U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Germ cell tumor of testis(TGCT)

MedGen UID:
277809
Concept ID:
C1336708
Neoplastic Process
Synonyms: GERM CELL TUMOR, SOMATIC; Testicular germ cell tumor; TGCT
SNOMED CT: Germ cell tumor of testis (713577007)
 
Genes (locations): BCL10 (1p22.3); FGFR3 (4p16.3); KIT (4q12); STK11 (19p13.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0010108
OMIM®: 273300
Orphanet: ORPHA363504

Definition

Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) affect 1 in 500 men and are the most common cancer in males aged 15 to 40 in western European populations. The incidence of TGCT rose dramatically during the 20th century. Known risk factors for TGCT include a history of undescended testis (UDT), testicular dysgenesis, infertility, previously diagnosed TGCT, and a family history of the disease. Brothers of men with TGCT have an 8- to 10-fold risk of developing TGCT, whereas the relative risk to fathers and sons is 4-fold. This familial relative risk is much higher than that for most other types of cancer (summary by Rapley et al., 2000). Genetic Heterogeneity of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors A locus for testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT1; 300228) has been identified on chromosome Xq27. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Embryonal neoplasm
MedGen UID:
45034
Concept ID:
C0027654
Neoplastic Process
A usually malignant neoplasm composed of primitive (immature) tissues that resemble fetal tissues. Medulloblastoma, ependymoblastoma, pineoblastoma, and Wilms tumor are representative embryonal neoplasms.
Teratoma
MedGen UID:
21097
Concept ID:
C0039538
Neoplastic Process
The presence of a teratoma.
Azoospermia
MedGen UID:
2150
Concept ID:
C0004509
Disease or Syndrome
Absence of any measurable level of sperm,whereby spermatozoa cannot be observed even after centrifugation of the semen pellet.
Elevated circulating alpha-fetoprotein concentration
MedGen UID:
65916
Concept ID:
C0235971
Finding
Concentration of alpha-fetoprotein in the blood circulation above the upper limit of normal.
Choriocarcinoma
MedGen UID:
40278
Concept ID:
C0008497
Neoplastic Process
A malignant, trophoblastic and aggressive cancer, usually of the placenta. It is characterized by early hematogenous spread to the lungs and belongs to the far end of the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), a subset of germ cell tumors.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Wee CE, Gilligan TD
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol 2023 Apr;21(4):179-188. PMID: 37039725
Thawani R, Kim MS, Arastu A, Feng Z, West MT, Taflin NF, Thein KZ, Li R, Geltzeiler M, Lee N, Fuller CD, Grandis JR, Floudas CS, Heinrich MC, Hanna E, Chandra RA
CA Cancer J Clin 2023 Jan;73(1):72-112. Epub 2022 Aug 2 doi: 10.3322/caac.21752. PMID: 35916666Free PMC Article
Gilligan T, Lin DW, Aggarwal R, Chism D, Cost N, Derweesh IH, Emamekhoo H, Feldman DR, Geynisman DM, Hancock SL, LaGrange C, Levine EG, Longo T, Lowrance W, McGregor B, Monk P, Picus J, Pierorazio P, Rais-Bahrami S, Saylor P, Sircar K, Smith DC, Tzou K, Vaena D, Vaughn D, Yamoah K, Yamzon J, Johnson-Chilla A, Keller J, Pluchino LA
J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2019 Dec;17(12):1529-1554. doi: 10.6004/jnccn.2019.0058. PMID: 31805523

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Xu Y, Li H, Wang B, Gu L, Gao Y, Fan Y, Yao Y, Fam X, Ma X, Zhang X
Urol J 2021 Oct 4;18(6):618-622. doi: 10.22037/uj.v18i.6629. PMID: 34606083
Divarcı E, Arslan S, Dökümcü Z, Kantar M, Demirağ B, Öniz H, Ertan Y, Alper H, Erdener A, Özcan C
Turk J Pediatr 2018;60(4):372-379. doi: 10.24953/turkjped.2018.04.003. PMID: 30859760
Sugimura J, Foster RS, Cummings OW, Kort EJ, Takahashi M, Lavery TT, Furge KA, Einhorn LH, Teh BT
Clin Cancer Res 2004 Apr 1;10(7):2368-78. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-03-0341. PMID: 15073113
Liu HC, Liang DC, Chen SH, Liu FL, Chang PY, Sheu JC, Wang NL
Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1998 May-Jun;15(3):223-8. doi: 10.3109/08880019809028788. PMID: 9615319
Patel SR, Richardson RL, Kvols L, Zincke H
Am J Clin Oncol 1990 Oct;13(5):379-81. doi: 10.1097/00000421-199010000-00003. PMID: 2171316

Diagnosis

Divarcı E, Arslan S, Dökümcü Z, Kantar M, Demirağ B, Öniz H, Ertan Y, Alper H, Erdener A, Özcan C
Turk J Pediatr 2018;60(4):372-379. doi: 10.24953/turkjped.2018.04.003. PMID: 30859760
Sugimura J, Foster RS, Cummings OW, Kort EJ, Takahashi M, Lavery TT, Furge KA, Einhorn LH, Teh BT
Clin Cancer Res 2004 Apr 1;10(7):2368-78. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-03-0341. PMID: 15073113
Liu HC, Liang DC, Chen SH, Liu FL, Chang PY, Sheu JC, Wang NL
Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1998 May-Jun;15(3):223-8. doi: 10.3109/08880019809028788. PMID: 9615319
Patel SR, Richardson RL, Kvols L, Zincke H
Am J Clin Oncol 1990 Oct;13(5):379-81. doi: 10.1097/00000421-199010000-00003. PMID: 2171316
Buamah PK, Cornell C, Skillen AW, Cantwell BM, Harris AL
Clin Chem 1987 Jul;33(7):1124-5. PMID: 3036401

Therapy

Xu Y, Li H, Wang B, Gu L, Gao Y, Fan Y, Yao Y, Fam X, Ma X, Zhang X
Urol J 2021 Oct 4;18(6):618-622. doi: 10.22037/uj.v18i.6629. PMID: 34606083
Spermon JR, Oyen WJ, Strijk SP, Hulsbergen-van de Kaa CA, Witjes JA
Urology 2004 Aug;64(2):377-9. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2004.03.048. PMID: 15302506
Liu HC, Liang DC, Chen SH, Liu FL, Chang PY, Sheu JC, Wang NL
Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1998 May-Jun;15(3):223-8. doi: 10.3109/08880019809028788. PMID: 9615319
Buamah PK, Cornell C, Skillen AW, Cantwell BM, Harris AL
Clin Chem 1987 Jul;33(7):1124-5. PMID: 3036401
Baker TM, Chan AH, Stutz FH
Urology 1986 Apr;27(4):349-52. doi: 10.1016/0090-4295(86)90312-2. PMID: 3008399

Prognosis

Divarcı E, Arslan S, Dökümcü Z, Kantar M, Demirağ B, Öniz H, Ertan Y, Alper H, Erdener A, Özcan C
Turk J Pediatr 2018;60(4):372-379. doi: 10.24953/turkjped.2018.04.003. PMID: 30859760
Sugimura J, Foster RS, Cummings OW, Kort EJ, Takahashi M, Lavery TT, Furge KA, Einhorn LH, Teh BT
Clin Cancer Res 2004 Apr 1;10(7):2368-78. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-03-0341. PMID: 15073113
Liu HC, Liang DC, Chen SH, Liu FL, Chang PY, Sheu JC, Wang NL
Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1998 May-Jun;15(3):223-8. doi: 10.3109/08880019809028788. PMID: 9615319
Patel SR, Richardson RL, Kvols L, Zincke H
Am J Clin Oncol 1990 Oct;13(5):379-81. doi: 10.1097/00000421-199010000-00003. PMID: 2171316
Baker TM, Chan AH, Stutz FH
Urology 1986 Apr;27(4):349-52. doi: 10.1016/0090-4295(86)90312-2. PMID: 3008399

Clinical prediction guides

Divarcı E, Arslan S, Dökümcü Z, Kantar M, Demirağ B, Öniz H, Ertan Y, Alper H, Erdener A, Özcan C
Turk J Pediatr 2018;60(4):372-379. doi: 10.24953/turkjped.2018.04.003. PMID: 30859760
Patel SR, Richardson RL, Kvols L, Zincke H
Am J Clin Oncol 1990 Oct;13(5):379-81. doi: 10.1097/00000421-199010000-00003. PMID: 2171316

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...