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Germ cell tumor of testis(TGCT)

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Neoplastic Process
Synonyms: GERM CELL TUMOR, SOMATIC; Testicular germ cell tumor; TGCT
SNOMED CT: Germ cell tumor of testis (713577007)
Genes (locations): BCL10 (1p22.3); FGFR3 (4p16.3); KIT (4q12); STK11 (19p13.3)
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0010108
OMIM®: 273300
Orphanet: ORPHA363504


Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) affect 1 in 500 men and are the most common cancer in males aged 15 to 40 in western European populations. The incidence of TGCT rose dramatically during the 20th century. Known risk factors for TGCT include a history of undescended testis (UDT), testicular dysgenesis, infertility, previously diagnosed TGCT, and a family history of the disease. Brothers of men with TGCT have an 8- to 10-fold risk of developing TGCT, whereas the relative risk to fathers and sons is 4-fold. This familial relative risk is much higher than that for most other types of cancer (summary by Rapley et al., 2000). Genetic Heterogeneity of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors A locus for testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT1; 300228) has been identified on chromosome Xq27. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Embryonal neoplasm
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Neoplastic Process
A usually malignant neoplasm composed of primitive (immature) tissues that resemble fetal tissues. Medulloblastoma, ependymoblastoma, pineoblastoma, and Wilms tumor are representative embryonal neoplasms.
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Neoplastic Process
The presence of a teratoma.
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Absence of any measurable level of sperm in his semen.
Elevated circulating alpha-fetoprotein concentration
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
An increased concentration of alpha-fetoprotein.
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Neoplastic Process
A malignant, trophoblastic and aggressive cancer, usually of the placenta. It is characterized by early hematogenous spread to the lungs and belongs to the far end of the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), a subset of germ cell tumors.

Term Hierarchy

Professional guidelines


Thawani R, Kim MS, Arastu A, Feng Z, West MT, Taflin NF, Thein KZ, Li R, Geltzeiler M, Lee N, Fuller CD, Grandis JR, Floudas CS, Heinrich MC, Hanna E, Chandra RA
CA Cancer J Clin 2023 Jan;73(1):72-112. Epub 2022 Aug 2 doi: 10.3322/caac.21752. PMID: 35916666Free PMC Article
Gilligan T, Lin DW, Aggarwal R, Chism D, Cost N, Derweesh IH, Emamekhoo H, Feldman DR, Geynisman DM, Hancock SL, LaGrange C, Levine EG, Longo T, Lowrance W, McGregor B, Monk P, Picus J, Pierorazio P, Rais-Bahrami S, Saylor P, Sircar K, Smith DC, Tzou K, Vaena D, Vaughn D, Yamoah K, Yamzon J, Johnson-Chilla A, Keller J, Pluchino LA
J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2019 Dec;17(12):1529-1554. doi: 10.6004/jnccn.2019.0058. PMID: 31805523
Lanciotti L, Cofini M, Leonardi A, Bertozzi M, Penta L, Esposito S
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Apr 9;16(7) doi: 10.3390/ijerph16071268. PMID: 30970592Free PMC Article

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