, see HPMRS1 (239300). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
860487
Concept ID:
C4012050
Disease or Syndrome
Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome (HKLLS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized lymphatic dysplasia affecting various organs, including the intestinal tract, pericardium, and limbs. Additional features of the disorder include facial dysmorphism and cognitive impairment (summary by Alders et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hennekam Lymphangiectasia-Lymphedema Syndrome See also HKLLS2 (616006), caused by mutation in the FAT4 gene (612411) on chromosome 4q28, and HKLLS3 (618154), caused by mutation in the ADAMTS3 gene (605011) on chromosome 4q13.
Intellectual disability-severe speech delay-mild dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
862201
Concept ID:
C4013764
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual developmental disorder with language impairment and with or without autistic features is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with moderate to severe speech delay that particularly affects expressive speech. Most patients have articulation defects, but frank verbal dyspraxia is not observed. Common dysmorphic features include broad forehead, downslanting palpebral fissures, short nose with broad tip, relative macrocephaly, frontal hair upsweep, and prominent digit pads. Gross motor skills are also delayed. Some patients have autistic features and/or behavioral problems. All reported cases have occurred de novo (review by Le Fevre et al., 2013).
Congenital sideroblastic anemia-B-cell immunodeficiency-periodic fever-developmental delay syndrome
MedGen UID:
863609
Concept ID:
C4015172
Disease or Syndrome
Sideroblastic anemia with B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD) is an autosomal recessive syndromic disorder characterized by onset of severe sideroblastic anemia in the neonatal period or infancy. Affected individuals show delayed psychomotor development with variable neurodegeneration. Recurrent periodic fevers without an infectious etiology occur throughout infancy and childhood; immunologic work-up shows B-cell lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia. Other more variable features include sensorineural hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa, nephrocalcinosis, and cardiomyopathy. Death in the first decade may occur (summary by Wiseman et al., 2013).
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 46
MedGen UID:
863720
Concept ID:
C4015283
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the NDST1 gene.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 39
MedGen UID:
909304
Concept ID:
C4225296
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant condition caused by mutation(s) in the MYT1L gene, encoding myelin transcription factor 1-like protein. It is characterized by intellectual disability and mild dysmorphic facial features.
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 17
MedGen UID:
903845
Concept ID:
C4225301
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of genetic disorders that mainly affect the bones. The term "osteogenesis imperfecta" means imperfect bone formation. People with this condition have bones that break (fracture) easily, often from mild trauma or with no apparent cause. Multiple fractures are common, and in severe cases, can occur even before birth. Milder cases may involve only a few fractures over a person's lifetime.\n\nThe milder forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, including type I, are characterized by bone fractures during childhood and adolescence that often result from minor trauma, such as falling while learning to walk. Fractures occur less frequently in adulthood. People with mild forms of the condition typically have a blue or grey tint to the part of the eye that is usually white (the sclera), and about half develop hearing loss in adulthood. Unlike more severely affected individuals, people with type I are usually of normal or near normal height.\n\nThere are at least 19 recognized forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, designated type I through type XIX. Several types are distinguished by their signs and symptoms, although their characteristic features overlap. Increasingly, genetic causes are used to define rarer forms of osteogenesis imperfecta. Type I (also known as classic non-deforming osteogenesis imperfecta with blue sclerae) is the mildest form of osteogenesis imperfecta. Type II (also known as perinatally lethal osteogenesis imperfecta) is the most severe. Other types of this condition, including types III (progressively deforming osteogenesis imperfecta) and IV (common variable osteogenesis imperfecta with normal sclerae), have signs and symptoms that fall somewhere between these two extremes.\n\nOther types of osteogenesis imperfecta are more severe, causing frequent bone fractures that are present at birth and result from little or no trauma. Additional features of these types can include blue sclerae of the eyes, short stature, curvature of the spine (scoliosis), joint deformities (contractures), hearing loss, respiratory problems, and a disorder of tooth development called dentinogenesis imperfecta. Mobility can be reduced in affected individuals, and some may use a walker or wheelchair. The most severe forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, particularly type II, can include an abnormally small, fragile rib cage and underdeveloped lungs. Infants with these abnormalities may have life-threatening problems with breathing and can die shortly after birth.
Houge-Janssens syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
899880
Concept ID:
C4225352
Disease or Syndrome
PPP2R1A-related neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) is characterized by: severe, persistent hypotonia; developmental delay with variable intellectual outcomes, typically in the moderate-to-severe intellectual disability range; seizures (more commonly seen in individuals with microcephaly and/or severe intellectual disability); attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other behavioral problems (anxiousness, repetitive movements, self-injurious or destructive behavior, and autism spectrum disorder); feeding and swallowing issues; and dysmorphic features of the head and face. A minority of affected individuals have ear anomalies, hearing loss, ptosis, generalized joint hypermobility, and patent ductus arteriosus. Brain MRI findings are nonspecific but typically include complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum. Nonprogressive ventriculomegaly may be seen in a subset of affected individuals and is often associated with specific pathogenic variants in PPP2R1A: c.544C>T (p.Arg182Trp) and c.547C>T (p.Arg183Trp).
Intellectual disability, X-linked, syndromic 33
MedGen UID:
895979
Concept ID:
C4225418
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder-33 (MRXS33) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features (summary by O'Rawe et al., 2015).
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and ptosis
MedGen UID:
934584
Concept ID:
C4310617
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and ptosis (IDDDFP) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, delayed language, and dysmorphic facial features, most notably ptosis/blepharophimosis. Additional features may include poor growth, hypotonia, and seizures (summary by Mattioli et al., 2017). See also chromosome 3p deletion syndrome (613792).
Dystonia, childhood-onset, with optic atrophy and basal ganglia abnormalities
MedGen UID:
934601
Concept ID:
C4310634
Disease or Syndrome
MECR-related neurologic disorder is characterized by a progressive childhood-onset movement disorder and optic atrophy; intellect is often – but not always – preserved. The movement disorder typically presents between ages one and 6.5 years and is mainly dystonia that can be accompanied by chorea and/or ataxia. Over time some affected individuals require assistive devices for mobility. Speech fluency and intelligibility are progressively impaired due to dysarthria. Optic atrophy typically develops between ages four and 12 years and manifests as reduced visual acuity, which can include functional blindness (also known as legal blindness) in adulthood. Because only 13 affected individuals are known to the authors, and because nearly half of them were diagnosed retrospectively as adults, the natural history of disease progression and other aspects of the phenotype have not yet been completely defined.
Lissencephaly 8
MedGen UID:
934613
Concept ID:
C4310646
Disease or Syndrome
Lissencephaly-8 (LIS8) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability with poor or absent speech, early-onset refractory seizures, and hypotonia. Brain imaging shows variable features, including cortical gyral abnormalities and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, brainstem, and cerebellum (Jerber et al., 2016). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432).
Periventricular nodular heterotopia 7
MedGen UID:
934636
Concept ID:
C4310669
Disease or Syndrome
Periventricular nodular heterotopia-7 (PVNH7) is a neurologic disorder characterized by abnormal neuronal migration during brain development resulting in delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability; some patients develop seizures. Other features include cleft palate and 2-3 toe syndactyly (summary by Broix et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of periventricular heterotopia, see 300049.
Microcephaly 17, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
934690
Concept ID:
C4310723
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly-17 (MCPH17) is a severe neurologic disorder characterized by very small head circumference that is apparent at birth and worsens over time (up to -12 SD). Affected individuals have delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, spasticity, axial hypotonia, and dysmorphic features. Brain imaging shows a simplified gyral pattern; more severe cases have lissencephaly with hypoplasia of the brainstem and cerebellum (summary by Harding et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, autosomal recessive, type 2a2b;
MedGen UID:
934692
Concept ID:
C4310725
Disease or Syndrome
MFN2 hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (MFN2-HMSN) is a classic axonal peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, inherited in either an autosomal dominant (AD) manner (~90%) or an autosomal recessive (AR) manner (~10%). MFN2-HMSN is characterized by more severe involvement of the lower extremities than the upper extremities, distal upper-extremity involvement as the neuropathy progresses, more prominent motor deficits than sensory deficits, and normal (>42 m/s) or only slightly decreased nerve conduction velocities (NCVs). Postural tremor is common. Median onset is age 12 years in the AD form and age eight years in the AR form. The prevalence of optic atrophy is approximately 7% in the AD form and approximately 20% in the AR form.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 2F
MedGen UID:
934724
Concept ID:
C4310757
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2F (PCH2F) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by progressive microcephaly and variable neurologic signs and symptoms, including cognitive and motor delay, poor or absent speech, seizures, and spasticity (summary by Breuss et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2, see PCH2A (277470).
Intellectual disability, X-linked 104
MedGen UID:
934784
Concept ID:
C4310817
Disease or Syndrome
Any non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the FRMPD4 gene.
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, seizures, and distal limb anomalies
MedGen UID:
1375601
Concept ID:
C4479520
Disease or Syndrome
IDDFSDA is an autosomal recessive severe multisystem disorder characterized by poor overall growth, developmental delay, early-onset seizures, intellectual disability, and dysmorphic features. There is phenotypic variability. The most severely affected patients have a neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, absent speech, and inability to walk, and they require feeding tubes. Some patients have congenital heart defects or nonspecific abnormalities on brain imaging. Less severely affected individuals have mild to moderate intellectual disability with normal speech and motor development (summary by Santiago-Sim et al., 2017).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, neuropathy, and deafness
MedGen UID:
1382171
Concept ID:
C4479603
Disease or Syndrome
SPTBN4 disorder is typically characterized by severe-to-profound developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, although two individuals in one family had a milder phenotype, including one individual with normal cognitive development. Speech and language skills are often severely limited. Affected individuals rarely achieve head control. Most are unable to sit, stand, or walk. Affected individuals typically have congenital hypotonia that may transition to hypertonia. Axonal motor neuropathy leads to hyporeflexia/areflexia and weakness, which can result in respiratory difficulties requiring ventilatory support. Most affected individuals require tube feeding for nutrition. Half of affected individuals develop seizures. Cortical visual impairment and auditory neuropathy have also been reported.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 53
MedGen UID:
1623344
Concept ID:
C4540481
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Neurodevelopmental disorder with ataxic gait, absent speech, and decreased cortical white matter
MedGen UID:
1621102
Concept ID:
C4540498
Disease or Syndrome
NDAGSCW is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have delayed and difficulty walking, intellectual disability, absent speech, and variable additional features, including hip dysplasia, tapering fingers, and seizures. Brain imaging shows decreased cortical white matter, often with decreased cerebellar white matter, thin corpus callosum, and thin brainstem (summary by Lamers et al., 2017).
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, arthrochalasia type
MedGen UID:
1645042
Concept ID:
C4551623
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrochalasia-type EDS is distinguished from other types of EDS by the frequency of congenital hip dislocation and extreme joint laxity with recurrent joint subluxations and minimal skin involvement (Byers et al., 1997; Giunta et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Arthrochalasia-type Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome See EDSARTH2 (617821), caused by mutation in the COL1A2 gene (120160).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, epilepsy, and brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1637443
Concept ID:
C4693390
Disease or Syndrome
NEDMEBA is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by global developmental delay, severe intellectual disability with poor or absent speech and autistic stereotypic behaviors, microcephaly, early-onset generalized seizures, and hypotonia (summary by Marin-Valencia et al., 2018).
Microcephaly 20, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1641618
Concept ID:
C4693572
Congenital Abnormality
Chromosome 1p35 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
1632676
Concept ID:
C4693669
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia 42, early-onset, severe, with neurodevelopmental deficits
MedGen UID:
1648308
Concept ID:
C4748120
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with epilepsy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1648487
Concept ID:
C4748137
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with hypertelorism and distinctive facies
MedGen UID:
1648403
Concept ID:
C4748381
Disease or Syndrome
Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 9
MedGen UID:
1648399
Concept ID:
C4748540
Disease or Syndrome
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-9 is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by profoundly impaired motor and cognitive development apparent from early infancy. Affected individuals develop intractable seizures and are unable to speak or ambulate. Brain imaging shows pachygyria as well as hypogenesis of the corpus callosum and other variable brain abnormalities. The phenotype results from impaired cortical neuronal migration (summary by Schaffer et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039).
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 21
MedGen UID:
1648383
Concept ID:
C4748792
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, cataracts, impaired intellectual development, and dystonia with abnormal striatum
MedGen UID:
1648355
Concept ID:
C4748984
Disease or Syndrome
The MCIDDS syndrome is characterized by microcephaly and growth retardation, congenital cataracts, impaired intellectual development with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, and dystonia, with striatal thinning seen on MRI (Al-Owain et al., 2013).
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 20
MedGen UID:
1684324
Concept ID:
C5190595
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-20 is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development with poor or absent speech, wide-based or absent gait, coarse facies, and cerebellar atrophy (summary by Thomas et al., 2014).
Facial dysmorphism, hypertrichosis, epilepsy, intellectual/developmental delay, and gingival overgrowth syndrome
MedGen UID:
1679105
Concept ID:
C5193066
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by variable intellectual disability and/or developmental delay, epilepsy, generalized hypertrichosis, severe gingival overgrowth and visual impairment in some patients. Common craniofacial features include bitemporal narrowing, bushy and straight eyebrows, long eyelashes, low-set ears, deep/short philtrum, everted upper lip, prominent upper and lower vermilion, wide mouth, micrognathia, and retrognathia.
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, kondo-fu type
MedGen UID:
1683128
Concept ID:
C5193071
Disease or Syndrome
The Kondo-Fu type of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SEDKF) is characterized by severely retarded growth and skeletal anomalies, including spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with associated kyphosis and reduced bone mineral density. Elevated levels of blood lysosomal enzymes have also been observed (Kondo et al., 2018).
Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine
MedGen UID:
1680160
Concept ID:
C5193080
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine (GDPAG) present in early childhood with delay of both gross and fine motor skills and delayed speech. Ataxia develops by mid- to late childhood, necessitating use of a walker or wheelchair. Plasma glutamine is persistently elevated by a factor of 2.5 despite normal plasma ammonia levels. Residual glutaminase (GLS) activity can be detected in fibroblasts and lymphocytes. One or both alleles of the GLS gene carry an expanded GCA trinucleotide repeat in the 5-prime untranslated region (UTR); the repeat expansion may be found in compound heterozygosity with another GLS mutation. Three patients have been reported (summary by van Kuilenburg et al., 2019).
Developmental delay with or without dysmorphic facies and autism
MedGen UID:
1679263
Concept ID:
C5193106
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with or without dysmorphic facies and autism (DEDDFA) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder apparent from infancy or early childhood and associated with variably impaired intellectual development. Some patients may be severely affected with no speech and inability to walk, whereas others may be able to attend special schools or have normal intellectual function associated with autism spectrum disorder and mild speech delay. Genetic analysis has suggested that the phenotype can be broadly categorized into 2 main groups. Patients with TRRAP mutations affecting residues 1031-1159 have a more severe disorder, often with multisystem involvement, including renal, cardiac, and genitourinary systems, as well as structural brain abnormalities. Patients with mutations outside of that region tend to have a less severe phenotype with a higher incidence of autism and usually no systemic involvement. Patients in both groups usually have somewhat similar dysmorphic facial features, such as upslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, low-set ears, and broad or depressed nasal bridge, although these features are highly variable (summary by Cogne et al., 2019).
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 3, myogenic type
MedGen UID:
1680655
Concept ID:
C5193121
Disease or Syndrome
Myogenic-type arthrogryposis multiplex congenita-3 (AMC3) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by decreased fetal movements, hypotonia, variable skeletal defects, including clubfoot and scoliosis, and delayed motor milestones with difficulty walking (summary by Baumann et al., 2017).
Shukla-Vernon syndrome
MedGen UID:
1674076
Concept ID:
C5193146
Disease or Syndrome
Shukla-Vernon syndrome (SHUVER) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, variably impaired intellectual development, and behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder and ADHD. Dysmorphic features are common and may include tall forehead, downslanting palpebral fissures, and tapering fingers. Some patients may have seizures and/or cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging. Carrier mothers may have mild manifestations, including learning disabilities (summary by Shukla et al., 2019).
Hypopigmentation, organomegaly, and delayed myelination and development
MedGen UID:
1684826
Concept ID:
C5203300
Disease or Syndrome
Hypopigmentation, organomegaly, and delayed myelination and development (HOD) is characterized by hypopigmented skin and hair with normally pigmented irides; organomegaly including enlargement of liver, kidney, and spleen; and delayed myelination on brain MRI accompanied by developmental delay in both gross and fine motor skills. Biopsy findings from skin and other organs are consistent with a lysosomal storage disorder (Nicoli et al., 2019).
Intellectual developmental disorder 61
MedGen UID:
1684867
Concept ID:
C5231400
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-61 (MRD61) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent in infancy with mildly impaired intellectual development, expressive speech delay, and behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most affected individuals learn to walk on time or with some mild delay. Additional features are highly variable and may include nonspecific dysmorphic features, obstipation, ocular anomalies, and poor overall growth (Snijders Blok et al., 2018).
Osteogenesis imperfecta, type 20
MedGen UID:
1684751
Concept ID:
C5231439
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta type XX (OI20) is a progressive deforming bone disorder characterized by osteopenia, skeletal deformity, and both healed and new fractures on radiography. Several patients have died due to respiratory failure (Moosa et al., 2019).
Intellectual developmental disorder with speech delay, autism, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1684848
Concept ID:
C5231456
Disease or Syndrome
Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 10
MedGen UID:
1684859
Concept ID:
C5231458
Disease or Syndrome
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-10 (CDCBM10) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely impaired global development associated with abnormalities on brain imaging, including lissencephaly, cortical dysplasia, subcortical heterotopia, and paucity of white matter. The disorder results from defective neuronal migration during brain development. Affected individuals often develop seizures, are unable to walk, and do not acquire language (summary by Lee et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039).
Beck-Fahrner syndrome
MedGen UID:
1711894
Concept ID:
C5394097
Disease or Syndrome
Beck-Fahrner syndrome (BEFAHRS) is a developmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development. Affected individuals often have behavioral abnormalities, such as autistic features or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as learning disabilities. Most patients have hypotonia and dysmorphic facies. Some may have growth abnormalities, including overgrowth or poor growth, poor feeding, and rarely, seizures. Although both monoallelic and biallelic mutations have been reported, some heterozygous carriers in autosomal recessive families may have milder symptoms; thus, both groups are included in this entry (summary by Beck et al., 2020).
Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type iit
MedGen UID:
1709627
Concept ID:
C5394387
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIt (CDG2t) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic metabolic disorder characterized by global developmental delay, poor overall growth, severely impaired intellectual development with absent language, and behavioral abnormalities. Most patients develop early-onset seizures; brain imaging tends to show white matter abnormalities. Variable dysmorphic features, including long face, almond-shaped eyes, protruding maxilla, and short philtrum, are also present. The disorder, which is associated with low levels of HDL cholesterol, results from defective posttranslational O-linked glycosylation of certain plasma lipids and proteins (summary by Zilmer et al., 2020). For an overview of congenital disorders of glycosylation, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066).
Microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair syndrome
MedGen UID:
1718781
Concept ID:
C5394425
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair syndrome (MDBH) is a multisystem disorder with clinical variability. Affected individuals show cognitive and motor disabilities, as well as some degree of fine, brittle hair with microscopic shaft abnormalities. Other shared features include failure to thrive in early childhood and short stature, with some patients exhibiting feeding difficulties and hepatic steatosis (Kuo et al., 2019).
Agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac, ocular, and genital syndrome
MedGen UID:
1718475
Concept ID:
C5394523
Disease or Syndrome
Agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac, ocular, and genital syndrome (ACOGS) is a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphisms, and ocular, cardiac, and genital anomalies (Accogli et al., 2019).
Li-Ghorbani-Weisz-Hubshman syndrome
MedGen UID:
1763263
Concept ID:
C5436525
Disease or Syndrome
Li-Ghorbani-Weisz-Hubshman syndrome (LIGOWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, mild to moderately impaired intellectual development with language delay, and mild dysmorphic features. Affected individuals may have behavioral abnormalities and difficulties with numbers and understanding certain concepts, such as money. Some patients have seizures. Brain imaging often shows enlarged ventricles, thin corpus callosum, and gray matter nodular heterotopia, suggesting abnormal cortical brain development. More variable additional features may be present (summary by Li et al., 2020).
Developmental delay, impaired growth, dysmorphic facies, and axonal neuropathy
MedGen UID:
1765507
Concept ID:
C5436781
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired growth, dysmorphic facies, and axonal neuropathy (DIGFAN) is a complex neurologic disorder characterized by impaired motor and intellectual development, hypotonia, poor overall growth, usually with short stature and microcephaly, and subtly dysmorphic facial features. Affected individuals have distal muscle weakness and muscle atrophy resulting in delayed acquisition of motor skills and persistent gait abnormalities. Although many patients have clinical and/or electrophysiologic features consistent with an axonal sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, such as hyporeflexia, impaired sensation, foot drop, and pes cavus, the signs and severity are highly variable. Additional features may include hearing loss, pigmentary retinopathy, and abnormalities on brain imaging, including cerebral or cerebellar atrophy, hypomyelination, and lesions in the basal ganglia or brainstem. In some instances, the same mutation may result in different phenotypic manifestations (CMT2Z or DIGFAN syndrome), which highlights the expanding clinical spectrum associated with MORC2 mutations and may render classification of patients into one or the other disorder challenging (summary by Guillen Sacoto et al., 2020).
Global developmental delay with speech and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1787991
Concept ID:
C5543226
Disease or Syndrome
Global developmental delay with speech and behavioral abnormalities (GDSBA) is characterized by developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have mildly delayed fine and motor skills with walking by 3 years of age, mildly impaired intellectual development, speech and language delay, and variable behavioral abnormalities, mostly autism and ADHD. Some patients may have additional nonspecific features, such as facial dysmorphism, myopia or strabismus, and skeletal defects, including joint hypermobility, pes planus, or slender fingers (summary by Granadillo et al., 2020).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 15
MedGen UID:
1781311
Concept ID:
C5543326
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 15 (PCH15) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by congenital onset of progressive microcephaly and poor or absent psychomotor development with severely impaired intellectual development apparent from birth. Other features may include spastic quadriplegia, early-onset seizures, and chronic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Brain imaging shows pontocerebellar hypoplasia and partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (summary by et al., 2021). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 65
MedGen UID:
1787923
Concept ID:
C5543371
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-65 (MRD65) is characterized by delayed motor and speech acquisition, variably impaired intellectual development, and behavioral abnormalities. Affected individuals also have dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging may be normal or may show abnormalities, including cerebellar hypoplasia, poor development of the corpus callosum, dysmorphic hippocampus, and polymicrogyria. Feeding difficulties, hypotonia, and seizures may also be observed (Duncan et al., 2020).
Neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease, multisystem, infantile-onset 2
MedGen UID:
1778117
Concept ID:
C5543623
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset multisystem neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease-2 (IMNEPD2) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder characterized by cholestatic hepatitis, poor feeding associated with poor overall growth, and hypoglycemia apparent from infancy. Most, but not all, patients have variable global developmental delay. Additional common features include sensorineural deafness, retinal abnormalities with visual defects, and hypotonia. Some patients have endocrine abnormalities, including hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, pancreatic dysfunction, hypothyroidism, and primary amenorrhea. Additional features may include hypertriglyceridemia, anemia, proteinuria, increased lactate, and recurrent infections. Brain imaging often shows dysmyelination, thin corpus callosum, cerebral atrophy, and white matter abnormalities. Although the clinical manifestations and severity of the disorder are highly variable, death in early childhood may occur (summary by Williams et al., 2019 and Zeiad et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of IMNEPD, see IMNEPD1 (616263).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and thin corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1790413
Concept ID:
C5551361
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and thin corpus callosum (NEDDFAC) is characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech and language, and dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging tends to show thin corpus callosum and decreased white matter volume. Additional features such as seizures, cardiac defects, and behavioral abnormalities may also occur. The phenotype is variable (summary by Bina et al., 2020).
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 21 without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
1794171
Concept ID:
C5561961
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia-21 (SRTD21) is characterized by rhizomelic limb shortening with bowing of long bones and metaphyseal abnormalities, narrow chest with short broad ribs, and trident pelvis. Other features include hypotonia and global developmental delay, with corpus callosum hypoplasia and cerebellar vermis abnormalities on brain imaging, which may show the 'molar tooth' sign (Hammarsjo et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of SRTD, see SRTD1 (208500). Mutation in the KIAA0753 gene also causes orofaciodigital syndrome (OFD15; 617127) and Joubert syndrome (JBTS28; 619476), phenotypes with features overlapping those of SRTD21.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794187
Concept ID:
C5561977
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and brain abnormalities (NEDHYBA) is characterized by impaired development of motor skills, cognitive function, and speech acquisition beginning in infancy or early childhood. Some affected individuals may have feeding difficulties, seizures, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging shows variable abnormalities, including corpus callosum defects, cerebellar defects, and decreased white matter volume. There is significant phenotypic variability (summary by Duncan et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794189
Concept ID:
C5561979
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and brain abnormalities (NEDSBA) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay and onset of seizures in the first months of life associated with structural brain defects on brain imaging. Additional features may include pigmentary retinopathy with poor visual fixation and spasticity (summary by Duncan et al., 2021).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 16
MedGen UID:
1794197
Concept ID:
C5561987
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 16 (PCH16) is an autosomal recessive severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by hypotonia and severe global developmental delay apparent from early infancy. Although the severity of the disorder is variable, most affected individuals achieve only a few, if any, developmental milestones. Most are unable to walk or speak, have eye abnormalities with poor visual contact, and develop early-onset epilepsy. Other features may include stereotypic movements, spasticity, and progressive microcephaly. Brain imaging shows pontocerebellar hypoplasia, often with thin corpus callosum, atrophy of the thalamus and basal ganglia, enlarged ventricles, and white matter abnormalities (summary by Ucuncu et al., 2020). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Hengel-Maroofian-Schols syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794242
Concept ID:
C5562032
Disease or Syndrome
Hengel-Maroofian-Schols syndrome (HEMARS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have delayed walking or inability to walk, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, pyramidal signs manifest as lower limb spasticity, poor overall growth often with short stature and microcephaly, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients develop seizures. Brain imaging shows thinning of the posterior part of the corpus callosum, delayed myelination, and cerebral and cerebellar atrophy (Hengel et al., 2021).
Zaki syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794247
Concept ID:
C5562037
Disease or Syndrome
Zaki syndrome (ZKS) is characterized by developmental delay, progressive microcephaly, and short stature, as well as dysmorphic features including sparse scalp hair, cupped ears, wide nose and mouth, short philtrum, and high-arched palate. Other variable features have been observed, including ocular, skeletal, cardiac, and renal anomalies (Chai et al., 2021).
Immunodeficiency 93 and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
1804175
Concept ID:
C5676899
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-93 and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (IMD93) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of recurrent viral and bacterial infections, particularly with encapsulated bacteria, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the first months or years of life. Immunologic workup typically shows decreased circulating B cells and hypo- or agammaglobulinemia, sometimes with neutropenia or T-cell lymphocytosis, although laboratory findings may be variable among patients. Ig replacement therapy is beneficial. Cardiac involvement can also include atrial septal defect, valvular insufficiency, and pre-excitation syndrome. Rare myopathic or neurologic involvement has been reported, but these features are not consistently part of the disorder and may be related to other genetic defects (summary by Niehues et al., 2020 and Saettini et al., 2021).
Gastrointestinal defects and immunodeficiency syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1811526
Concept ID:
C5676901
Disease or Syndrome
PI4KA-related disorder is a clinically variable disorder characterized primarily by neurologic dysfunction (limb spasticity, developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, ataxia, nystagmus), gastrointestinal manifestations (multiple intestinal atresia, inflammatory bowel disease), and combined immunodeficiency (leukopenia, variable immunoglobulin defects). Age of onset is typically antenatal or in early childhood; individuals can present with any combination of these features. Rare individuals present with later-onset hereditary spastic paraplegia. Brain MRI findings can include hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, cerebellar hypoplasia/atrophy, thin or dysplastic corpus callosum, and/or perisylvian polymicrogyria.
Autoinflammatory-pancytopenia syndrome due to DNASE2 deficiency
MedGen UID:
1803642
Concept ID:
C5676977
Disease or Syndrome
Autoinflammatory-pancytopenia syndrome (AIPCS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe anemia and thrombocytopenia apparent from early infancy, hepatosplenomegaly, and recurrent fevers associated with a hyperinflammatory state. Additional systemic features may include chronic diarrhea, proteinuria with renal disease, liver fibrosis with elevated liver enzymes, deforming arthropathy, and vasculitic skin lesions. Some patients may have motor delay or learning difficulties associated with subcortical white matter lesions on brain imaging. Laboratory studies show increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), consistent with a type I interferonopathy (Rodero et al., 2017). Treatment with a JAK (see 147795) inhibitor (baricitinib) may be effective (Hong et al., 2020).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 67
MedGen UID:
1805690
Concept ID:
C5677006
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-67 (MRD67) is characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development apparent from infancy or early childhood. Additional features may include behavioral abnormalities, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD, as well as language and sleeping difficulties. Brain imaging is normal (Ismail et al., 2022).
Classic dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome
MedGen UID:
1814585
Concept ID:
C5700336
Disease or Syndrome
SLC6A3-related dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome (DTDS) is a complex movement disorder with a continuum that ranges from classic early-onset DTDS (in the first 6 months) to atypical later-onset DTDS (in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood). Classic DTDS. Infants typically manifest nonspecific findings (irritability, feeding difficulties, axial hypotonia, and/or delayed motor development) followed by a hyperkinetic movement disorder (with features of chorea, dystonia, ballismus, orolingual dyskinesia). Over time, affected individuals develop parkinsonism-dystonia characterized by bradykinesia (progressing to akinesia), dystonic posturing, distal tremor, rigidity, and reduced facial expression. Limitation of voluntary movements leads to severe motor delay. Episodic status dystonicus, exacerbations of dystonia, and secondary orthopedic, gastrointestinal, and respiratory complications are common. Many affected individuals appear to show relative preservation of intellect with good cognitive development. Atypical DTDS. Normal psychomotor development in infancy and early childhood is followed by later-onset manifestations of parkinsonism-dystonia with tremor, progressive bradykinesia, variable tone, and dystonic posturing. The long-term outcome of this form is currently unknown.
Spastic paraplegia 87, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1813069
Concept ID:
C5774182
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-87 (SPG87) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of lower limb spasticity in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have mildly delayed walking, spastic gait, and hyperreflexia; the upper limbs and bulbar regions are not affected. Some patients may also have mild intellectual disability or speech problems. Thus, SPG87 can manifest as either a pure or a complex disorder (Tabara et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive SPG, see SPG5A (270800).
Primordial dwarfism-immunodeficiency-lipodystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1823971
Concept ID:
C5774198
Disease or Syndrome
Primordial dwarfism-immunodeficiency-lipodystrophy syndrome (PDIL) is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth restriction, with extreme microcephaly, short stature, and absence of subcutaneous fat. There is also significant hematologic/immune dysfunction, with hypo- or agammaglobulinemia, as well as lymphopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia, and most affected individuals succumb to infection in early childhood (Parry et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, movement abnormalities, and seizures
MedGen UID:
1823981
Concept ID:
C5774208
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, movement abnormalities, and seizures (NEDMIMS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay apparent from infancy, impaired intellectual development, progressive microcephaly, and early-onset seizures that may be refractory to treatment. Affected individuals have poor overall growth and may have various movement abnormalities, including hypo- and hypertonia. Behavioral problems may also be observed (Klockner et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, language delay, and skeletal defects with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1823986
Concept ID:
C5774213
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, language delay, and skeletal defects with or without seizures (NEDHLSS) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. Affected individuals show severe hypotonia with delayed walking or inability to walk, poor or absent speech, and impaired intellectual development with behavioral abnormalities. Most patients have early-onset seizures, mild skeletal defects that are usually distal, and nonspecific dysmorphic features. More severely affected individuals have additional congenital abnormalities; however, cardiac involvement is rare (summary by Rodan et al., 2021).
Developmental delay with short stature, dysmorphic facial features, and sparse hair 2
MedGen UID:
1823996
Concept ID:
C5774223
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with short stature, dysmorphic facial features, and sparse hair-2 (DEDSSH2) is an autosomal recessive syndromic disorder characterized by the constellation of these features apparent from infancy. Affected individuals may have other abnormalities, including congenital cardiac defects and distal skeletal anomalies (Hawer et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEDSSH2, see DEDSSH1 (616901).
Nemaline myopathy 5B, autosomal recessive, childhood-onset
MedGen UID:
1841181
Concept ID:
C5830545
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive childhood-onset nemaline myopathy-5B (NEM5B) is a skeletal muscle disorder in which patients usually present with proximal muscle weakness of the lower and upper limbs in a limb-girdle distribution, resulting in gait abnormalities; however, most remain ambulatory even into late adulthood. Some affected individuals show delayed motor development. There is axial weakness and atrophy of the paraspinal muscles, along with kyphosis, scoliosis, and rigid spine, as well as variable limitations of the large joints. Most patients develop restrictive respiratory insufficiency with decreased forced vital capacity; some need noninvasive ventilation. Serum creatine kinase may be elevated. Muscle biopsy can show variable features, including nemaline rods, multiminicore lesions, endomysial fibrosis, and myofibrillar changes (Pellerin et al., 2020; Lee et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM2 (256030).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and speech delay, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1841290
Concept ID:
C5830654
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and speech delay, with or without seizures (NEDHSS) is characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, and fine and gross motor delay. Most affected individuals are severely affected and may be unable to walk, have feeding difficulties requiring tube-feeding, and develop early-onset seizures. Additional features may include cortical blindness and nonspecific structural brain abnormalities. Rare individuals present only with hypotonia and mild developmental delay (Paul et al., 2023).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Chung WK, Herrera FF; Simon's Searchlight Foundation
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2023 Dec;9(4) Epub 2024 Jan 10 doi: 10.1101/mcs.a006316. PMID: 38050025Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Pflock KA, Fragala-Pinkham M, Shulman J, Babcock BD
Hosp Pediatr 2023 May 1;13(5):408-415. doi: 10.1542/hpeds.2022-006848. PMID: 37096549
Berg JHM, Isacson M, Basnet O, Gurung R, Subedi K, Kc A, Andersson O
Neonatology 2021;118(3):282-288. Epub 2021 May 7 doi: 10.1159/000515838. PMID: 33965945Free PMC Article
Kimura Y, Masuda T, Kaga K
Otol Neurotol 2018 Feb;39(2):196-205. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000001685. PMID: 29315185
Rodriguez VJ, Matseke G, Cook R, Bellinger S, Weiss SM, Alcaide ML, Peltzer K, Patton D, Lopez M, Jones DL
AIDS Behav 2018 Jun;22(6):1766-1774. doi: 10.1007/s10461-017-1925-0. PMID: 28986652Free PMC Article
Long SH, Harris SR, Eldridge BJ, Galea MP
Cardiol Young 2012 Oct;22(5):574-82. Epub 2012 Feb 29 doi: 10.1017/S1047951112000121. PMID: 22373640

Diagnosis

Horton A, Hong KM, Pandithan D, Allen M, Killick C, Goergen S, Springer A, Phelan D, Marty M, Halligan R, Lee J, Pitt J, Chong B, Christodoulou J, Lunke S, Stark Z, Fahey M
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2022 Feb;8(2) Epub 2022 Mar 24 doi: 10.1101/mcs.a006193. PMID: 35165146Free PMC Article
Rodriguez VJ, Matseke G, Cook R, Bellinger S, Weiss SM, Alcaide ML, Peltzer K, Patton D, Lopez M, Jones DL
AIDS Behav 2018 Jun;22(6):1766-1774. doi: 10.1007/s10461-017-1925-0. PMID: 28986652Free PMC Article
Albuquerque PL, Guerra MQF, Lima MC, Eickmann SH
Dev Neurorehabil 2018 Aug;21(6):408-414. Epub 2017 May 24 doi: 10.1080/17518423.2017.1323974. PMID: 28537470
Long SH, Harris SR, Eldridge BJ, Galea MP
Cardiol Young 2012 Oct;22(5):574-82. Epub 2012 Feb 29 doi: 10.1017/S1047951112000121. PMID: 22373640
Rine RM, Cornwall G, Gan K, LoCascio C, O'Hare T, Robinson E, Rice M
Percept Mot Skills 2000 Jun;90(3 Pt 2):1101-12. doi: 10.2466/pms.2000.90.3c.1101. PMID: 10939054

Therapy

Shih P, Chiang TL, Wu CD, Shu BC, Lung FW, Guo YL
Dev Med Child Neurol 2023 Jun;65(6):783-791. Epub 2022 Nov 9 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15430. PMID: 36349526
Berg JHM, Isacson M, Basnet O, Gurung R, Subedi K, Kc A, Andersson O
Neonatology 2021;118(3):282-288. Epub 2021 May 7 doi: 10.1159/000515838. PMID: 33965945Free PMC Article
Saleem J, Zakar R, Zakar MZ, Belay M, Rowe M, Timms PM, Scragg R, Martineau AR
Am J Clin Nutr 2018 May 1;107(5):725-733. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy027. PMID: 29722846
Wouldes TA, Lagasse LL, Huestis MA, Dellagrotta S, Dansereau LM, Lester BM
Neurotoxicol Teratol 2014 Mar-Apr;42:77-84. Epub 2014 Feb 22 doi: 10.1016/j.ntt.2014.02.004. PMID: 24566524Free PMC Article
Gunther DF, Chiu HK, Numrych TE, Kletter GB
Eur J Pediatr 2006 May;165(5):320-2. Epub 2006 Jan 21 doi: 10.1007/s00431-005-0051-6. PMID: 16429278

Prognosis

Ramadesikan S, Hickey S, De Los Reyes E, Patel AD, Franklin SJ, Brennan P, Crist E, Lee K, White P, McBride KL, Koboldt DC, Wilson RK
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2022 Feb;8(2) Epub 2022 Mar 24 doi: 10.1101/mcs.a006165. PMID: 35091508Free PMC Article
Julies P, Lynn RM, Pall K, Leoni M, Calder A, Mughal Z, Shaw N, McDonnell C, McDevitt H, Blair M
Arch Dis Child 2020 Jun;105(6):587-592. Epub 2020 Jan 16 doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2019-317934. PMID: 31949032
Rodriguez VJ, Matseke G, Cook R, Bellinger S, Weiss SM, Alcaide ML, Peltzer K, Patton D, Lopez M, Jones DL
AIDS Behav 2018 Jun;22(6):1766-1774. doi: 10.1007/s10461-017-1925-0. PMID: 28986652Free PMC Article
Wouldes TA, Lagasse LL, Huestis MA, Dellagrotta S, Dansereau LM, Lester BM
Neurotoxicol Teratol 2014 Mar-Apr;42:77-84. Epub 2014 Feb 22 doi: 10.1016/j.ntt.2014.02.004. PMID: 24566524Free PMC Article
Long SH, Harris SR, Eldridge BJ, Galea MP
Cardiol Young 2012 Oct;22(5):574-82. Epub 2012 Feb 29 doi: 10.1017/S1047951112000121. PMID: 22373640

Clinical prediction guides

Cavagnari BM, Guerrero-Vaca DJ, Carpio-Arias TV, Duran-Aguero S, Vinueza-Veloz AF, Robalino-Valdivieso MP, Morejón-Terán YA, Vinueza-Veloz MF
Clin Nutr 2023 Jul;42(7):1181-1188. Epub 2023 May 9 doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2023.05.001. PMID: 37225559
Pflock KA, Fragala-Pinkham M, Shulman J, Babcock BD
Hosp Pediatr 2023 May 1;13(5):408-415. doi: 10.1542/hpeds.2022-006848. PMID: 37096549
Ramadesikan S, Hickey S, De Los Reyes E, Patel AD, Franklin SJ, Brennan P, Crist E, Lee K, White P, McBride KL, Koboldt DC, Wilson RK
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2022 Feb;8(2) Epub 2022 Mar 24 doi: 10.1101/mcs.a006165. PMID: 35091508Free PMC Article
Berg JHM, Isacson M, Basnet O, Gurung R, Subedi K, Kc A, Andersson O
Neonatology 2021;118(3):282-288. Epub 2021 May 7 doi: 10.1159/000515838. PMID: 33965945Free PMC Article
Rodriguez VJ, Matseke G, Cook R, Bellinger S, Weiss SM, Alcaide ML, Peltzer K, Patton D, Lopez M, Jones DL
AIDS Behav 2018 Jun;22(6):1766-1774. doi: 10.1007/s10461-017-1925-0. PMID: 28986652Free PMC Article

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