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Sensorimotor neuropathy

MedGen UID:
207266
Concept ID:
C1112256
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy; Sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy
 
HPO: HP:0007141

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Galactosylceramide beta-galactosidase deficiency
MedGen UID:
44131
Concept ID:
C0023521
Disease or Syndrome
Krabbe disease comprises a spectrum ranging from infantile-onset disease (i.e., onset of extreme irritability, spasticity, and developmental delay before age 12 months) to later-onset disease (i.e., onset of manifestations after age 12 months and as late as the seventh decade). Although historically 85%-90% of symptomatic individuals with Krabbe disease diagnosed by enzyme activity alone have infantile-onset Krabbe disease and 10%-15% have later-onset Krabbe disease, the experience with newborn screening (NBS) suggests that the proportion of individuals with possible later-onset Krabbe disease is higher than previously thought. Infantile-onset Krabbe disease is characterized by normal development in the first few months followed by rapid severe neurologic deterioration; the average age of death is 24 months (range 8 months to 9 years). Later-onset Krabbe disease is much more variable in its presentation and disease course.
Phytanic acid storage disease
MedGen UID:
11161
Concept ID:
C0034960
Disease or Syndrome
Adult Refsum disease (ARD is associated with elevated plasma phytanic acid levels, late childhood-onset (or later) retinitis pigmentosa, and variable combinations of anosmia, polyneuropathy, deafness, ataxia, and ichthyosis. Onset of symptoms ranges from age seven months to older than age 50 years. Cardiac arrhythmia and heart failure caused by cardiomyopathy are potentially severe health problems that develop later in life.
Abortive cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
66358
Concept ID:
C0221061
Disease or Syndrome
'Behr syndrome' is a clinical term that refers to the constellation of early-onset optic atrophy accompanied by neurologic features, including ataxia, pyramidal signs, spasticity, and mental retardation (Behr, 1909; Thomas et al., 1984). Patients with mutations in genes other than OPA1 can present with clinical features reminiscent of Behr syndrome. Mutations in one of these genes, OPA3 (606580), result in type III 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (MGCA3; 258501). Lerman-Sagie (1995) noted that the abnormal urinary pattern in MGCA3 may not be picked up by routine organic acid analysis, suggesting that early reports of Behr syndrome with normal metabolic features may actually have been 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1C
MedGen UID:
75728
Concept ID:
C0270913
Disease or Syndrome
For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1, see CMT1B (118200).
Deficiency of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase
MedGen UID:
220946
Concept ID:
C1291609
Disease or Syndrome
Ribose-5-P isomerase deficiency is an extremely rare, hereditary, disorder of pentose phosphate metabolism characterized by progressive leukoencephalopathy and a highly increased ribitol and D-arabitol levels in the brain and body fluids. Clinical presentation includes psychomotor delay, epilepsy, and childhood-onset slow neurological regression with ataxia, spasticity, optic atrophy and sensorimotor neuropathy.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2B
MedGen UID:
371512
Concept ID:
C1833219
Disease or Syndrome
A severe form of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy. Onset in the second or third decade has manifestations of ulceration and infection of the feet. Symmetric and distal weakness develops mostly in the legs together with a severe symmetric distal sensory loss. Tendon reflexes are only reduced at ankles and foot deformities including pes cavus or planus and hammer toes, appear in childhood.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1A
MedGen UID:
335969
Concept ID:
C1843504
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) refers to a group of severe neurodegenerative disorders affecting growth and function of the brainstem and cerebellum, resulting in little or no development. Different types were classified based on the clinical picture and the spectrum of pathologic changes. PCH type 1 is characterized by central and peripheral motor dysfunction associated with anterior horn cell degeneration resembling infantile spinal muscular atrophy (SMA; see SMA1, 253300); death usually occurs early. Genetic Heterogeneity of Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia Also see PCH1B (614678), caused by mutation in the EXOSC3 gene (606489); PCH1C (616081), caused by mutation in the EXOSC8 gene (606019); PCH1D (618065), caused by mutation in the EXOSC9 gene (606180); PCH1E (619303), caused by mutation in the SLC25A46 gene (610826); PCH1F (619304), caused by mutation in the EXOSC1 gene (606493); PCH2A (277470), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene (608755); PCH2B (612389), caused by mutation in the TSEN2 gene (608753); PCH2C (612390), caused by mutation in the TSEN34 gene (608754); PCH2D (613811), caused by mutation in the SEPSECS gene (613009); PCH3 (608027), caused by mutation in the PCLO gene (604918); PCH4 (225753), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene; PCH5 (610204), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene; PCH6 (611523), caused by mutation in the RARS2 gene (611524); PCH7 (614969), caused by mutation in the TOE1 gene (613931); PCH8 (614961), caused by mutation in the CHMP1A gene (164010); PCH9 (615809), caused by mutation in the AMPD2 gene (102771); PCH10 (615803), caused by mutation in the CLP1 gene (608757); PCH11 (617695), caused by mutation in the TBC1D23 gene (617687); PCH12 (618266), caused by mutation in the COASY gene (609855); PCH13 (618606), caused by mutation in the VPS51 gene (615738); PCH14 (619301), caused by mutation in the PPIL1 gene (601301); PCH15 (619302), caused by mutation in the CDC40 gene (605585); PCH16 (619527), caused by mutation in the MINPP1 gene (605391); and PCH17 (619909), caused by mutation in the PRDM13 gene (616741) on chromosome 6q16.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 6 (hepatocerebral type)
MedGen UID:
338045
Concept ID:
C1850406
Disease or Syndrome
MPV17-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance defect presents in the vast majority of affected individuals as an early-onset encephalohepatopathic (hepatocerebral) disease that is typically associated with mtDNA depletion, particularly in the liver. A later-onset neuromyopathic disease characterized by myopathy and neuropathy, and associated with multiple mtDNA deletions in muscle, has also rarely been described. MPV17-related mtDNA maintenance defect, encephalohepatopathic form is characterized by: Hepatic manifestations (liver dysfunction that typically progresses to liver failure, cholestasis, hepatomegaly, and steatosis); Neurologic involvement (developmental delay, hypotonia, microcephaly, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy); Gastrointestinal manifestations (gastrointestinal dysmotility, feeding difficulties, and failure to thrive); and Metabolic derangements (lactic acidosis and hypoglycemia). Less frequent manifestations include renal tubulopathy, nephrocalcinosis, and hypoparathyroidism. Progressive liver disease often leads to death in infancy or early childhood. Hepatocellular carcinoma has been reported.
Cold-induced sweating syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
342816
Concept ID:
C1853198
Disease or Syndrome
Cold-induced sweating syndrome (CISS) and its infantile presentation, Crisponi syndrome(CS) is characterized by dysmorphic features (distinctive facies, lower facial weakness, flexion deformity at the elbows, camptodactyly with fisted hands, misshapen feet, and overriding toes); intermittent contracture of facial and oropharyngeal muscles when crying or being handled with puckering of lips and drooling of foamy saliva often associated with laryngospasm and respiratory distress; excessive startling and opisthotonus-like posturing with unexpected tactile or auditory stimuli; poor suck reflex and severely impaired swallowing; and a scaly erythematous rash. During the first decade of life, children with CISS/CS develop profuse sweating of the face, arms, and chest with ambient temperatures below 18º to 22º C, and with other stimuli including nervousness or ingestion of sweets. Affected individuals sweat very little in hot environments and may feel overheated. Progressive thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis occurs, requiring intervention in the second decade.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 23
MedGen UID:
339942
Concept ID:
C1853250
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-23 (SCA23) is an adult-onset autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by slowly progressive gait and limb ataxia, with variable additional features, including peripheral neuropathy and dysarthria (Bakalkin et al., 2010). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 12
MedGen UID:
347653
Concept ID:
C1858501
Disease or Syndrome
Rare disease with manifestations of action tremor associated with relatively mild cerebellar ataxia. Associated pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs and dementia have been reported. Prevalence is unknown. Approximately 40 families have been reported. The pathogenesis seems to be related to a toxic effect at the RNA level as it is caused by a CAG expansion at the 5'' end of the PPP2R2B gene on chromosome 5q31-5q32.
PHARC syndrome
MedGen UID:
436373
Concept ID:
C2675204
Disease or Syndrome
Fiskerstrand type peripheral neuropathy is a slowly-progressive Refsum-like disorder associating signs of peripheral neuropathy with late-onset hearing loss, cataract and pigmentary retinopathy that become evident during the third decade of life.
Hypermanganesemia with dystonia, polycythemia, and cirrhosis
MedGen UID:
412958
Concept ID:
C2750442
Disease or Syndrome
Hypermanganesemia with dystonia 1 (HMNDYT1) is characterized by the following: A movement disorder resulting from manganese accumulation in the basal ganglia. Whole-blood manganese concentrations that often exceed 2000 nmol/L (normal: <320 nmol/L). Polycythemia. Hepatomegaly with variable hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis. Neurologic findings can manifest in childhood (ages 2-15 years) as four-limb dystonia, leading to a characteristic high-stepping gait ("cock-walk gait"), dysarthria, fine tremor, and bradykinesia or on occasion spastic paraplegia; or in adulthood as parkinsonism (shuffling gait, rigidity, bradykinesia, hypomimia, and monotone speech) unresponsive to L-dopa treatment.
Neuropathy, hereditary sensory and autonomic, type 1C
MedGen UID:
462246
Concept ID:
C3150896
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IC (HSAN1C) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by sensory neuropathy with variable autonomic and motor involvement. Most patients have adult onset of slowly progressive distal sensory impairment manifest as numbness, tingling, or pain, as well as distal muscle atrophy. Complications include ulceration and osteomyelitis. Some patients may have a more severe phenotype with onset in childhood. Electrophysiologic studies show a predominantly axonal neuropathy with some demyelinating features. Some patients may have evidence of central nervous system involvement, including macular telangiectasia type 2 and/or pyramidal signs. Affected individuals have increased levels of plasma 1-deoxysphingolipids (1-deoxySLs), which are thought to be neurotoxic. (summary by Rotthier et al., 2010, Gantner et al., 2019, and Triplett et al., 2019). Oral supplementation with serine decreases 1-deoxySL and may offer some clinical benefits (Fridman et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HSAN, see HSAN1A (162400).
Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency
MedGen UID:
482058
Concept ID:
C3280428
Disease or Syndrome
AMACR deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive peroxisomal disorder characterized by adult onset of variable neurodegenerative symptoms affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems. Features may include seizures, visual failure, sensorimotor neuropathy, spasticity, migraine, and white matter hyperintensities on brain imaging. Serum pristanic acid and C27 bile acid intermediates are increased (summary by Smith et al., 2010).
Spastic ataxia 5
MedGen UID:
482607
Concept ID:
C3280977
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic ataxia-5 (SPAX5) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by early-onset spasticity resulting in significantly impaired ambulation, cerebellar ataxia, oculomotor apraxia, dystonia, and myoclonic epilepsy (summary by Pierson et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of spastic ataxia, see SPAX1 (108600).
Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
766452
Concept ID:
C3553538
Disease or Syndrome
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome-2 (BVVLS2) is an autosomal recessive progressive neurologic disorder characterized by early childhood onset of sensorineural deafness, bulbar dysfunction, and severe diffuse muscle weakness and wasting of the upper and lower limbs and axial muscles, resulting in respiratory insufficiency. Some patients may lose independent ambulation. Because it results from a defect in riboflavin metabolism, some patients may benefit from high-dose riboflavin supplementation (summary by Johnson et al., 2012; Foley et al., 2014). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, see BVVLS1 (211530).
Early-onset progressive neurodegeneration-blindness-ataxia-spasticity syndrome
MedGen UID:
815995
Concept ID:
C3809665
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-79B (SPG79B) is an autosomal recessive progressive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of spastic paraplegia and optic atrophy in the first decade of life. Additional features are variable, but may include peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, and cognitive impairment (summary by Rydning et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Cataract-growth hormone deficiency-sensory neuropathy-sensorineural hearing loss-skeletal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
863379
Concept ID:
C4014942
Disease or Syndrome
CAGSSS, which comprises cataracts, growth hormone deficiency, sensory neuropathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and skeletal dysplasia, is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with a highly variable phenotypic spectrum. Not all of these features are always present, and almost all the features may present at different times and/or become more apparent with age. The skeletal features are consistent with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) (summary by Vona et al., 2018). One family had a distinctive presentation with infantile-onset intractable seizures and cortical abnormalities reminiscent of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). The correlation between genotype and phenotype remains unclear, but since the IARS2 gene is involved in mitochondrial function, heterogeneous manifestations can be expected (Takezawa et al., 2018).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease axonal type 2S
MedGen UID:
863786
Concept ID:
C4015349
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2S is a relatively pure form of autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy characterized by onset in the first decade of slowly progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy affecting the lower and upper limbs. Patients have decreased reflexes and variable distal sensory impairment (summary by Cottenie et al., 2014). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT, see CMT2A1 (118210).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease axonal type 2T
MedGen UID:
864072
Concept ID:
C4015635
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2T (CMT2T) is a slowly progressive autosomal recessive sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy with onset in middle age (Higuchi et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT, see CMT2A1 (118210).
Spinocerebellar ataxia 43
MedGen UID:
934730
Concept ID:
C4310763
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-43 is an autosomal dominant, slowly progressive neurologic disorder characterized by adult-onset gait and limb ataxia and often associated with peripheral neuropathy mainly affecting the motor system, although some patients may have distal sensory impairment (summary by Depondt et al., 2016). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease axonal type 2CC
MedGen UID:
934757
Concept ID:
C4310790
Disease or Syndrome
Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2CC is an autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy that predominantly affects the lower limbs, resulting in muscle weakness and atrophy and gait impairment. Other features include distal sensory impairment and less severe involvement of the upper limbs. The age at onset and severity are variable (summary by Rebelo et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT type 2, see CMT2A (118210).
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 26
MedGen UID:
1617917
Concept ID:
C4539948
Disease or Syndrome
Perrault syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1640257
Concept ID:
C4551721
Disease or Syndrome
Perrault syndrome is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in males and females and ovarian dysfunction in females. SNHL is bilateral and ranges from profound with prelingual (congenital) onset to moderate with early-childhood onset. When onset is in early childhood, hearing loss can be progressive. Ovarian dysfunction ranges from gonadal dysgenesis (absent or streak gonads) manifesting as primary amenorrhea to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) defined as cessation of menses before age 40 years. Fertility in affected males is reported as normal (although the number of reported males is limited). Neurologic features described in some individuals with Perrault syndrome include learning difficulties and developmental delay, cerebellar ataxia, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1631838
Concept ID:
C4551995
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE) disease is characterized by progressive gastrointestinal dysmotility (manifesting as early satiety, nausea, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, postprandial emesis, episodic abdominal pain and/or distention, and diarrhea); cachexia; ptosis/ophthalmoplegia or ophthalmoparesis; leukoencephalopathy; and demyelinating peripheral neuropathy (manifesting as paresthesias (tingling, numbness, and pain) and symmetric and distal weakness more prominently affecting the lower extremities). The order in which manifestations appear is unpredictable. Onset is usually between the first and fifth decades; in about 60% of individuals, symptoms begin before age 20 years.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, dominant intermediate G
MedGen UID:
1642893
Concept ID:
C4693509
Disease or Syndrome
CMTDIG is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Most affected individuals have onset in the first or second decades of slowly progressive distal motor weakness and atrophy, resulting in gait instability and distal upper limb impairment, as well as distal sensory impairment. More severely affected individuals may have pes cavus and claw hands and become wheelchair-bound, whereas other affected individuals have later onset with a milder disease course. Electrophysiologic studies tend to show median motor nerve conduction velocities (NCV) in the 'intermediate' range, between 25 and 45 m/s (summary by Berciano et al., 2017). In a review of intermediate CMT, Berciano et al. (2017) noted that advanced axonal degeneration may induce secondary demyelinating changes resulting in decreased NCV and attenuated compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in median nerve conduction studies. They thus suggested that testing the upper arm, axilla to elbow, may provide more accurate assessment of NCV and CMAP and reveal an intermediate phenotype (review by Berciano et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMTDI, see 606482.
Charcot-marie-tooth disease, axonal, type 2DD
MedGen UID:
1648475
Concept ID:
C4747974
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2DD is an autosomal dominant peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy mainly affecting the lower limbs. Affected individuals have gait impairment due to distal muscle weakness and atrophy. Some patients may also have involvement of the distal upper limbs, resulting in atrophy of the intrinsic hand muscles. The age at onset and severity of the disorder is highly variable, even within families, and those with earlier onset in late childhood or the teenage years tend to have a more severe disease course. Patients remain ambulatory even late in the disease, although some may require orthotic devices (summary by Lassuthova et al., 2018). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT type 2, see CMT2A (118210).
Peripheral neuropathy, autosomal recessive, with or without impaired intellectual development
MedGen UID:
1648480
Concept ID:
C4748283
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive peripheral neuropathy with or without impaired intellectual development is an early childhood-onset neurologic disorder characterized by slowly progressive distal motor impairment resulting in gait difficulties, often with loss of ambulation, and difficulties using the hands in most patients. Most affected individuals also have impaired intellectual development, although some have normal cognition. Electrophysiologic testing and sural nerve biopsy are most compatible with an axonal motor neuropathy; some patients may show signs of demyelination. Additional features may include eye movement abnormalities, claw hands, foot deformities, and scoliosis (summary by Ylikallio et al., 2017).
Muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle, autosomal recessive 23
MedGen UID:
1648462
Concept ID:
C4748327
Disease or Syndrome
The clinical manifestations of LAMA2 muscular dystrophy (LAMA2-MD) comprise a continuous spectrum ranging from severe congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) to milder late-onset LAMA2-MD. MDC1A is typically characterized by neonatal profound hypotonia, poor spontaneous movements, and respiratory failure. Failure to thrive, gastroesophageal reflux, aspiration, and recurrent chest infections necessitating frequent hospitalizations are common. As disease progresses, facial muscle weakness, temporomandibular joint contractures, and macroglossia may further impair feeding and can affect speech. In late-onset LAMA2-MD onset of manifestations range from early childhood to adulthood. Affected individuals may show muscle hypertrophy and develop a rigid spine syndrome with joint contractures, usually most prominent in the elbows. Progressive respiratory insufficiency, scoliosis, and cardiomyopathy can occur.
Mitochondrial myopathy, episodic, with optic atrophy and reversible leukoencephalopathy
MedGen UID:
1679560
Concept ID:
C5193223
Disease or Syndrome
Episodic mitochondrial myopathy with or without optic atrophy and reversible leukoencephalopathy (MEOAL) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized mainly by childhood onset of progressive muscle weakness and exercise intolerance. Patients have episodic exacerbation, which may be associated with increased serum creatine kinase or lactic acid. Additional more variable features may include optic atrophy, reversible leukoencephalopathy, and later onset of a sensorimotor polyneuropathy. The disorder results from impaired formation of Fe-S clusters, which are essential cofactors for proper mitochondrial function (summary by Gurgel-Giannetti et al., 2018)
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 80
MedGen UID:
1684779
Concept ID:
C5231418
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-80 (DEE80) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory seizures in the first year of life. Patients have severe global developmental delay and may have additional variable features, including dysmorphic or coarse facial features, distal skeletal abnormalities, and impaired hearing or vision. At the cellular level, the disorder is caused by a defect in the synthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), and thus affects the expression of GPI-anchored proteins at the cell surface (summary by Murakami et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Cardioencephalomyopathy, fatal infantile, due to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency 1
MedGen UID:
1748867
Concept ID:
C5399977
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 2 (MC4DN2) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of symptoms at birth or in the first weeks or months of life. Affected individuals have severe hypotonia, often associated with feeding difficulties and respiratory insufficiency necessitating tube feeding and mechanical ventilation. The vast majority of patients develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the first days or weeks of life, which usually leads to death in infancy or early childhood. Patients also show neurologic abnormalities, including developmental delay, nystagmus, fasciculations, dystonia, EEG changes, and brain imaging abnormalities compatible with a diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). There may also be evidence of systemic involvement with hepatomegaly and myopathy, although neurogenic muscle atrophy is more common and may resemble spinal muscular atrophy type I (SMA1; 253300). Serum lactate is increased, and laboratory studies show decreased mitochondrial complex IV protein and activity levels in various tissues, including heart and skeletal muscle. Most patients die in infancy of cardiorespiratory failure (summary by Papadopoulou et al., 1999). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, mitochondrial form, 1
MedGen UID:
1731194
Concept ID:
C5435765
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial form of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-1 (CMTMA1) is inherited only through the maternal line. The disorder is characterized by onset of distal muscle weakness and atrophy mainly affecting the lower limbs and resulting in difficulty walking in the second decade of life, although both earlier and later onset can occur. Upper limb involvement often develops with time, and affected individuals have weakness and atrophy of the intrinsic hand muscles. Other features may include distal sensory impairment, foot deformities, scoliosis, hypo- or hyperreflexia, spastic paraparesis, and neurogenic bladder. Electrophysiologic studies are compatible with an axonal sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, and muscle and nerve biopsy show evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction with decreased activities of respiratory complexes, mtDNA deletions, and mitochondrial hyperplasia (summary by Fay et al., 2020).
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 14
MedGen UID:
1763505
Concept ID:
C5436710
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 14 (MC4DN14) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by global developmental delay, exercise intolerance, walking difficulties, impaired intellectual development, short stature, mild dysmorphic features, and sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. Patient skeletal muscle tissue shows decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (Ostergaard et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 17
MedGen UID:
1730423
Concept ID:
C5436718
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 17 (MC4DN17) is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder with somewhat variable clinical manifestations and severity. Most affected individuals present in early childhood with motor and gait difficulties after normal early development. These motor abnormalities progress to spastic tetraparesis, sometimes resulting in loss of ambulation. Many patients also show episodic developmental regression: some have impaired cognition and dysarthria, although others have normal speech and cognition. More variable features include seizures and sensorimotor polyneuropathy. The clinical features tend to stabilize over time. Brain imaging shows a cavitating leukodystrophy, and laboratory studies show variably decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV in patient tissues (Melchionda et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1E
MedGen UID:
1788285
Concept ID:
C5543328
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1E (PCH1E) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by severe hypotonia and respiratory insufficiency apparent soon after birth. Virtually all patients die in the first days or weeks of life. Postmortem examination and brain imaging show pontocerebellar atrophy and loss of anterior motor neurons in the spinal cord. Additional more variable features may include optic atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, dysmorphic features, congenital contracture or foot deformities, and seizures (summary by Braunisch et al., 2018). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Acute infantile liver failure-cerebellar ataxia-peripheral sensory motor neuropathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1800507
Concept ID:
C5569084
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-21 (SCAR21) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of cerebellar ataxia associated with cerebellar atrophy in early childhood. Affected individuals also have recurrent episodes of liver failure in the first decade, resulting in chronic liver fibrosis, as well as later onset of a peripheral neuropathy. Mild learning disabilities may also occur (summary by Schmidt et al., 2015). The phenotype is highly variable: all patients appear to have episodic and severe liver dysfunction in early childhood that tends to resolve with age. Affected individuals also show mild developmental or language delay and/or later onset of variable neurologic features, such as motor dysfunction (summary by Lenz et al., 2018).
Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, autosomal dominant 10
MedGen UID:
1824007
Concept ID:
C5774234
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuronopathy-10 (HMND10) is a neurologic disorder of the peripheral nerves characterized clinically by length-dependent motor neuropathy primarily affecting the lower limbs. Affected individuals have onset of distal muscle weakness and atrophy in early childhood that results in walking difficulties and gait abnormalities. Some have pyramidal signs, including hyperreflexia, suggesting the involvement of upper motor neurons. Electrophysiologic studies are consistent with a neurogenic process. More variable features may include mild intellectual disability, minor gyration defects on brain imaging, foot deformities, and connective tissue defects (1 family) (Capuano et al., 2016; Iacomino et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant distal HMN, see HMND1 (182960).
Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IIy
MedGen UID:
1824067
Concept ID:
C5774294
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIy (CDG2Y) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic congenital disorder characterized by poor overall growth and global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development. Other features may include hypotonia, seizures, brain imaging abnormalities, dysmorphic features, and various skeletal defects. Laboratory studies show a subtle type II glycosylation defect of serum transferrin (Tambe et al., 2020). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Steck AJ
J Neuroimmunol 2021 Dec 15;361:577725. Epub 2021 Sep 28 doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577725. PMID: 34610502
Kristen AV, Ajroud-Driss S, Conceição I, Gorevic P, Kyriakides T, Obici L
Neurodegener Dis Manag 2019 Feb;9(1):5-23. Epub 2018 Nov 27 doi: 10.2217/nmt-2018-0033. PMID: 30480471
Deli G, Bosnyak E, Pusch G, Komoly S, Feher G
Neuroendocrinology 2013;98(4):267-80. Epub 2014 Jan 22 doi: 10.1159/000358728. PMID: 24458095

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Coleman RL, Lorusso D, Gennigens C, González-Martín A, Randall L, Cibula D, Lund B, Woelber L, Pignata S, Forget F, Redondo A, Vindeløv SD, Chen M, Harris JR, Smith M, Nicacio LV, Teng MSL, Laenen A, Rangwala R, Manso L, Mirza M, Monk BJ, Vergote I; innovaTV 204/GOG-3023/ENGOT-cx6 Collaborators
Lancet Oncol 2021 May;22(5):609-619. Epub 2021 Apr 9 doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00056-5. PMID: 33845034
Li Y
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2017 Oct;23(5, Peripheral Nerve and Motor Neuron Disorders):1378-1393. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000514. PMID: 28968367
Deli G, Bosnyak E, Pusch G, Komoly S, Feher G
Neuroendocrinology 2013;98(4):267-80. Epub 2014 Jan 22 doi: 10.1159/000358728. PMID: 24458095
Vahidnia A, van der Voet GB, de Wolff FA
Hum Exp Toxicol 2007 Oct;26(10):823-32. doi: 10.1177/0960327107084539. PMID: 18025055
Guberman A, Rosenbaum H, Braciale T, Schlaepfer WW
J Neurol Sci 1978 Mar;36(1):1-12. doi: 10.1016/0022-510x(78)90157-0. PMID: 565805

Diagnosis

Nativi-Nicolau JN, Karam C, Khella S, Maurer MS
Heart Fail Rev 2022 May;27(3):785-793. Epub 2021 Feb 20 doi: 10.1007/s10741-021-10080-2. PMID: 33609196Free PMC Article
Steck AJ
J Neuroimmunol 2021 Dec 15;361:577725. Epub 2021 Sep 28 doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577725. PMID: 34610502
Swart G, Blair C, Lu Z, Yogendran S, Offord J, Sutherland E, Barnes S, Palavra N, Cremer P, Bolitho S, Michael Halmagyi G
Eur J Neurol 2021 Dec;28(12):3938-3944. Epub 2021 Sep 6 doi: 10.1111/ene.15077. PMID: 34427020
Li Y
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2017 Oct;23(5, Peripheral Nerve and Motor Neuron Disorders):1378-1393. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000514. PMID: 28968367
Muppidi S, Vernino S
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2014 Oct;20(5 Peripheral Nervous System Disorders):1359-72. doi: 10.1212/01.CON.0000455876.53309.ec. PMID: 25299287

Therapy

Steck AJ
J Neuroimmunol 2021 Dec 15;361:577725. Epub 2021 Sep 28 doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577725. PMID: 34610502
Swart G, Blair C, Lu Z, Yogendran S, Offord J, Sutherland E, Barnes S, Palavra N, Cremer P, Bolitho S, Michael Halmagyi G
Eur J Neurol 2021 Dec;28(12):3938-3944. Epub 2021 Sep 6 doi: 10.1111/ene.15077. PMID: 34427020
Coleman RL, Lorusso D, Gennigens C, González-Martín A, Randall L, Cibula D, Lund B, Woelber L, Pignata S, Forget F, Redondo A, Vindeløv SD, Chen M, Harris JR, Smith M, Nicacio LV, Teng MSL, Laenen A, Rangwala R, Manso L, Mirza M, Monk BJ, Vergote I; innovaTV 204/GOG-3023/ENGOT-cx6 Collaborators
Lancet Oncol 2021 May;22(5):609-619. Epub 2021 Apr 9 doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00056-5. PMID: 33845034
Kristen AV, Ajroud-Driss S, Conceição I, Gorevic P, Kyriakides T, Obici L
Neurodegener Dis Manag 2019 Feb;9(1):5-23. Epub 2018 Nov 27 doi: 10.2217/nmt-2018-0033. PMID: 30480471
Baker SK, Tarnopolsky MA
Drugs Today (Barc) 2005 Apr;41(4):267-93. doi: 10.1358/dot.2005.41.4.908565. PMID: 16034491

Prognosis

Coleman RL, Lorusso D, Gennigens C, González-Martín A, Randall L, Cibula D, Lund B, Woelber L, Pignata S, Forget F, Redondo A, Vindeløv SD, Chen M, Harris JR, Smith M, Nicacio LV, Teng MSL, Laenen A, Rangwala R, Manso L, Mirza M, Monk BJ, Vergote I; innovaTV 204/GOG-3023/ENGOT-cx6 Collaborators
Lancet Oncol 2021 May;22(5):609-619. Epub 2021 Apr 9 doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00056-5. PMID: 33845034
Thaisetthawatkul P, Fernandes JA Jr, Piccione E, Truong L, Dyck PJB
J Clin Neuromuscul Dis 2018 Sep;20(1):7-13. doi: 10.1097/CND.0000000000000207. PMID: 30124555
Ben Ghorbel I, Belfeki N, Baouendi N, Ben Salem T, Houman MH
Reumatismo 2017 May 22;69(1):23-29. doi: 10.4081/reumatismo.2017.935. PMID: 28535618
Davies L
Baillieres Clin Neurol 1994 Apr;3(1):193-210. PMID: 7921589
Boulton AJ, Ward JD
Clin Endocrinol Metab 1986 Nov;15(4):917-31. doi: 10.1016/s0300-595x(86)80080-9. PMID: 3536205

Clinical prediction guides

Li T, Kandula T, Cohn RJ, Kiernan MC, Park SB, Farrar MA
Clin Neurophysiol 2023 Oct;154:157-168. Epub 2023 Aug 11 doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2023.08.002. PMID: 37633123
Swart G, Blair C, Lu Z, Yogendran S, Offord J, Sutherland E, Barnes S, Palavra N, Cremer P, Bolitho S, Michael Halmagyi G
Eur J Neurol 2021 Dec;28(12):3938-3944. Epub 2021 Sep 6 doi: 10.1111/ene.15077. PMID: 34427020
Ben Ghorbel I, Belfeki N, Baouendi N, Ben Salem T, Houman MH
Reumatismo 2017 May 22;69(1):23-29. doi: 10.4081/reumatismo.2017.935. PMID: 28535618
Vas PR, Sharma S, Rayman G
Rev Diabet Stud 2015 Spring-Summer;12(1-2):29-47. Epub 2015 Aug 10 doi: 10.1900/RDS.2015.12.29. PMID: 26676660Free PMC Article
Quasthoff S, Hartung HP
J Neurol 2002 Jan;249(1):9-17. doi: 10.1007/pl00007853. PMID: 11954874

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