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Renal insufficiency

MedGen UID:
332529
Concept ID:
C1565489
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Renal failure
SNOMED CT: Renal dysfunction (236423003); Renal insufficiency (723188008); Renal insufficiency syndrome (723188008); Renal impairment (236423003); Impaired renal function (236423003)
 
HPO: HP:0000083

Definition

A reduction in the level of performance of the kidneys in areas of function comprising the concentration of urine, removal of wastes, the maintenance of electrolyte balance, homeostasis of blood pressure, and calcium metabolism. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Hb SS disease
MedGen UID:
287
Concept ID:
C0002895
Disease or Syndrome
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by intermittent vaso-occlusive events and chronic hemolytic anemia. Vaso-occlusive events result in tissue ischemia leading to acute and chronic pain as well as organ damage that can affect any organ system, including the bones, spleen, liver, brain, lungs, kidneys, and joints. Dactylitis (pain and/or swelling of the hands or feet) is often the earliest manifestation of SCD. In children, the spleen can become engorged with blood cells in a "splenic sequestration." The spleen is particularly vulnerable to infarction and the majority of individuals with SCD who are not on hydroxyurea or transfusion therapy become functionally asplenic in early childhood, increasing their risk for certain types of bacterial infections. Acute chest syndrome is a major cause of mortality in SCD. Chronic hemolysis can result in varying degrees of anemia, jaundice, cholelithiasis, and delayed growth and sexual maturation. Individuals with the highest rates of hemolysis are predisposed to pulmonary artery hypertension, priapism, and leg ulcers but may be relatively protected from vaso-occlusive pain.
Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum
MedGen UID:
8083
Concept ID:
C0002986
Disease or Syndrome
Fabry disease is the most common of the lysosomal storage disorders and results from deficient activity of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (a-Gal A), leading to progressive lysosomal deposition of globotriaosylceramide and its derivatives in cells throughout the body. The classic form, occurring in males with less than 1% a-Gal A enzyme activity, usually has its onset in childhood or adolescence with periodic crises of severe pain in the extremities (acroparesthesia), the appearance of vascular cutaneous lesions (angiokeratomas), sweating abnormalities (anhidrosis, hypohidrosis, and rarely hyperhidrosis), characteristic corneal and lenticular opacities, and proteinuria. Gradual deterioration of renal function to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) usually occurs in men in the third to fifth decade. In middle age, most males successfully treated for ESRD develop cardiac and/or cerebrovascular disease, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Heterozygous females typically have milder symptoms at a later age of onset than males. Rarely, females may be relatively asymptomatic throughout a normal life span or may have symptoms as severe as those observed in males with the classic phenotype. In contrast, late-onset forms occur in males with greater than 1% a-Gal A activity. Clinical manifestations include cardiac disease, which usually presents in the sixth to eighth decade with left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, and proteinuria; renal failure, associated with ESRD but without the skin lesions or pain; or cerebrovascular disease presenting as stroke or transient ischemic attack.
Congenital hepatic fibrosis
MedGen UID:
40449
Concept ID:
C0009714
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital hepatic fibrosis is a disease of the liver that is present from birth. The liver has many important functions, including producing various substances needed by the body and breaking down other substances into smaller parts to be used or eliminated.\n\nCongenital hepatic fibrosis is characterized by malformation of the bile ducts and the blood vessels of the hepatic portal system. Bile ducts carry bile (a fluid that helps to digest fats) from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. The hepatic portal system is a branching network of veins (portal veins) that carry blood from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver for processing.\n\nA buildup of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the portal tracts also occurs in this disorder. Portal tracts are structures in the liver that bundle the vessels through which blood, lymph, and bile flow. Lymph is a fluid that helps exchange immune cells, proteins, and other substances between the blood and tissues. Fibrosis in the portal tracts can restrict the normal movement of fluids in these vessels.\n\nConstriction of the portal veins due to malformation and portal tract fibrosis results in high blood pressure in the hepatic portal system (portal hypertension). Portal hypertension impairs the flow of blood from the gastrointestinal tract, causing an increase in pressure in the veins of the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. These veins may stretch and their walls may become thin, leading to a risk of abnormal bleeding.\n\nPeople with congenital hepatic fibrosis have an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly). The liver is also abnormally shaped. Affected individuals also have an increased risk of infection of the bile ducts (cholangitis), hard deposits in the gallbladder or bile ducts (gallstones), and cancer of the liver or gallbladder.\n\nCongenital hepatic fibrosis may occur alone, in which case it is called isolated congenital hepatic fibrosis. More frequently, it occurs as a feature of genetic syndromes that also affect the kidneys, such as polycystic kidney disease (PKD).
Cystinuria
MedGen UID:
8226
Concept ID:
C0010691
Disease or Syndrome
Cystinuria is an autosomal disorder characterized by impaired epithelial cell transport of cystine and dibasic amino acids (lysine, ornithine, and arginine) in the proximal renal tubule and gastrointestinal tract. The impaired renal reabsorption of cystine and its low solubility causes the formation of calculi in the urinary tract, resulting in obstructive uropathy, pyelonephritis, and, rarely, renal failure (summary by Barbosa et al., 2012).
DiGeorge syndrome
MedGen UID:
4297
Concept ID:
C0012236
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) can present with a wide range of features that are highly variable, even within families. The major clinical manifestations of 22q11.2DS include congenital heart disease, particularly conotruncal malformations (ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, interrupted aortic arch, and truncus arteriosus), palatal abnormalities (velopharyngeal incompetence, submucosal cleft palate, bifid uvula, and cleft palate), immune deficiency, characteristic facial features, and learning difficulties. Hearing loss can be sensorineural and/or conductive. Laryngotracheoesophageal, gastrointestinal, ophthalmologic, central nervous system, skeletal, and genitourinary anomalies also occur. Psychiatric illness and autoimmune disorders are more common in individuals with 22q11.2DS.
Nail-patella syndrome
MedGen UID:
10257
Concept ID:
C0027341
Disease or Syndrome
Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) (previously referred to as Fong's disease), encompasses the classic clinical tetrad of changes in the nails, knees, and elbows, and the presence of iliac horns. Nail changes are the most constant feature of NPS. Nails may be absent, hypoplastic, or dystrophic; ridged longitudinally or horizontally; pitted; discolored; separated into two halves by a longitudinal cleft or ridge of skin; and thin or (less often) thickened. The patellae may be small, irregularly shaped, or absent. Elbow abnormalities may include limitation of extension, pronation, and supination; cubitus valgus; and antecubital pterygia. Iliac horns are bilateral, conical, bony processes that project posteriorly and laterally from the central part of the iliac bones of the pelvis. Renal involvement, first manifest as proteinuria with or without hematuria, occurs in 30%-50% of affected individuals; end-stage renal disease occurs up to 15% of affected individuals. Primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension occur at increased frequency and at a younger age than in the general population.
Lowe syndrome
MedGen UID:
18145
Concept ID:
C0028860
Disease or Syndrome
Lowe syndrome (oculocerebrorenal syndrome) is characterized by involvement of the eyes, central nervous system, and kidneys. Dense congenital cataracts are found in all affected boys and infantile glaucoma in approximately 50%. All boys have impaired vision; corrected acuity is rarely better than 20/100. Generalized hypotonia is noted at birth and is of central (brain) origin. Deep tendon reflexes are usually absent. Hypotonia may slowly improve with age, but normal motor tone and strength are never achieved. Motor milestones are delayed. Almost all affected males have some degree of intellectual disability; 10%-25% function in the low-normal or borderline range, approximately 25% in the mild-to-moderate range, and 50%-65% in the severe-to-profound range of intellectual disability. Affected males have varying degrees of proximal renal tubular dysfunction of the Fanconi type, including low molecular-weight (LMW) proteinuria, aminoaciduria, bicarbonate wasting and renal tubular acidosis, phosphaturia with hypophosphatemia and renal rickets, hypercalciuria, sodium and potassium wasting, and polyuria. The features of symptomatic Fanconi syndrome do not usually become manifest until after the first few months of life, except for LMW proteinuria. Glomerulosclerosis associated with chronic tubular injury usually results in slowly progressive chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease between the second and fourth decades of life.
Williams syndrome
MedGen UID:
59799
Concept ID:
C0175702
Disease or Syndrome
Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by cardiovascular disease (elastin arteriopathy, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis, hypertension), distinctive facies, connective tissue abnormalities, intellectual disability (usually mild), a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, growth abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroidism, and early puberty). Feeding difficulties often lead to poor weight gain in infancy. Hypotonia and hyperextensible joints can result in delayed attainment of motor milestones.
11p partial monosomy syndrome
MedGen UID:
64512
Concept ID:
C0206115
Disease or Syndrome
PAX6-related aniridia occurs either as an isolated ocular abnormality or as part of the Wilms tumor-aniridia-genital anomalies-retardation (WAGR) syndrome. Aniridia is a pan ocular disorder affecting the cornea, iris, intraocular pressure (resulting in glaucoma), lens (cataract and lens subluxation), fovea (foveal hypoplasia), and optic nerve (optic nerve coloboma and hypoplasia). Individuals with aniridia characteristically show nystagmus and impaired visual acuity (usually 20/100 - 20/200); however, milder forms of aniridia with subtle iris architecture changes, good vision, and normal foveal structure do occur. Other ocular involvement may include strabismus and occasionally microphthalmia. Although the severity of aniridia can vary between and within families, little variability is usually observed in the two eyes of an affected individual. WAGR syndrome. The risk for Wilms tumor is 42.5%-77%; of those who develop Wilms tumor, 90% do so by age four years and 98% by age seven years. Genital anomalies in males can include cryptorchidism and hypospadias (sometimes resulting in ambiguous genitalia), urethral strictures, ureteric abnormalities, and gonadoblastoma. While females typically have normal external genitalia, they may have uterine abnormalities and streak ovaries. Intellectual disability (defined as IQ <74) is observed in 70%; behavioral abnormalities include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Other individuals with WAGR syndrome can have normal intellect without behavioral problems.
Liddle syndrome
MedGen UID:
67439
Concept ID:
C0221043
Disease or Syndrome
Liddle syndrome is an inherited form of high blood pressure (hypertension). This condition is characterized by severe hypertension that begins unusually early in life, often in childhood, although some affected individuals are not diagnosed until adulthood. Some people with Liddle syndrome have no additional signs or symptoms, especially in childhood. Over time, however, untreated hypertension can lead to heart disease or stroke, which may be fatal.\n\nIn addition to hypertension, affected individuals can have low levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia). Signs and symptoms of hypokalemia include muscle weakness or pain, fatigue, constipation, or heart palpitations. The shortage of potassium can also raise the pH of the blood, a condition known as metabolic alkalosis.
Partial hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency
MedGen UID:
82770
Concept ID:
C0268117
Disease or Syndrome
HPRT1 disorders, caused by deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt), are typically associated with clinical evidence for overproduction of uric acid (hyperuricemia, nephrolithiasis, and/or gouty arthritis) and varying degrees of neurologic and/or behavioral problems. Historically, three phenotypes were identified in the spectrum of HPRT1 disorders: Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) at the most severe end with motor dysfunction resembling severe cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, and self-injurious behavior; HPRT1-related neurologic dysfunction (HND) in the intermediate range with similar but fewer severe neurologic findings than LND and no self-injurious behavior; and HPRT1-related hyperuricemia (HRH) at the mild end without overt neurologic deficits. It is now recognized that these neurobehavioral phenotypes cluster along a continuum from severe to mild.
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency
MedGen UID:
82772
Concept ID:
C0268120
Disease or Syndrome
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is characterized by excessive production and renal excretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA), which leads to kidney stone formation and crystal-induced kidney damage (i.e., DHA crystal nephropathy) causing acute kidney injury episodes and progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). Kidney stones, the most common clinical manifestation of APRT deficiency, can occur at any age; in at least 50% of affected persons symptoms do not occur until adulthood. If adequate treatment is not provided, approximately 20%-25% of affected individuals develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD), usually in adult life.
Glycogen storage disease type X
MedGen UID:
120613
Concept ID:
C0268149
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency is a disorder that primarily affects muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). Beginning in childhood or adolescence, affected individuals experience muscle aches or cramping following strenuous physical activity. Some people with this condition also have recurrent episodes of myoglobinuria. Myoglobinuria occurs when muscle tissue breaks down abnormally and releases a protein called myoglobin, which is processed by the kidneys and released in the urine. If untreated, myoglobinuria can lead to kidney failure.\n\nIn some cases of phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency, microscopic tube-shaped structures called tubular aggregates are seen in muscle fibers. It is unclear how tubular aggregates are associated with the signs and symptoms of the disorder.
Primary hyperoxaluria, type I
MedGen UID:
75658
Concept ID:
C0268164
Disease or Syndrome
Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is caused by a deficiency of the liver peroxisomal enzyme alanine:glyoxylate-aminotransferase (AGT), which catalyzes the conversion of glyoxylate to glycine. When AGT activity is absent, glyoxylate is converted to oxalate, which forms insoluble calcium oxalate crystals that accumulate in the kidney and other organs. Individuals with PH1 are at risk for recurrent nephrolithiasis (deposition of calcium oxalate in the renal pelvis / urinary tract), nephrocalcinosis (deposition of calcium oxalate in the renal parenchyma), or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Age at onset of symptoms ranges from infancy to the sixth decade. Approximately 10% of affected individuals present in infancy or early childhood with nephrocalcinosis, with or without nephrolithiasis, and failure to thrive related to renal failure. The majority of individuals with PH1 present in childhood or early adolescence, usually with symptomatic nephrolithiasis and normal or reduced kidney function. The remainder of affected individuals present in adulthood with recurrent renal stones and a mild-to-moderate reduction in kidney function. The natural history of untreated PH1 is one of progressive decline in renal function as a result of calcium oxalate deposits in kidney tissue and complications of nephrolithiasis (e.g., obstruction and infection) with eventual progression to oxalosis (widespread tissue deposition of calcium oxalate) and death from ESRD and/or complications of oxalosis.
Primary hyperoxaluria, type II
MedGen UID:
120616
Concept ID:
C0268165
Disease or Syndrome
Primary hyperoxaluria type 2 (PH2), caused by deficiency of the enzyme glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GR/HPR), is characterized by recurrent nephrolithiasis (deposition of calcium oxalate in the renal pelvis/urinary tract), nephrocalcinosis (deposition of calcium oxalate in the renal parenchyma), and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). After ESRD, oxalosis (widespread tissue deposition of calcium oxalate) usually develops. Symptom onset is typically in childhood.
Dysmorphic sialidosis with renal involvement
MedGen UID:
82778
Concept ID:
C0268232
Congenital Abnormality
Familial amyloid nephropathy with urticaria AND deafness
MedGen UID:
120634
Concept ID:
C0268390
Disease or Syndrome
Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) is characterized by episodic skin rash, arthralgias, and fever associated with late-onset sensorineural deafness and renal amyloidosis (Dode et al., 2002). See also familial cold-induced autoinflammatory syndrome-1 (FCAS1, CAPS1; 120100), an allelic disorder with overlapping clinical features.
Alstrom syndrome
MedGen UID:
78675
Concept ID:
C0268425
Disease or Syndrome
Alström syndrome is characterized by cone-rod dystrophy, obesity, progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, acute infantile-onset cardiomyopathy and/or adolescent- or adult-onset restrictive cardiomyopathy, insulin resistance / type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and chronic progressive kidney disease. Cone-rod dystrophy presents as progressive visual impairment, photophobia, and nystagmus usually starting between birth and age 15 months. Many individuals lose all perception of light by the end of the second decade, but a minority retain the ability to read large print into the third decade. Children usually have normal birth weight but develop truncal obesity during their first year. Sensorineural hearing loss presents in the first decade in as many as 70% of individuals and may progress to the severe or moderately severe range (40-70 db) by the end of the first to second decade. Insulin resistance is typically accompanied by the skin changes of acanthosis nigricans, and proceeds to T2DM in the majority by the third decade. Nearly all demonstrate hypertriglyceridemia. Other findings can include endocrine abnormalities (hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in males, and hyperandrogenism in females), urologic dysfunction / detrusor instability, progressive decrease in renal function, and hepatic disease (ranging from elevated transaminases to steatohepatitis/NAFLD). Approximately 20% of affected individuals have delay in early developmental milestones, most commonly in gross and fine motor skills. About 30% have a learning disability. Cognitive impairment (IQ <70) is very rare. Wide clinical variability is observed among affected individuals, even within the same family.
Tyrosinemia type I
MedGen UID:
75688
Concept ID:
C0268490
Disease or Syndrome
Untreated tyrosinemia type I usually presents either in young infants with severe liver involvement or later in the first year with liver dysfunction and renal tubular dysfunction associated with growth failure and rickets. Untreated children may have repeated, often unrecognized, neurologic crises lasting one to seven days that can include change in mental status, abdominal pain, peripheral neuropathy, and/or respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Death in the untreated child usually occurs before age ten years, typically from liver failure, neurologic crisis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. Combined treatment with nitisinone and a low-tyrosine diet has resulted in a greater than 90% survival rate, normal growth, improved liver function, prevention of cirrhosis, correction of renal tubular acidosis, and improvement in secondary rickets.
Phosphate transport defect
MedGen UID:
87455
Concept ID:
C0342749
Disease or Syndrome
Glycogenosis due to glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P) type b, or glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1b, is a type of glycogenosis due to G6P deficiency (see this term).
Finnish congenital nephrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
98011
Concept ID:
C0403399
Disease or Syndrome
The nephrotic syndrome is characterized clinically by proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and edema. Kidney biopsies show nonspecific histologic changes such as minimal change, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and diffuse mesangial proliferation. Approximately 20% of affected individuals have an inherited steroid-resistant form and progress to end-stage renal failure (summary by Fuchshuber et al., 1996). Nephrotic syndrome type 1 (NPHS1) is characterized by prenatal onset of massive proteinuria followed by severe steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome apparent at birth with rapid progression to end-stage renal failure (Kestila et al., 1998). Because of confusion in the literature regarding use of the terms 'nephrotic syndrome' and 'focal segmental glomerulosclerosis' (see NOMENCLATURE section), these disorders in OMIM are classified as NPHS or FSGS according to how they were first designated in the literature. Genetic Heterogeneity of Nephrotic Syndrome and Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Nephrotic syndrome and FSGS are genetically heterogeneous disorders representing a spectrum of hereditary renal diseases. See also NPHS2 (600995), caused by mutation in the podocin gene (604766); NPHS3 (610725), caused by mutation in the PLCE1 gene (608414); NPHS4 (256370), caused by mutation in the WT1 gene (607102); NPHS5 (614199), caused by mutation in the LAMB2 gene (150325); NPHS6 (614196), caused by mutation in the PTPRO gene (600579); NPHS7 (615008), caused by mutation in the DGKE gene (601440); NPHS8 (615244), caused by mutation in the ARHGDIA gene (601925); NPHS9 (615573), caused by mutation in the COQ8B gene (615567); NPHS10 (615861), caused by mutation in the EMP2 gene (602334); NPHS11 (616730), caused by mutation in the NUP107 gene (607617); NPHS12 (616892), caused by mutation in the NUP93 gene (614351); NPHS13 (616893), caused by mutation in the NUP205 gene (614352); NPHS14 (617575), caused by mutation in the SGPL1 gene (603729); NPHS15 (617609), caused by mutation in the MAGI2 gene (606382); NPHS16 (617783), caused by mutation in the KANK2 gene (614610), NPHS17 (618176), caused by mutation in the NUP85 gene (170285); NPHS18 (618177), caused by mutation in the NUP133 gene (607613); NPHS19 (618178), caused by mutation in the NUP160 gene (607614); NPHS20 (301028), caused by mutation in the TBC1D8B gene (301027); NPHS21 (618594) caused by mutation in the AVIL gene (613397); NPHS22 (619155), caused by mutation in the NOS1AP gene (605551); NPHS23 (619201), caused by mutation in the KIRREL1 gene (607428); and NPHS24 (619263), caused by mutation in the DAAM2 gene (606627). See also FSGS1 (603278), caused by mutation in the ACTN4 gene (604638); FSGS2 (603965), caused by mutation in the TRPC6 gene (603652); FSGS3 (607832), associated with variation in the CD2AP gene (604241); FSGS4 (612551), mapped to chromosome 22q12; FSGS5 (613237), caused by mutation in the INF2 gene (610982); FSGS6 (614131), caused by mutation in the MYO1E gene (601479); FSGS7 (616002), caused by mutation in the PAX2 gene (167409); FSGS8 (616032), caused by mutation in the ANLN gene (616027); and FSGS9 (616220), caused by mutation in the CRB2 gene (609720).
Progressive hereditary glomerulonephritis without deafness
MedGen UID:
98012
Concept ID:
C0403443
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic hypertension characterized by an adult onset of increased blood pressure associated with nephropathy progressing to end-stage renal disease. Renal biopsy may show interstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis and mild tubular atrophy. Increased serum creatinine and proteinuria have also been reported.
Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease
MedGen UID:
140788
Concept ID:
C0403529
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, fulminant small vessel vasculitis that affects the capillary beds of the kidneys and lungs and characterized by the presence of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and, in its full-blown form, anti-alveolar basement membrane (ABM) antibodies. Consequently, it may manifest as a rapidly progressive, isolated glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM nephritis) or as a pulmonary-renal syndrome with severe lung hemorrhage.
Nail-patella-like renal disease
MedGen UID:
140789
Concept ID:
C0403548
Disease or Syndrome
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis-10 (FSGS10) is an autosomal dominant kidney disease characterized by isolated glomerulopathy without extrarenal manifestations. In particular, affected individuals do not have other signs of NPS. The renal disease is highly variable in severity and pathology, even within the same family. Most patients present in the first decades of life with proteinuria and hematuria, although onset of symptoms can manifest at any age, including late adulthood. Some patients progress to end-stage renal disease, whereas others have a stable disease course. Light microscopic analysis of renal biopsies shows a constellation of glomerular abnormalities, including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), minimal change disease (MCD), and, rarely, immune complex nephropathy. Electron microscopy characteristically shows an irregular thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) with electron-lucent areas containing accumulated bundles of type III collagen fibrils. The collagen deposition usually occurs in endothelial cells of the GBM; partial effacement of podocyte foot processes may also be present. These specific pathologic findings are similar to those observed in NPS patients with nephropathy. However, these findings may not always be present, which may make the diagnosis challenging (summary by Hall et al., 2017, Lei et al., 2020; review by Harita et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FSGS, see FSGS1 (603278).
Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits 1
MedGen UID:
98017
Concept ID:
C0403557
Disease or Syndrome
Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits (GFND) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder characterized clinically by proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and hypertension that leads to end-stage renal failure in the second to fifth decade of life. Pathologic examination shows enlarged glomeruli with mesangial and subendothelial fibrillary deposits that show strong immunoreactivity to fibronectin (FN1; 135600) (Castelletti et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Glomerulopathy with Fibronectin Deposits The GFND1 locus maps to chromosome 1q32. See also GFND2 (601894), which is caused by mutation in the FN1 gene (135600) on chromosome 2q35.
X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis with renal failure
MedGen UID:
96047
Concept ID:
C0403720
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis with renal failure (XRN) is a form of X-linked hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis, which comprises a group of disorders characterized by proximal renal tubular reabsorptive failure, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis, and renal insufficiency. These disorders have also been referred to as the 'Dent disease complex' (Scheinman, 1998; Gambaro et al., 2004). For a general discussion of Dent disease, see 300009.
Wolcott-Rallison dysplasia
MedGen UID:
140926
Concept ID:
C0432217
Disease or Syndrome
Wolcott-Rallison syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by permanent neonatal or early infancy insulin-dependent diabetes. Epiphyseal dysplasia, osteoporosis, and growth retardation develop at a later age. Other frequent multisystem manifestations include hepatic and renal dysfunction, mental retardation, and cardiovascular abnormalities (summary by Delepine et al., 2000).
Costello syndrome
MedGen UID:
108454
Concept ID:
C0587248
Disease or Syndrome
While the majority of individuals with Costello syndrome share characteristic findings affecting multiple organ systems, the phenotypic spectrum is wide, ranging from a milder or attenuated phenotype to a severe phenotype with early lethal complications. Costello syndrome is typically characterized by failure to thrive in infancy as a result of severe postnatal feeding difficulties; short stature; developmental delay or intellectual disability; coarse facial features (full lips, large mouth, full nasal tip); curly or sparse, fine hair; loose, soft skin with deep palmar and plantar creases; papillomata of the face and perianal region; diffuse hypotonia and joint laxity with ulnar deviation of the wrists and fingers; tight Achilles tendons; and cardiac involvement including: cardiac hypertrophy (usually typical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), congenital heart defect (usually valvar pulmonic stenosis), and arrhythmia (usually supraventricular tachycardia, especially chaotic atrial rhythm/multifocal atrial tachycardia or ectopic atrial tachycardia). Relative or absolute macrocephaly is typical, and postnatal cerebellar overgrowth can result in the development of a Chiari I malformation with associated anomalies including hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. Individuals with Costello syndrome have an approximately 15% lifetime risk for malignant tumors including rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroblastoma in young children and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in adolescents and young adults.
Cockayne syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
155487
Concept ID:
C0751038
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia).
Cockayne syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
155488
Concept ID:
C0751039
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia).
Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome
MedGen UID:
155629
Concept ID:
C0751779
Disease or Syndrome
The action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome is an autosomal recessive progressive myoclonic epilepsy associated with renal failure. Cognitive function is preserved (Badhwar et al., 2004). Some patients do not develop renal failure (Dibbens et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive myoclonic epilepsy, see EPM1A (254800).
Cholestasis-pigmentary retinopathy-cleft palate syndrome
MedGen UID:
208652
Concept ID:
C0795969
Disease or Syndrome
MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders.
Acrorenal syndrome, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
163241
Concept ID:
C0796290
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive form of acrorenal syndrome.
Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia
MedGen UID:
164078
Concept ID:
C0877024
Congenital Abnormality
Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SIOD) is characterized by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) resulting in short stature, nephropathy, and T-cell deficiency. Radiographic manifestations of SED include ovoid and mildly flattened vertebral bodies, small ilia with shallow dysplastic acetabular fossae, and small deformed capital femoral epiphyses. Nearly all affected individuals have progressive steroid-resistant nephropathy, usually developing within five years of the diagnosis of growth failure and terminating with end-stage renal disease. The majority of tested individuals have T-cell deficiency and an associated risk for opportunistic infection, a common cause of death. SIOD involves a spectrum that ranges from an infantile or severe early-onset form with a greater risk of death during childhood to a juvenile or milder later-onset form with likely survival into adulthood if renal disease is appropriately treated.
Meretoja syndrome
MedGen UID:
301243
Concept ID:
C1622345
Disease or Syndrome
The Finnish type of systemic amyloidosis is characterized clinically by a unique constellation of features including lattice corneal dystrophy, and cranial neuropathy, bulbar signs, and skin changes. Some patients may develop peripheral neuropathy and renal failure. The disorder is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern; however, homozygotes with a more severe phenotype have also been reported (Meretoja, 1973).
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia 3
MedGen UID:
322173
Concept ID:
C1833372
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the AP2S1 gene.
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase II deficiency, myopathic form
MedGen UID:
371584
Concept ID:
C1833508
Disease or Syndrome
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is a disorder of long-chain fatty-acid oxidation. The three clinical presentations are lethal neonatal form, severe infantile hepatocardiomuscular form, and myopathic form (which is usually mild and can manifest from infancy to adulthood). While the former two are severe multisystemic diseases characterized by liver failure with hypoketotic hypoglycemia, cardiomyopathy, seizures, and early death, the latter is characterized by exercise-induced muscle pain and weakness, sometimes associated with myoglobinuria. The myopathic form of CPT II deficiency is the most common disorder of lipid metabolism affecting skeletal muscle and the most frequent cause of hereditary myoglobinuria. Males are more likely to be affected than females.
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase II deficiency, neonatal form
MedGen UID:
318896
Concept ID:
C1833518
Disease or Syndrome
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is a disorder of long-chain fatty-acid oxidation. The three clinical presentations are lethal neonatal form, severe infantile hepatocardiomuscular form, and myopathic form (which is usually mild and can manifest from infancy to adulthood). While the former two are severe multisystemic diseases characterized by liver failure with hypoketotic hypoglycemia, cardiomyopathy, seizures, and early death, the latter is characterized by exercise-induced muscle pain and weakness, sometimes associated with myoglobinuria. The myopathic form of CPT II deficiency is the most common disorder of lipid metabolism affecting skeletal muscle and the most frequent cause of hereditary myoglobinuria. Males are more likely to be affected than females.
Renal hypomagnesemia 2
MedGen UID:
320542
Concept ID:
C1835171
Disease or Syndrome
High urine magnesium in the presence of hypomagnesemia.
Proteinuria, low molecular weight, with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis
MedGen UID:
333426
Concept ID:
C1839874
Disease or Syndrome
Low molecular weight proteinuria with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is a form of X-linked hypercalciuric nephrocalcinosis, a group of disorders characterized by proximal renal tubular reabsorptive failure, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal insufficiency. These disorders have also been referred to as the 'Dent disease complex' (Scheinman, 1998; Gambaro et al., 2004). For a general discussion of Dent disease, see 300009.
X-linked diffuse leiomyomatosis-Alport syndrome
MedGen UID:
333429
Concept ID:
C1839884
Disease or Syndrome
A rare renal disease characterized by the association of X-linked Alport syndrome (glomerular nephropathy, sensorineural deafness and ocular anomalies) and benign proliferation of visceral smooth muscle cells along the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and female genital tracts and clinically manifests with dysphagia, dyspnea, cough, stridor, postprandial vomiting, retrosternal or epigastric pain, recurrent pneumonia, and clitoral hypertrophy in females.
Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract 2
MedGen UID:
333563
Concept ID:
C1840451
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) encompasses a spectrum of developmental disorders of the urinary tract that can range from mild vesicoureteral reflux to severe renal agenesis. Other phenotypes include renal duplication, small kidneys, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, hydronephrosis, and renal dysplasia. These abnormalities can result in kidney damage, and possibly renal failure (summary by Vivante et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CAKUT, see 610805.
Hand-foot-genital syndrome
MedGen UID:
331103
Concept ID:
C1841679
Disease or Syndrome
Hand-foot-genital syndrome (HFGS) is characterized by limb malformations and urogenital defects. Mild-to-severe bilateral shortening of the thumbs and great toes, caused primarily by shortening of the distal phalanx and/or the first metacarpal or metatarsal, is the most common limb malformation and results in impaired dexterity or apposition of the thumbs. Urogenital malformations include abnormalities of the ureters and urethra and various degrees of incomplete müllerian fusion in females, and hypospadias of variable severity with or without chordee in males. Vesicoureteral reflux, recurrent urinary tract infections, and chronic pyelonephritis may occur; fertility is normal.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 3, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
335850
Concept ID:
C1842982
Finding
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pathologic entity associated clinically with proteinuria, the nephrotic syndrome (NPHS), and progressive loss of renal function. It is a common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (Meyrier, 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome, see FSGS1 (603278).
Hypophosphatemic rickets, X-linked recessive
MedGen UID:
335115
Concept ID:
C1845168
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked recessive hypophosphatemic rickets is a form of X-linked hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis, which comprises a group of disorders characterized by proximal renal tubular reabsorptive failure, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal insufficiency. These disorders have also been referred to as the 'Dent disease complex' (Scheinman, 1998; Gambaro et al., 2004). For a general discussion of Dent disease, see 300009.
Deafness-intellectual disability, Martin-Probst type syndrome
MedGen UID:
375620
Concept ID:
C1845285
Disease or Syndrome
Martin-Probst syndrome (MRXSMP) is characterized by congenital sensorineural hearing loss, mild to severe cognitive impairment, short stature, and facial dysmorphism, including telecanthus, hypertelorism, epicanthic folds, broad mouth, and low-set ears. Variable features include renal and genitourinary abnormalities and late-onset pancytopenia (Martin et al., 2000).
Joubert syndrome with renal defect
MedGen UID:
335526
Concept ID:
C1846790
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Dent disease type 1
MedGen UID:
336322
Concept ID:
C1848336
Disease or Syndrome
Dent disease, an X-linked disorder of proximal renal tubular dysfunction, is characterized by low molecular weight (LMW) proteinuria, hypercalciuria, and at least one additional finding including nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, hematuria, hypophosphatemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and evidence of X-linked inheritance. Males younger than age ten years may manifest only LMW proteinuria and/or hypercalciuria, which are usually asymptomatic. Thirty to 80% of affected males develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between ages 30 and 50 years; in some instances ESRD does not develop until the sixth decade of life or later. The disease may also be accompanied by rickets or osteomalacia, growth restriction, and short stature. Disease severity can vary within the same family. Males with Dent disease 2 (caused by pathogenic variants in OCRL) may also have mild intellectual disability, cataracts, and/or elevated muscle enzymes. Due to random X-chromosome inactivation, some female carriers may manifest hypercalciuria and, rarely, renal calculi and moderate LMW proteinuria. Females rarely develop CKD.
Cobalamin C disease
MedGen UID:
341256
Concept ID:
C1848561
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of intracellular cobalamin metabolism have a variable phenotype and age of onset that are influenced by the severity and location within the pathway of the defect. The prototype and best understood phenotype is cblC; it is also the most common of these disorders. The age of initial presentation of cblC spans a wide range: In utero with fetal presentation of nonimmune hydrops, cardiomyopathy, and intrauterine growth restriction. Newborns, who can have microcephaly, poor feeding, and encephalopathy. Infants, who can have poor feeding and slow growth, neurologic abnormality, and, rarely, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Toddlers, who can have poor growth, progressive microcephaly, cytopenias (including megaloblastic anemia), global developmental delay, encephalopathy, and neurologic signs such as hypotonia and seizures. Adolescents and adults, who can have neuropsychiatric symptoms, progressive cognitive decline, thromboembolic complications, and/or subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.
Nephropathy - deafness - hyperparathyroidism syndrome
MedGen UID:
340569
Concept ID:
C1850553
Disease or Syndrome
A rare syndromic deafness characterized by renal failure without hematuria, parathyroid hyperplasia and sensorineural deafness. There have been no further reports since 1989.
Familial Mediterranean fever, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
341987
Concept ID:
C1851347
Disease or Syndrome
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is divided into two phenotypes: type 1 and type 2. FMF type 1 is characterized by recurrent short episodes of inflammation and serositis including fever, peritonitis, synovitis, pleuritis, and, rarely, pericarditis and meningitis. The symptoms and severity vary among affected individuals, sometimes even among members of the same family. Amyloidosis, which can lead to renal failure, is the most severe complication, if untreated. FMF type 2 is characterized by amyloidosis as the first clinical manifestation of FMF in an otherwise asymptomatic individual.
Mesangial sclerosis, diffuse renal, with ocular abnormalities
MedGen UID:
343307
Concept ID:
C1855282
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly-glomerulonephritis-marfanoid habitus syndrome
MedGen UID:
343327
Concept ID:
C1855348
Disease or Syndrome
A rare intellectual disability syndrome characterized by intellectual deficit, marfanoid habitus, microcephaly, and glomerulonephritis. There have been no further reports since 1992.
Dahlberg-Borer-Newcomer syndrome
MedGen UID:
383693
Concept ID:
C1855477
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare ectodermal dysplasia syndrome, described in 2 adult brothers, characterized by the association of hypoparathyroidism, nephropathy, congenital lymphedema, mitral valve prolapse and brachytelephalangy. Additional features include mild facial dysmorphism, hypertrichosis and nail abnormalities.
Hypervitaminosis a, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
343435
Concept ID:
C1855883
Finding
Autosomal recessive humeroradial synostosis
MedGen UID:
343467
Concept ID:
C1856055
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive form of humeroradial synostosis (disease).
Ventriculomegaly-cystic kidney disease
MedGen UID:
346584
Concept ID:
C1857423
Disease or Syndrome
Ventriculomegaly with cystic kidney disease is a severe autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by onset in utero of dilated cerebral ventricles and microscopic renal tubular cysts. The pregnancies of affected individuals are associated with increased alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Most affected pregnancies have been terminated (summary by Slavotinek et al., 2015). See also 602200 for a disorder characterized by ventriculomegaly and defects of the radius and kidney.
Alagille syndrome due to a NOTCH2 point mutation
MedGen UID:
341844
Concept ID:
C1857761
Disease or Syndrome
Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is a multisystem disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical variability; this variability is seen even among individuals from the same family. The major clinical manifestations of ALGS are bile duct paucity on liver biopsy, cholestasis, congenital cardiac defects (primarily involving the pulmonary arteries), butterfly vertebrae, ophthalmologic abnormalities (most commonly posterior embryotoxon), and characteristic facial features. Renal abnormalities, growth failure, developmental delays, splenomegaly, and vascular abnormalities may also occur.
Nephronophthisis 3
MedGen UID:
346809
Concept ID:
C1858392
Disease or Syndrome
The nephronophthisis (NPH) phenotype is characterized by reduced renal concentrating ability, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystic renal disease, and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before age 30 years. Three age-based clinical subtypes are recognized: infantile, juvenile, and adolescent/adult. Infantile NPH can present in utero with oligohydramnios sequence (limb contractures, pulmonary hypoplasia, and facial dysmorphisms) or postnatally with renal manifestations that progress to ESRD before age 3 years. Juvenile NPH, the most prevalent subtype, typically presents with polydipsia and polyuria, growth retardation, chronic iron-resistant anemia, or other findings related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is typically absent due to salt wasting. ESRD develops at a median age of 13 years. Ultrasound findings are increased echogenicity, reduced corticomedullary differentiation, and renal cysts (in 50% of affected individuals). Histologic findings include tubulointerstitial fibrosis, thickened and disrupted tubular basement membrane, sporadic corticomedullary cysts, and normal or reduced kidney size. Adolescent/adult NPH is clinically similar to juvenile NPH, but ESRD develops at a median age of 19 years. Within a subtype, inter- and intrafamilial variability in rate of progression to ESRD is considerable. Approximately 80%-90% of individuals with the NPH phenotype have no extrarenal features (i.e., they have isolated NPH); ~10%-20% have extrarenal manifestations that constitute a recognizable syndrome (e.g., Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Jeune syndrome and related skeletal disorders, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Senior-Løken syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis, COACH syndrome, and oculomotor apraxia, Cogan type).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
347182
Concept ID:
C1859567
Disease or Syndrome
BBS9 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by obesity, polydactyly, renal anomalies, retinopathy, and mental retardation (Abu-Safieh et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
347909
Concept ID:
C1859568
Disease or Syndrome
BBS10 is characterized by progressive retinal dystrophy, obesity, polydactyly, cognitive impairment, and renal dysplasia (Stoetzel et al., 2006). BBS10 represents a major locus for BBS, with mutations in the BBS10 gene accounting for approximately 20% of BBS patients (Stoetzel et al., 2006; Zaghloul and Katsanis, 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Brachymesomelia-renal syndrome
MedGen UID:
350586
Concept ID:
C1862084
Disease or Syndrome
Xanthinuria type II
MedGen UID:
350953
Concept ID:
C1863688
Disease or Syndrome
Xanthinuria type II is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism resulting from a defect in the synthesis of the molybdenum cofactor, which is necessary for the 2 enzymes that degrade xanthine: XDH (607633) and AOX1 (602841). Most individuals with type II xanthinuria are asymptomatic, but some develop urinary tract calculi, acute renal failure, or myositis due to tissue deposition of xanthine. Laboratory studies show increased serum and urinary hypoxanthine and xanthine and decreased serum and urinary uric acid (summary by Ichida et al., 2001). Two clinically similar but distinct forms of xanthinuria are recognized. In type I xanthinuria (XAN1; 278300), there is an isolated deficiency of xanthine dehydrogenase resulting from mutation in the XDH gene; in type II, there is a dual deficiency of xanthine dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase. Type I patients can metabolize allopurinol, whereas type II patients cannot (Simmonds et al., 1995).
Bartter disease type 4a
MedGen UID:
355430
Concept ID:
C1865270
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal (or neonatal) forms of Bartter syndrome typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome (see BARTS3, 607364) present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
RHYNS syndrome
MedGen UID:
356371
Concept ID:
C1865794
Disease or Syndrome
RHYNS syndrome is characterized by gaze palsy, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural hearing loss, hypopituitarism, nephronophthisis, and mild skeletal dysplasia (Di Rocco et al., 1997).
Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits 2
MedGen UID:
356149
Concept ID:
C1866075
Disease or Syndrome
Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder characterized clinically by proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and hypertension that leads to end-stage renal failure in the second to fifth decade of life. Pathologic examination shows enlarged glomeruli with mesangial and subendothelial fibrillary deposits that show strong immunoreactivity to fibronectin (Castelletti et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GFND, see 137950.
Scalp-ear-nipple syndrome
MedGen UID:
357183
Concept ID:
C1867020
Disease or Syndrome
Scalp-ear-nipple syndrome is characterized by aplasia cutis congenita of the scalp, breast anomalies that range from hypothelia or athelia to amastia, and minor anomalies of the external ears. Less frequent clinical characteristics include nail dystrophy, dental anomalies, cutaneous syndactyly of the digits, and renal malformations. Penetrance appears to be high, although there is substantial variable expressivity within families (Marneros et al., 2013).
XFE progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
410064
Concept ID:
C1970416
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive condition caused by mutation(s) in the ERCC4 gene, encoding DNA repair endonuclease XPF. it is characterized by characterized by cutaneous photosensitivity and progeroid features in multiple organ systems.
Branchiootorenal syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
410081
Concept ID:
C1970479
Disease or Syndrome
Branchiootorenal spectrum disorder (BORSD) is characterized by malformations of the outer, middle, and inner ear associated with conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing impairment, branchial fistulae and cysts, and renal malformations ranging from mild renal hypoplasia to bilateral renal agenesis. Some individuals progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) later in life. Extreme variability can be observed in the presence, severity, and type of branchial arch, otologic, audiologic, and renal abnormality from right side to left side in an affected individual and also among individuals in the same family.
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity
MedGen UID:
370358
Concept ID:
C1970827
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase (PRS) superactivity comprises two phenotypes, both characterized by hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria. The mild phenotype (~75% of affected males) with onset in the second or third decade of life is typically limited to these biochemical findings, whereas the severe phenotype (~25% of affected males) with onset in the first decade of life has in addition to these biochemical findings variable combinations of developmental delay (DD) / intellectual disability (ID), sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, and ataxia. In the mild phenotype, uric acid crystalluria or a urinary stone is commonly the first clinical finding, followed later by gouty arthritis if serum urate concentration is not controlled.
Glycogen storage disease due to phosphoglycerate kinase 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
410166
Concept ID:
C1970848
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoglycerate kinase-1 deficiency is an X-linked recessive condition with a highly variable clinical phenotype that includes hemolytic anemia, myopathy, and neurologic involvement. Patients can express 1, 2, or all 3 of these manifestations (Shirakawa et al., 2006).
Autosomal dominant familial hematuria-retinal arteriolar tortuosity-contractures syndrome
MedGen UID:
382033
Concept ID:
C2673195
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of COL4A1-related disorders includes: small-vessel brain disease of varying severity including porencephaly, variably associated with eye defects (retinal arterial tortuosity, Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly, cataract) and systemic findings (kidney involvement, muscle cramps, cerebral aneurysms, Raynaud phenomenon, cardiac arrhythmia, and hemolytic anemia). On imaging studies, small-vessel brain disease is manifest as diffuse periventricular leukoencephalopathy, lacunar infarcts, microhemorrhage, dilated perivascular spaces, and deep intracerebral hemorrhages. Clinically, small-vessel brain disease manifests as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, single or recurrent hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, and isolated migraine with aura. Porencephaly (fluid-filled cavities in the brain detected by CT or MRI) is typically manifest as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, and intellectual disability; however, on occasion it can be an incidental finding. HANAC (hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps) syndrome usually associates asymptomatic small-vessel brain disease, cerebral large vessel involvement (i.e., aneurysms), and systemic findings involving the kidney, muscle, and small vessels of the eye. Two additional phenotypes include isolated retinal artery tortuosity and nonsyndromic autosomal dominant congenital cataract.
Lipoprotein glomerulopathy
MedGen UID:
382034
Concept ID:
C2673196
Disease or Syndrome
Lipoprotein glomerulopathy is an uncommon kidney disease characterized by proteinuria, progressive kidney failure, and distinctive lipoprotein thrombi in glomerular capillaries (Saito et al., 2006). It mainly affects people of Japanese and Chinese origin; in these populations, it is associated with mutations in the gene that encodes apolipoprotein E (APOE; 107741). The disorder had rarely been described in Caucasians.
Multicentric carpo-tarsal osteolysis with or without nephropathy
MedGen UID:
436237
Concept ID:
C2674705
Disease or Syndrome
Multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis syndrome is a rare skeletal disorder, usually presenting in early childhood with a clinical picture mimicking juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Progressive destruction of the carpal and tarsal bone usually occurs and other bones may also be involved. Chronic renal failure is a frequent component of the syndrome. Mental retardation and minor facial anomalies have been noted in some patients. Autosomal dominant inheritance has been documented in many families (Pai and Macpherson, 1988). See also Torg-Winchester syndrome (259600), an autosomal recessive multicentric osteolysis syndrome.
Polycystic kidney disease 2
MedGen UID:
442699
Concept ID:
C2751306
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is generally a late-onset multisystem disorder characterized by bilateral renal cysts, liver cysts, and an increased risk of intracranial aneurysms. Other manifestations include: cysts in the pancreas, seminal vesicles, and arachnoid membrane; dilatation of the aortic root and dissection of the thoracic aorta; mitral valve prolapse; and abdominal wall hernias. Renal manifestations include hypertension, renal pain, and renal insufficiency. Approximately 50% of individuals with ADPKD have end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by age 60 years. The prevalence of liver cysts increases with age and occasionally results in clinically significant severe polycystic liver disease (PLD). Overall the prevalence of intracranial aneurysms is fivefold higher than in the general population and further increased in those with a positive family history of aneurysms or subarachnoid hemorrhage. There is substantial variability in the severity of renal disease and other extrarenal manifestations even within the same family.
COG1 congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443957
Concept ID:
C2931011
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare form of carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome with, in the few cases reported to date, variable signs including microcephaly, growth retardation, psychomotor retardation and facial dysmorphism.
Nephropathic cystinosis
MedGen UID:
419735
Concept ID:
C2931187
Disease or Syndrome
Cystinosis comprises three allelic phenotypes: Nephropathic cystinosis in untreated children is characterized by renal Fanconi syndrome, poor growth, hypophosphatemic/calcipenic rickets, impaired glomerular function resulting in complete glomerular failure, and accumulation of cystine in almost all cells, leading to cellular dysfunction with tissue and organ impairment. The typical untreated child has short stature, rickets, and photophobia. Failure to thrive is generally noticed after approximately age six months; signs of renal tubular Fanconi syndrome (polyuria, polydipsia, dehydration, and acidosis) appear as early as age six months; corneal crystals can be present before age one year and are always present after age 16 months. Prior to the use of renal transplantation and cystine-depleting therapy, the life span in nephropathic cystinosis was no longer than ten years. With these interventions, affected individuals can survive at least into the mid-forties or fifties with satisfactory quality of life. Intermediate cystinosis is characterized by all the typical manifestations of nephropathic cystinosis, but onset is at a later age. Renal glomerular failure occurs in all untreated affected individuals, usually between ages 15 and 25 years. The non-nephropathic (ocular) form of cystinosis is characterized clinically only by photophobia resulting from corneal cystine crystal accumulation.
Glycogen storage disease due to lactate dehydrogenase M-subunit deficiency
MedGen UID:
419152
Concept ID:
C2931743
Disease or Syndrome
A rare glycogen storage disease characterized by easy fatigue, exertional myalgia, painful muscle stiffness, and cramps, with or without myoglobinuria. Pustular psoriasis-like eruptions with antecedent annular scaly plaques may be observed in some patients. In affected women, pregnancy may be complicated by abdominal pain and dystocia.
Amelogenesis imperfecta type 1G
MedGen UID:
419162
Concept ID:
C2931783
Disease or Syndrome
Amelogenesis imperfecta and gingival fibromatosis syndrome is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by mild gingival fibromatosis and dental anomalies, including hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta, intrapulpal calcifications, delay of tooth eruption, hypodontia/oligodontia, pericoronal radiolucencies, and unerupted teeth (Martelli-Junior et al., 2008).
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
419514
Concept ID:
C2931875
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Polycystic kidney disease, adult type
MedGen UID:
461191
Concept ID:
C3149841
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is generally a late-onset multisystem disorder characterized by bilateral renal cysts, liver cysts, and an increased risk of intracranial aneurysms. Other manifestations include: cysts in the pancreas, seminal vesicles, and arachnoid membrane; dilatation of the aortic root and dissection of the thoracic aorta; mitral valve prolapse; and abdominal wall hernias. Renal manifestations include hypertension, renal pain, and renal insufficiency. Approximately 50% of individuals with ADPKD have end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by age 60 years. The prevalence of liver cysts increases with age and occasionally results in clinically significant severe polycystic liver disease (PLD). Overall the prevalence of intracranial aneurysms is fivefold higher than in the general population and further increased in those with a positive family history of aneurysms or subarachnoid hemorrhage. There is substantial variability in the severity of renal disease and other extrarenal manifestations even within the same family.
Fanconi renotubular syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
462002
Concept ID:
C3150652
Disease or Syndrome
Any Fanconi syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SLC34A1 gene.
Cranioectodermal dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
462224
Concept ID:
C3150874
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur.
Complement component 3 deficiency
MedGen UID:
462421
Concept ID:
C3151071
Disease or Syndrome
C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is a complex ultra-rare complement-mediated renal disease caused by uncontrolled activation of the complement alternative pathway (AP) in the fluid phase (as opposed to cell surface) that is rarely inherited in a simple mendelian fashion. C3G affects individuals of all ages, with a median age at diagnosis of 23 years. Individuals with C3G typically present with hematuria, proteinuria, hematuria and proteinuria, acute nephritic syndrome or nephrotic syndrome, and low levels of the complement component C3. Spontaneous remission of C3G is uncommon, and about half of affected individuals develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within ten years of diagnosis, occasionally developing the late comorbidity of impaired visual acuity.
Retinitis pigmentosa 59
MedGen UID:
462577
Concept ID:
C3151227
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the DHDDS gene.
Nephrotic syndrome, type 4
MedGen UID:
462918
Concept ID:
C3151568
Disease or Syndrome
WT1 disorder is characterized by congenital/infantile or childhood onset of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a progressive glomerulopathy that does not respond to standard steroid therapy. Additional common findings can include disorders of testicular development (with or without abnormalities of the external genitalia and/or müllerian structures) and Wilms tumor. Less common findings are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gonadoblastoma. While various combinations of renal and other findings associated with a WT1 pathogenic variant were designated as certain syndromes in the past, those designations are now recognized to be part of a phenotypic continuum and are no longer clinically helpful.
Renal dysplasia, cystic, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
477529
Concept ID:
C3275898
Finding
Hyperuricemic nephropathy, familial juvenile type 3
MedGen UID:
481846
Concept ID:
C3280216
Disease or Syndrome
Familial juvenile hyperuricemia nephropathy-3 may be a distinct form of autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD); however, because the mapping of the disorder in the families described by Piret et al. (2011) is tentative, it is possible that the families have a form of the disorder described in the ADTKD series (see ADTKD1, 162000).
Factor I deficiency
MedGen UID:
483045
Concept ID:
C3463916
Disease or Syndrome
C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is a complex ultra-rare complement-mediated renal disease caused by uncontrolled activation of the complement alternative pathway (AP) in the fluid phase (as opposed to cell surface) that is rarely inherited in a simple mendelian fashion. C3G affects individuals of all ages, with a median age at diagnosis of 23 years. Individuals with C3G typically present with hematuria, proteinuria, hematuria and proteinuria, acute nephritic syndrome or nephrotic syndrome, and low levels of the complement component C3. Spontaneous remission of C3G is uncommon, and about half of affected individuals develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within ten years of diagnosis, occasionally developing the late comorbidity of impaired visual acuity.
CFHR5 deficiency
MedGen UID:
766634
Concept ID:
C3553720
Disease or Syndrome
C3 glomerulopathy-3 (C3G3) is an autosomal dominant kidney disease characterized by the onset of microscopic or macroscopic hematuria in the first 3 decades of life, followed by variable progression of renal disease. After age 30, about half of patients continue to have episodic hematuria while maintaining normal renal function, whereas the other half develop proteinuria and progressive renal failure or end-stage renal disease. In some cases, renal dysfunction may be triggered or exacerbated by an infectious disease, often an upper respiratory infection or pharyngitis. Some patients may also develop hypertension. Renal biopsy shows glomerular C3 deposition and mesangial proliferation with glomerulonephritis. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) may also be observed on renal biopsy. Males tend to have a more severe phenotype than females and are more likely to develop end-stage renal disease, often necessitating dialysis or renal transplant (summary by Athanasiou et al., 2011). For a general description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of C3G, see C3G1 (609814).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 11
MedGen UID:
766981
Concept ID:
C3554067
Disease or Syndrome
COXPD11 is a severe multisystemic autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia and lactic acidosis. Affected individuals may have respiratory insufficiency, foot deformities, or seizures, and all reported patients have died in infancy. Biochemical studies show deficiencies of multiple mitochondrial respiratory enzymes (summary by Garcia-Diaz et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Urofacial syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
767434
Concept ID:
C3554520
Disease or Syndrome
Urofacial syndrome (UFS) is characterized by prenatal or infantile onset of urinary bladder voiding dysfunction, abnormal facial movement with expression (resulting from abnormal co-contraction of the corners of the mouth and eyes), and often bowel dysfunction (constipation and/or encopresis). Bladder voiding dysfunction increases the risk for urinary incontinence, megacystis, vesicoureteric reflux, hydroureteronephrosis, urosepsis, and progressive renal impairment. In rare instances, an individual who has (a) a molecularly confirmed diagnosis and/or (b) an affected relative meeting clinical diagnostic criteria manifests only the characteristic facial features or only the urinary bladder voiding dysfunction (not both). Nocturnal lagophthalmos (incomplete closing of the eyes during sleep) appears to be a common and significant finding.
Renal-hepatic-pancreatic dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
811626
Concept ID:
C3715199
Disease or Syndrome
Any renal-hepatic-pancreatic dysplasia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the NPHP3 gene.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 18
MedGen UID:
812504
Concept ID:
C3806174
Disease or Syndrome
BBS18 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy described in a single patient and characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, kidney failure, and cognitive disability (Scheidecker et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Nephronophthisis 16
MedGen UID:
815650
Concept ID:
C3809320
Disease or Syndrome
The nephronophthisis (NPH) phenotype is characterized by reduced renal concentrating ability, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystic renal disease, and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before age 30 years. Three age-based clinical subtypes are recognized: infantile, juvenile, and adolescent/adult. Infantile NPH can present in utero with oligohydramnios sequence (limb contractures, pulmonary hypoplasia, and facial dysmorphisms) or postnatally with renal manifestations that progress to ESRD before age 3 years. Juvenile NPH, the most prevalent subtype, typically presents with polydipsia and polyuria, growth retardation, chronic iron-resistant anemia, or other findings related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is typically absent due to salt wasting. ESRD develops at a median age of 13 years. Ultrasound findings are increased echogenicity, reduced corticomedullary differentiation, and renal cysts (in 50% of affected individuals). Histologic findings include tubulointerstitial fibrosis, thickened and disrupted tubular basement membrane, sporadic corticomedullary cysts, and normal or reduced kidney size. Adolescent/adult NPH is clinically similar to juvenile NPH, but ESRD develops at a median age of 19 years. Within a subtype, inter- and intrafamilial variability in rate of progression to ESRD is considerable. Approximately 80%-90% of individuals with the NPH phenotype have no extrarenal features (i.e., they have isolated NPH); ~10%-20% have extrarenal manifestations that constitute a recognizable syndrome (e.g., Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Jeune syndrome and related skeletal disorders, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Senior-Løken syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis, COACH syndrome, and oculomotor apraxia, Cogan type).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 16
MedGen UID:
855172
Concept ID:
C3889474
Disease or Syndrome
BBS16 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by retinal degeneration, obesity, renal disease, and cognitive impairment. Although polydactyly is considered a primary feature of BBS overall, it has not been reported in any BBS16 patient (Billingsley et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 19
MedGen UID:
855173
Concept ID:
C3889475
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-19 (BBS19) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by obesity, impaired intellectual development, polydactyly, renal failure, retinitis pigmentosa, and hypogonadism (Aldahmesh et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Nephronophthisis 20
MedGen UID:
934607
Concept ID:
C4310640
Disease or Syndrome
Nephronophthisis-20 is an autosomal recessive tubulointerstitial nephritis characterized by progressive renal fibrosis resulting in end-stage renal failure. The age at onset is relatively late compared to other forms of NPHP, and patients develop end-stage renal disease in the second or third decades. Unlike most other forms of NPHP, NPHP20 does not have features of a ciliopathy and patients do not appear to have extrarenal manifestations (summary by Macia et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephronophthisis, see NPHP1 (256100).
Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome
MedGen UID:
934655
Concept ID:
C4310688
Disease or Syndrome
CHD4 neurodevelopmental disorder (CHD4-NDD) is associated with developmental delay, speech delay, and usually mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Variability between individuals with CHD4-NDD is significant, and a few have normal intelligence. Other manifestations can include brain anomalies, heart defects, and skeletal abnormalities; less common features are hypogonadism in males, hearing impairment, and ophthalmic abnormalities. Most affected individuals have mild nonspecific dysmorphic facial features with or without macrocephaly.
Bartter disease type 4B
MedGen UID:
934772
Concept ID:
C4310805
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal (or neonatal) forms of Bartter syndrome (e.g., BARTS1, 601678) typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
Hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia-renal defect syndrome
MedGen UID:
1373459
Concept ID:
C4317151
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia-renal defect syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by these 4 features, which begin in early childhood and are progressive (summary by Moalem et al., 2015).
Structural heart defects and renal anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
1387412
Concept ID:
C4479549
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital nephrotic syndrome - interstitial lung disease - epidermolysis bullosa syndrome
MedGen UID:
1388385
Concept ID:
C4518785
Disease or Syndrome
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa-7 with interstitial lung disease and nephrotic syndrome (JEB7), also known as ILNEB, is an autosomal recessive multiorgan disorder that includes congenital interstitial lung disease, nephrotic syndrome, and epidermolysis bullosa. The respiratory and renal features predominate, and lung involvement accounts for the lethal course of the disease (summary by Has et al., 2012).
HELIX syndrome
MedGen UID:
1621482
Concept ID:
C4522164
Disease or Syndrome
HELIX syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by Hypohidrosis, Electrolyte imbalance, Lacrimal gland dysfunction, Ichthyosis, and Xerostomia (summary by Hadj-Rabia et al., 2018).
Psychomotor regression-oculomotor apraxia-movement disorder-nephropathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1621949
Concept ID:
C4539828
Disease or Syndrome
Birk-Landau-Perez syndrome (BILAPES) is an autosomal recessive syndromic developmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. Some patients have developmental regression with loss of speech and motor skills, whereas other patients never achieve these milestones. More variable features may include hypotonia, poor overall growth, ataxia, dystonia, abnormal eye movements, and renal insufficiency (Perez et al., 2017; Kleyner et al., 2022).
Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract syndrome with or without hearing loss, abnormal ears, or developmental delay
MedGen UID:
1612119
Concept ID:
C4539968
Disease or Syndrome
CAKUTHED is an autosomal dominant highly pleiotropic developmental disorder characterized mainly by variable congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, sometimes resulting in renal dysfunction or failure, dysmorphic facial features, and abnormalities of the outer ear, often with hearing loss. Most patients have global developmental delay (summary by Heidet et al., 2017 and Slavotinek et al., 2017).
Townes-Brocks syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1635275
Concept ID:
C4551481
Disease or Syndrome
Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) is characterized by the triad of imperforate anus (84%), dysplastic ears (87%; overfolded superior helices and preauricular tags; frequently associated with sensorineural and/or conductive hearing impairment [65%]), and thumb malformations (89%; triphalangeal thumbs, duplication of the thumb [preaxial polydactyly], and rarely hypoplasia of the thumbs). Renal impairment (42%), including end-stage renal disease (ESRD), may occur with or without structural abnormalities (mild malrotation, ectopia, horseshoe kidney, renal hypoplasia, polycystic kidneys, vesicoutereral reflux). Congenital heart disease occurs in 25%. Foot malformations (52%; flat feet, overlapping toes) and genitourinary malformations (36%) are common. Intellectual disability occurs in approximately 10% of individuals. Rare features include iris coloboma, Duane anomaly, Arnold-Chiari malformation type 1, and growth retardation.
Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy type 1
MedGen UID:
1645893
Concept ID:
C4551496
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease – UMOD (ADTKD-UMOD) is characterized by normal urinalysis and slowly progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD), usually first noted in the teen years and progressing to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between the third and seventh decades. Hyperuricemia is often present from an early age, and gout (resulting from reduced kidney excretion of uric acid) occurs in the teenage years in about 8% of affected individuals and develops in 55% of affected individuals over time.
Fanconi renotubular syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1635492
Concept ID:
C4551503
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1634188
Concept ID:
C4551772
Disease or Syndrome
Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy 1
MedGen UID:
1648057
Concept ID:
C4551856
Congenital Abnormality
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). Genetic Heterogeneity of Asphyxiating Thoracic Dysplasia SRTD1 has been mapped to chromosome 15q13. See also SRTD2 (611263), caused by mutation in the IFT80 gene (611177); SRTD3 (613091), caused by mutation in the DYNC2H1 gene (603297); SRTD4 (613819), caused by mutation in the TTC21B gene (612014); SRTD5 (614376), caused by mutation in the WDR19 gene (608151); SRTD6 (263520), caused by mutation in the NEK1 gene (604588); SRTD7 (614091), caused by mutation in the WDR35 gene (613602); SRTD8 (615503), caused by mutation in the WDR60 gene (615462); SRTD9 (266920), caused by mutation in the IFT140 gene (614620); SRTD10 (615630), caused by mutation in the IFT172 gene (607386); SRTD11 (615633), caused by mutation in the WDR34 gene (613363); SRTD13 (616300), caused by mutation in the CEP120 gene (613446); SRTD14 (616546), caused by mutation in the KIAA0586 gene (610178); SRTD15 (617088), caused by mutation in the DYNC2LI1 gene (617083); SRTD16 (617102), caused by mutation in the IFT52 gene (617094); SRTD17 (617405), caused by mutation in the TCTEX1D2 gene (617353); SRTD18 (617866), caused by mutation in the IFT43 gene (614068); SRTD19 (617895), caused by mutation in the IFT81 gene (605489); SRTD20 (617925), caused by mutation in the INTU gene (610621); and SRTD21 (619479), caused by mutation in the KIAA0753 gene (617112). See also SRTD12 (Beemer-Langer syndrome; 269860).
Pseudo-TORCH syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639355
Concept ID:
C4552078
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Alport syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648326
Concept ID:
C4746547
Disease or Syndrome
In Alport syndrome (AS) a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from progressive renal disease with extrarenal abnormalities to isolated hematuria with a non-progressive or very slowly progressive course is observed. Approximately two thirds of AS is X-linked (XLAS); approximately 15% is autosomal recessive (ARAS), and approximately 20% is autosomal dominant (ADAS). In the absence of treatment, renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria (microhematuria) to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with XLAS, and in all males and females with ARAS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. In individuals with ADAS, ESRD is frequently delayed until later adulthood, SNHL is relatively late in onset, and ocular involvement is rare.
Autosomal recessive Alport syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648334
Concept ID:
C4746745
Disease or Syndrome
In Alport syndrome (AS) a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from progressive renal disease with extrarenal abnormalities to isolated hematuria with a non-progressive or very slowly progressive course is observed. Approximately two thirds of AS is X-linked (XLAS); approximately 15% is autosomal recessive (ARAS), and approximately 20% is autosomal dominant (ADAS). In the absence of treatment, renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria (microhematuria) to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with XLAS, and in all males and females with ARAS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. In individuals with ADAS, ESRD is frequently delayed until later adulthood, SNHL is relatively late in onset, and ocular involvement is rare.
X-linked Alport syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648433
Concept ID:
C4746986
Disease or Syndrome
In Alport syndrome (AS) a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from progressive renal disease with extrarenal abnormalities to isolated hematuria with a non-progressive or very slowly progressive course is observed. Approximately two thirds of AS is X-linked (XLAS); approximately 15% is autosomal recessive (ARAS), and approximately 20% is autosomal dominant (ADAS). In the absence of treatment, renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria (microhematuria) to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with XLAS, and in all males and females with ARAS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. In individuals with ADAS, ESRD is frequently delayed until later adulthood, SNHL is relatively late in onset, and ocular involvement is rare.
Polycystic kidney disease 6 with or without polycystic liver disease
MedGen UID:
1648469
Concept ID:
C4748044
Disease or Syndrome
Polycystic kidney disease-6 is an autosomal dominant renal disease characterized by the development of multiple small renal cysts and progression to renal insufficiency or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) most often after the sixth decade. The cysts are generally small (less than 1 to 3 cm) and the kidneys are not massively enlarged. Some patients may have evidence of chronic interstitial fibrosis and about half develop liver cysts (summary by Cornec-Le Gall et al., 2018). The renal interstitial fibrosis suggests overlap with autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD; see 162000) (summary by Devuyst et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of polycystic kidney disease, see PKD1 (173900).
Lessel-kubisch syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684750
Concept ID:
C5231460
Disease or Syndrome
Lessel-Kubisch syndrome (LSKB) is characterized by short stature and progeroid features, including prematurely gray hair, pinched facies, and scleroderma-like skin changes. Renal failure-associated hypertension and hypogonadism have also been observed (Lessel et al., 2017).
COACH syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1755565
Concept ID:
C5436841
Disease or Syndrome
COACH syndrome is classically defined as Cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, Oligophrenia, Ataxia, Colobomas, and Hepatic fibrosis (Verloes and Lambotte, 1989). Brain MRI demonstrates the molar tooth sign, which is a feature of Joubert syndrome. The disorder has been described as a Joubert syndrome-related disorder with liver disease (summary by Doherty et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of COACH syndrome, see 216360.
Leukoencephalopathy, progressive, infantile-onset, with or without deafness
MedGen UID:
1779519
Concept ID:
C5542996
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset progressive leukoencephalopathy with or without deafness (LEPID) is an autosomal recessive complex neurodegenerative disorder with onset of symptoms in infancy or early childhood. Most patients present with sensorineural deafness or hypoacousia and global developmental delay. Affected individuals show episodic regression with progressive motor deterioration resulting in spastic tetraplegia and loss of ambulation, as well as impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Additional more variable features may include poor overall growth with microcephaly, seizures, visual loss, microcytic anemia, and hepatic enlargement or abnormal liver enzymes. Brain imaging shows deep white matter abnormalities consistent with a progressive leukoencephalopathy. The brain and spinal cord are usually both involved; calcifications of these regions are often observed. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and deficiencies of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, consistent with global mitochondrial dysfunction. Early death often occurs (summary by Itoh et al., 2019).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 52
MedGen UID:
1780479
Concept ID:
C5543592
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-52 (COXPD52) is an autosomal recessive infantile mitochondrial complex II/III deficiency characterized by lactic acidemia, multiorgan system failure, and abnormal mitochondria. Intrafamilial variability has been reported (Farhan et al., 2014; Hershkovitz et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
NEPHRONOPHTHISIS-LIKE NEPHROPATHY 2
MedGen UID:
1794163
Concept ID:
C5561953
Disease or Syndrome
Nephronophthisis-like nephropathy-2 (NPHPL2) is an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease characterized by onset of progressive renal insufficiency in the first decades of life. Renal imaging and biopsy show corticomedullary cysts, tubular ectasia, tubular basement membrane disruption, and tubulointerstitial infiltrations. Patients eventually progress to end-stage renal failure, necessitating kidney transplantation or dialysis (summary by Hurd et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephronophthisis, see NPHP1 (256100).
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
1794176
Concept ID:
C5561966
Disease or Syndrome
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome-9 (AGS9) is a type I interferonopathy characterized by severe developmental delay and progressive neurologic deterioration. Patients present in infancy with irritability and spasticity. Brain imaging shows diffusely abnormal white matter, cerebral atrophy, and intracranial calcification. Premature death has been associated with renal and/or hepatic failure (Uggenti et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, see AGS1 (225750).
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794200
Concept ID:
C5561990
Disease or Syndrome
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome (BRENS) is an autosomal recessive complex ciliopathy with multisystemic manifestations. The most common presentation is severe neonatal cholestasis that progresses to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Most patients have additional clinical features suggestive of a ciliopathy, including postaxial polydactyly, hydrocephalus, retinal abnormalities, and situs inversus. Additional features of the syndrome may include congenital cardiac defects, echogenic kidneys with renal failure, ocular abnormalities, joint hyperextensibility, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients have global developmental delay. Brain imaging typically shows dilated ventricles, hypomyelination, and white matter abnormalities, although some patients have been described with abnormal pituitary development (summary by Shaheen et al., 2020 and David et al., 2020).
Immunodeficiency 91 and hyperinflammation
MedGen UID:
1794283
Concept ID:
C5562073
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-91 and hyperinflammation (IMD91) is an autosomal recessive complex immunologic disorder characterized by both immunodeficiency and recurrent infections, often to viruses or mycobacteria, as well as by hyperinflammation with systemic involvement. Affected individuals present in infancy with variable features, including fever, infection, thrombocytopenia, renal or hepatic dysfunction, recurrent infections, or seizures. Most patients eventually develop hepatic or renal failure, compromised neurologic function, lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly, and multiorgan failure resulting in death. More variable features may include intermittent monocytosis, features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), and serologic evidence of hyperinflammation. The disorder is thought to result from dysregulation of the interferon response to viral stimulation in the innate immune system (summary by Le Voyer et al., 2021; Vavassori et al., 2021).
Norum disease
MedGen UID:
980642
Concept ID:
CN296455
Disease or Syndrome
Familial LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase) deficiency (FLD) is a form of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency (LCAT; see this term) characterized clinically by corneal opacities, hemolytic anemia, and renal failure, and biochemically by severely decreased HDL cholesterol and complete deficiency of the LCAT enzyme.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Li YJ, Lee WS, Chang YL, Chou YC, Chiu YC, Hsu CC
Clin Ther 2022 May;44(5):710-722. Epub 2022 Apr 3 doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2022.03.003. PMID: 35382947
AbdelRazek M, Abolyosr A, AbdelKader MS, Hassan AM, Hamed AA, Alsagheer G
World J Urol 2021 Dec;39(12):4477-4482. Epub 2021 Jun 2 doi: 10.1007/s00345-021-03751-0. PMID: 34076752
Avgerinos DV, Payabyab EC, Rahouma M, Ruan Y, Gaudino M, Girardi LN
J Card Surg 2020 Sep;35(9):2194-2200. Epub 2020 Jun 24 doi: 10.1111/jocs.14689. PMID: 32579778
Zhang DW, Wang SL, Wang PL, Du JP, Gao ZY, Wang CL, Xu H, Shi DZ
J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Feb 10;248:112354. Epub 2019 Nov 2 doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.112354. PMID: 31689480
Momota M, Hatakeyama S, Tokui N, Sato T, Yamamoto H, Tobisawa Y, Yoneyama T, Yoneyama T, Hashimoto Y, Koie T, Narita S, Kawaguchi T, Ohyama C
Eur Urol Focus 2019 Nov;5(6):1066-1073. Epub 2018 Mar 13 doi: 10.1016/j.euf.2018.03.003. PMID: 29548907

Diagnosis

Feng Y, Qiu G, Xu C, Duan Z, Wang M, Wang L, Hu W, Li P, Zhou H
J Healthc Eng 2022;2022:1469370. Epub 2022 Apr 5 doi: 10.1155/2022/1469370. PMID: 35422982Free PMC Article
Chen G, Shan X, Wang H
Nephrology (Carlton) 2021 May;26(5):400-407. Epub 2021 Feb 2 doi: 10.1111/nep.13851. PMID: 33484208
Peng Y, Du X, Li X, Ji J, Wu Y, Gao R, Patel A; Clinical Pathways for Acute Coronary Syndromes in China (CPACS) Investigators.
Int J Cardiol 2021 Jan 15;323:7-12. Epub 2020 Aug 15 doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.08.022. PMID: 32810549
Wang D, Fan G, Liu X, Wu S, Zhai Z
Thromb Haemost 2020 Jul;120(7):1025-1034. Epub 2020 Jun 11 doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1712459. PMID: 32526792
Zhang DW, Wang SL, Wang PL, Du JP, Gao ZY, Wang CL, Xu H, Shi DZ
J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Feb 10;248:112354. Epub 2019 Nov 2 doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.112354. PMID: 31689480

Therapy

AbdelRazek M, Abolyosr A, AbdelKader MS, Hassan AM, Hamed AA, Alsagheer G
World J Urol 2021 Dec;39(12):4477-4482. Epub 2021 Jun 2 doi: 10.1007/s00345-021-03751-0. PMID: 34076752
Wang D, Fan G, Liu X, Wu S, Zhai Z
Thromb Haemost 2020 Jul;120(7):1025-1034. Epub 2020 Jun 11 doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1712459. PMID: 32526792
Zhang DW, Wang SL, Wang PL, Du JP, Gao ZY, Wang CL, Xu H, Shi DZ
J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Feb 10;248:112354. Epub 2019 Nov 2 doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.112354. PMID: 31689480
Pei Q, Xie JL, Huang J, Liu WY, Yang XY, Wang Y, Li W, Tan HY, Zhang H, Yang GP
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Prognosis

Li YJ, Lee WS, Chang YL, Chou YC, Chiu YC, Hsu CC
Clin Ther 2022 May;44(5):710-722. Epub 2022 Apr 3 doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2022.03.003. PMID: 35382947
Avgerinos DV, Payabyab EC, Rahouma M, Ruan Y, Gaudino M, Girardi LN
J Card Surg 2020 Sep;35(9):2194-2200. Epub 2020 Jun 24 doi: 10.1111/jocs.14689. PMID: 32579778
Zhang DW, Wang SL, Wang PL, Du JP, Gao ZY, Wang CL, Xu H, Shi DZ
J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Feb 10;248:112354. Epub 2019 Nov 2 doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.112354. PMID: 31689480
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J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020 Apr;159(4):1307-1319.e2. Epub 2019 Apr 15 doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2019.03.098. PMID: 31128896
Momota M, Hatakeyama S, Tokui N, Sato T, Yamamoto H, Tobisawa Y, Yoneyama T, Yoneyama T, Hashimoto Y, Koie T, Narita S, Kawaguchi T, Ohyama C
Eur Urol Focus 2019 Nov;5(6):1066-1073. Epub 2018 Mar 13 doi: 10.1016/j.euf.2018.03.003. PMID: 29548907

Clinical prediction guides

Li YJ, Lee WS, Chang YL, Chou YC, Chiu YC, Hsu CC
Clin Ther 2022 May;44(5):710-722. Epub 2022 Apr 3 doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2022.03.003. PMID: 35382947
Liu Y, Sun JY, Zhu YS, Li ZM, Li KL, Wang RX
Semin Dial 2021 Jan;34(1):17-30. Epub 2020 Dec 9 doi: 10.1111/sdi.12937. PMID: 33296540
Avgerinos DV, Payabyab EC, Rahouma M, Ruan Y, Gaudino M, Girardi LN
J Card Surg 2020 Sep;35(9):2194-2200. Epub 2020 Jun 24 doi: 10.1111/jocs.14689. PMID: 32579778
Zhang DW, Wang SL, Wang PL, Du JP, Gao ZY, Wang CL, Xu H, Shi DZ
J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Feb 10;248:112354. Epub 2019 Nov 2 doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.112354. PMID: 31689480
Pasrija C, Tran D, George P, Sorensen E, Kaczorowski DJ, Ton VK, Kon ZN; LVAD in Renal Failure Group.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020 Apr;159(4):1307-1319.e2. Epub 2019 Apr 15 doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2019.03.098. PMID: 31128896

Recent systematic reviews

Mohyuddin GR, Koehn K, Shune L, Aziz M, Abdallah AO, McClune B, Ganguly S, McGuirk J, Kambhampati S
Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Jun;62(6):1386-1395. Epub 2021 Jan 8 doi: 10.1080/10428194.2020.1867725. PMID: 33416412
Liu Y, Sun JY, Zhu YS, Li ZM, Li KL, Wang RX
Semin Dial 2021 Jan;34(1):17-30. Epub 2020 Dec 9 doi: 10.1111/sdi.12937. PMID: 33296540
Huang Y, Zhang S, Liu M, Zhong X, Lin Y, Xiong Z, Fan Y, Zhou H, Sun X, Guo Y, Xu X, Li Y, Yang D, Zhuang X, Liao X
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2020 Dec;76(6):692-697. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0000000000000910. PMID: 32889964
Wang D, Fan G, Liu X, Wu S, Zhai Z
Thromb Haemost 2020 Jul;120(7):1025-1034. Epub 2020 Jun 11 doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1712459. PMID: 32526792
He L, Li J, Zhan J, Yi F, Fan X, Wei Y, Zhang W
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2019 Mar;83(3):561-571. Epub 2019 Jan 4 doi: 10.1007/s00280-018-3762-x. PMID: 30610366

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