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Retinal dystrophy

MedGen UID:
208903
Concept ID:
C0854723
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
Synonyms: Dystrophies, Retinal; Dystrophy, Retinal; Retinal Dystrophies; Retinal Dystrophy
SNOMED CT: Retinal dystrophy (314407005)
 
HPO: HP:0000556
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0019118
Orphanet: ORPHA71862

Definition

Chronic and progressive degeneration of the retina of the eye. [from NCI]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVRetinal dystrophy

Conditions with this feature

Short rib-polydactyly syndrome, Majewski type
MedGen UID:
44252
Concept ID:
C0024507
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Ruvalcaba syndrome
MedGen UID:
120520
Concept ID:
C0265248
Disease or Syndrome
Ruvalcaba syndrome is an extremely rare malformation syndrome, described in less than 10 patients to date, characterized by microcephaly with characteristic facies (downslanting parpebral fissures, microstomia, beaked nose, narrow maxilla), very short stature, narrow thoracic cage with pectus carinatum, hypoplastic genitalia and skeletal anomalies (i.e. characteristic brachydactyly and osteochondritis of the spine) as well as intellectual and developmental delay.
Joubert syndrome
MedGen UID:
98464
Concept ID:
C0431399
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Cranioectodermal dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
96586
Concept ID:
C0432235
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome
MedGen UID:
156019
Concept ID:
C0752166
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a disorder that affects many parts of the body. The signs and symptoms of this condition vary among affected individuals, even among members of the same family.\n\nVision loss is one of the major features of Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Loss of vision occurs as the light-sensing tissue at the back of the eye (the retina) gradually deteriorates. Problems with night vision become apparent by mid-childhood, followed by blind spots that develop in the side (peripheral) vision. Over time, these blind spots enlarge and merge to produce tunnel vision. Most people with Bardet-Biedl syndrome also develop blurred central vision (poor visual acuity) and become legally blind by adolescence or early adulthood.\n\nObesity is another characteristic feature of Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Abnormal weight gain typically begins in early childhood and continues to be an issue throughout life. Complications of obesity can include type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure (hypertension), and abnormally high cholesterol levels (hypercholesterolemia).\n\nOther major signs and symptoms of Bardet-Biedl syndrome include the presence of extra fingers or toes (polydactyly), intellectual disability or learning problems, and abnormalities of the genitalia. Most affected males produce reduced amounts of sex hormones (hypogonadism), and they are usually unable to father biological children (infertile). Many people with Bardet-Biedl syndrome also have kidney abnormalities, which can be serious or life-threatening.\n\nAdditional features of Bardet-Biedl syndrome can include impaired speech, delayed development of motor skills such as standing and walking, behavioral problems such as emotional immaturity and inappropriate outbursts, and clumsiness or poor coordination. Distinctive facial features, dental abnormalities, unusually short or fused fingers or toes, and a partial or complete loss of the sense of smell (anosmia) have also been reported in some people with Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Additionally, this condition can affect the heart, liver, and digestive system.
Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy
MedGen UID:
321900
Concept ID:
C1832174
Disease or Syndrome
Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy (DHRD) is characterized by drusen deposits at the level of the Bruck membrane in the macula and around the edge of the optic nerve head. The drusen are large, soft, external to the basement membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and occupy the entire thickness of the Bruch membrane. In contrast, in malattia leventinese (MLVT) small discrete drusen radiate into the peripheral retina, with the later development of confluent soft drusen in the macula. Radial drusen extending into the periphery had not been described in DHRD (summary by Gregory et al., 1996). Hulleman et al. (2011) noted that both DHRD and MLVT present with clinical and pathologic symptoms similar to age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), including soft drusen accumulation, loss of basolateral ruffling of the RPE, RPE vacuolization, and atrophy, with eventual neovascularization in an accelerated time frame, usually in the fourth decade of life.
Joubert syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
332931
Concept ID:
C1837713
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Joubert syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
334114
Concept ID:
C1842577
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Newfoundland rod-cone dystrophy
MedGen UID:
334840
Concept ID:
C1843815
Disease or Syndrome
Any cone-rod dystrophy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the RLBP1 gene.
Bothnia retinal dystrophy
MedGen UID:
334499
Concept ID:
C1843816
Disease or Syndrome
Caused by mutation in the gene encoding retinaldehyde-binding protein-1. A high frequency of a distinctive form of retinal dystrophy was found to occur in northern Sweden. Typical manifestations are night blindness from early childhood and in young adults retinitis punctata albescens was observed followed by macular degeneration.
Roifman syndrome
MedGen UID:
375801
Concept ID:
C1846059
Disease or Syndrome
Roifman syndrome is a multisystem disorder characterized by growth retardation, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, retinal dystrophy, distinctive facial dysmorphism, and immunodeficiency (summary by de Vries et al., 2006).
Retinal dystrophy, reticular pigmentary, of posterior pole
MedGen UID:
341448
Concept ID:
C1849407
Disease or Syndrome
Reticular pigmentary retinal dystrophy is a form of patterned dystrophy (see MDPT1, 169150) characterized by a reticular pattern of pigmentation that likely appears in infancy and may be fully developed at age 15 years. Indirect funduscopy has shown that the condition is bilateral and symmetric and that the pigmentary deposits are localized below the neuroepithelium, very likely in the pigment epithelium. The reticulum extends from the macula in all directions, sparing the midperiphery and periphery. Visual acuity is unaffected or only minimally affected in advanced stages. Retinal function testing is normal, although the electrooculogram and dark adaptation can be at the lower limit of normal values (summary by Schauwvlieghe et al., 2013).
Polycystic kidney, cataract, and congenital blindness
MedGen UID:
337910
Concept ID:
C1849771
Disease or Syndrome
Arima syndrome
MedGen UID:
340930
Concept ID:
C1855675
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Donnai-Barrow syndrome
MedGen UID:
347406
Concept ID:
C1857277
Disease or Syndrome
Donnai-Barrow syndrome (DBS) is characterized by typical craniofacial features (large anterior fontanelle, wide metopic suture, widow's peak, markedly widely spaced eyes, enlarged globes, downslanted palpebral fissures, posteriorly rotated ears, depressed nasal bridge, and short nose. Ocular complications include high myopia, retinal detachment, retinal dystrophy, and progressive vision loss. Additional common features include agenesis of the corpus callosum, sensorineural hearing loss, intellectual disability, and congenital diaphragmatic hernia and/or omphalocele. Both inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability are observed.
Amaurosis-hypertrichosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
341805
Concept ID:
C1857588
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, syndromic, inherited retinal disorder characterized by cone-rod type congenital amaurosis, severe retinal dystrophy leading to visual impairment and profound photophobia (without night blindness), and trichomegaly (bushy eyebrows with synophrys, excessive facial and body hair (including marked circumaleolar hypertrichosis). There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1989.
MORM syndrome
MedGen UID:
341851
Concept ID:
C1857802
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with the association of intellectual deficit, truncal obesity, retinal dystrophy and micropenis. It has been described in 14 individuals from a consanguineous family. It is transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner. The causative locus has been mapped to chromosome region 9q34.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
347610
Concept ID:
C1858054
Disease or Syndrome
BBS6 is an autosomal recessive disorder with cardinal features of postaxial polydactyly, retinitis pigmentosa, kidney defects, obesity, and mental retardation (Slavotinek et al., 2000). Zaghloul and Katsanis (2009) estimated that mutations in the MKKS gene account for 5.8% of the total BBS mutational load. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Ataxia-hypogonadism-choroidal dystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
347798
Concept ID:
C1859093
Disease or Syndrome
PNPLA6 disorders span a phenotypic continuum characterized by variable combinations of cerebellar ataxia; upper motor neuron involvement manifesting as spasticity and/or brisk reflexes; chorioretinal dystrophy associated with variable degrees of reduced visual function; and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (delayed puberty and lack of secondary sex characteristics). The hypogonadotropic hypogonadism occurs either in isolation or as part of anterior hypopituitarism (growth hormone, thyroid hormone, or gonadotropin deficiencies). Common but less frequent features are peripheral neuropathy (usually of axonal type manifesting as reduced distal reflexes, diminished vibratory sensation, and/or distal muscle wasting); hair anomalies (long eyelashes, bushy eyebrows, or scalp alopecia); short stature; and impaired cognitive functioning (learning disabilities in children; deficits in attention, visuospatial abilities, and recall in adults). Some of these features can occur in distinct clusters on the phenotypic continuum: Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, chorioretinal dystrophy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism); Gordon Holmes syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and – to a variable degree – brisk reflexes); Oliver-McFarlane syndrome (trichomegaly, chorioretinal dystrophy, short stature, intellectual disability, and hypopituitarism); Laurence-Moon syndrome; and spastic paraplegia type 39 (SPG39) (upper motor neuron involvement, peripheral neuropathy, and sometimes reduced cognitive functioning and/or cerebellar ataxia).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
347909
Concept ID:
C1859568
Disease or Syndrome
BBS10 is characterized by progressive retinal dystrophy, obesity, polydactyly, cognitive impairment, and renal dysplasia (Stoetzel et al., 2006). BBS10 represents a major locus for BBS, with mutations in the BBS10 gene accounting for approximately 20% of BBS patients (Stoetzel et al., 2006; Zaghloul and Katsanis, 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Microphthalmia with brain and digit anomalies
MedGen UID:
355268
Concept ID:
C1864689
Disease or Syndrome
gene, which has already been shown to play a role in eye development.
Syndromic microphthalmia type 5
MedGen UID:
350491
Concept ID:
C1864690
Disease or Syndrome
Syndromic microphthalmia, type 5 is characterized by the association of a range of ocular anomalies (anophthalmia, microphthalmia and retinal abnormalities) with variable developmental delay and central nervous system malformations.
Retinopathy, pericentral pigmentary, dominant
MedGen UID:
357237
Concept ID:
C1867261
Disease or Syndrome
A retinitis pigmentosa that is characterized pigmentary retinal degeneration with onset in the teens leading to blindness in the sixth ans seventh decades of life.
Joubert syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
369401
Concept ID:
C1969053
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
410166
Concept ID:
C1970848
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoglycerate kinase-1 deficiency is an X-linked recessive condition with a highly variable clinical phenotype that includes hemolytic anemia, myopathy, and neurologic involvement. Patients can express 1, 2, or all 3 of these manifestations (Shirakawa et al., 2006).
Leber congenital amaurosis 13
MedGen UID:
382544
Concept ID:
C2675186
Disease or Syndrome
Any Leber congenital amaurosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the RDH12 gene.
Joubert syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
382940
Concept ID:
C2676788
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Leber congenital amaurosis 14
MedGen UID:
442375
Concept ID:
C2750063
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive childhood-onset severe retinal dystrophy is a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting rod and cone photoreceptors simultaneously. The most severe cases are termed Leber congenital amaurosis, whereas the less aggressive forms are usually considered juvenile retinitis pigmentosa (Gu et al., 1997). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Leber congenital amaurosis, see LCA1 (204000); for retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
422452
Concept ID:
C2936862
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive and genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, kidney dysfunction, polydactyly, behavioral dysfunction, and hypogonadism (summary by Beales et al., 1999). Eight proteins implicated in the disorder assemble to form the BBSome, a stable complex involved in signaling receptor trafficking to and from cilia (summary by Scheidecker et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome BBS1 is caused by mutation in a gene on chromosome 11q13 (209901); BBS2 (615981), by mutation in a gene on 16q13 (606151); BBS3 (600151), by mutation in the ARL6 gene on 3q11 (608845); BBS4 (615982), by mutation in a gene on 15q22 (600374); BBS5 (615983), by mutation in a gene on 2q31 (603650); BBS6 (605231), by mutation in the MKKS gene on 20p12 (604896); BBS7 (615984), by mutation in a gene on 4q27 (607590); BBS8 (615985), by mutation in the TTC8 gene on 14q32 (608132); BBS9 (615986), by mutation in a gene on 7p14 (607968); BBS10 (615987), by mutation in a gene on 12q21 (610148); BBS11 (615988), by mutation in the TRIM32 gene on 9q33 (602290); BBS12 (615989), by mutation in a gene on 4q27 (610683); BBS13 (615990), by mutation in the MKS1 gene (609883) on 17q23; BBS14 (615991), by mutation in the CEP290 gene (610142) on 12q21, BBS15 (615992), by mutation in the WDPCP gene (613580) on 2p15; BBS16 (615993), by mutation in the SDCCAG8 gene (613524) on 1q43; BBS17 (615994), by mutation in the LZTFL1 gene (606568) on 3p21; BBS18 (615995), by mutation in the BBIP1 gene (613605) on 10q25; BBS19 (615996), by mutation in the IFT27 gene (615870) on 22q12; BBS20 (619471), by mutation in the IFT172 gene (607386) on 9p21; BBS21 (617406), by mutation in the CFAP418 gene (614477) on 8q22; and BBS22 (617119), by mutation in the IFT74 gene (608040) on 9p21. The CCDC28B gene (610162) modifies the expression of BBS phenotypes in patients who have mutations in other genes. Mutations in MKS1, MKS3 (TMEM67; 609884), and C2ORF86 also modify the expression of BBS phenotypes in patients who have mutations in other genes. Although BBS had originally been thought to be a recessive disorder, Katsanis et al. (2001) demonstrated that clinical manifestation of some forms of Bardet-Biedl syndrome requires recessive mutations in 1 of the 6 loci plus an additional mutation in a second locus. While Katsanis et al. (2001) called this 'triallelic inheritance,' Burghes et al. (2001) suggested the term 'recessive inheritance with a modifier of penetrance.' Mykytyn et al. (2002) found no evidence of involvement of the common BBS1 mutation in triallelic inheritance. However, Fan et al. (2004) found heterozygosity in a mutation of the BBS3 gene (608845.0002) as an apparent modifier of the expression of homozygosity of the met390-to-arg mutation in the BBS1 gene (209901.0001). Allelic disorders include nonsyndromic forms of retinitis pigmentosa: RP51 (613464), caused by TTC8 mutation, and RP55 (613575), caused by ARL6 mutation.
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with mental retardation, type B1
MedGen UID:
461765
Concept ID:
C3150415
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophies resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239) are characterized by early onset of muscle weakness, usually before ambulation is achieved; mental retardation and mild brain anomalies are variable (Balci et al., 2005; Godfrey et al., 2007). Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathies with or without impaired intellectual development (type B) represent the intermediate range of the spectrum of dystroglycanopathies. They are less severe than muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A; see MDDGA1, 236670), previously designated Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) or muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), and more severe than limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (type C; see MDDGC1, 609308). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy-Dystroglycanopathy with or without Impaired Intellectual Development (Type B) Congenital muscular dystrophy with impaired intellectual development due to defective glycosylation of DAG1 is genetically heterogeneous. See also MDDGB2 (613156), caused by mutation in the POMT2 gene (607439); MDDGB3 (613151), caused by mutation in the POMGNT1 gene (606822); MDDGB4 (613152), caused by mutation in the FKTN gene (607440); MDDGB5 (616612), caused by mutation in the FKRP gene (606596); MDDGB6 (608840), caused by mutation in the LARGE gene (603590); MDDGB14 (615351), caused by mutation in the GMPPB gene (615320); and MDDGB15 (618992), caused by mutation in the DPM3 gene (605951).
Microcephaly and chorioretinopathy, autosomal recessive, 1
MedGen UID:
480111
Concept ID:
C3278481
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly and chorioretinopathy is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and visual impairment, often accompanied by short stature (summary by Martin et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Microcephaly and Chorioretinopathy See also MCCRP2 (616171), caused by mutation in the PLK4 gene (605031) on chromosome 4q27, and MCCRP3 (616335), caused by mutation in the TUBGCP4 gene (609610) on chromosome 15q15. An autosomal dominant form of microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or mental retardation is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KIF11 gene (148760) on chromosome 10q23. See also Mirhosseini-Holmes-Walton syndrome (autosomal recessive pigmentary retinopathy and mental retardation; 268050), which has been mapped to chromosome 8q21.3-q22.1.
Nephronophthisis 13
MedGen UID:
482242
Concept ID:
C3280612
Disease or Syndrome
The nephronophthisis (NPH) phenotype is characterized by reduced renal concentrating ability, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystic renal disease, and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before age 30 years. Three age-based clinical subtypes are recognized: infantile, juvenile, and adolescent/adult. Infantile NPH can present in utero with oligohydramnios sequence (limb contractures, pulmonary hypoplasia, and facial dysmorphisms) or postnatally with renal manifestations that progress to ESRD before age 3 years. Juvenile NPH, the most prevalent subtype, typically presents with polydipsia and polyuria, growth retardation, chronic iron-resistant anemia, or other findings related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is typically absent due to salt wasting. ESRD develops at a median age of 13 years. Ultrasound findings are increased echogenicity, reduced corticomedullary differentiation, and renal cysts (in 50% of affected individuals). Histologic findings include tubulointerstitial fibrosis, thickened and disrupted tubular basement membrane, sporadic corticomedullary cysts, and normal or reduced kidney size. Adolescent/adult NPH is clinically similar to juvenile NPH, but ESRD develops at a median age of 19 years. Within a subtype, inter- and intrafamilial variability in rate of progression to ESRD is considerable. Approximately 80%-90% of individuals with the NPH phenotype have no extrarenal features (i.e., they have isolated NPH); ~10%-20% have extrarenal manifestations that constitute a recognizable syndrome (e.g., Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Jeune syndrome and related skeletal disorders, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Senior-Løken syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis, COACH syndrome, and oculomotor apraxia, Cogan type).
Joubert syndrome 15
MedGen UID:
482527
Concept ID:
C3280897
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Joubert syndrome 16
MedGen UID:
482536
Concept ID:
C3280906
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Infantile cerebellar-retinal degeneration
MedGen UID:
482822
Concept ID:
C3281192
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile cerebellar-retinal degeneration (ICRD) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset between ages 2 and 6 months of truncal hypotonia, athetosis, seizures, and ophthalmologic abnormalities, particularly optic atrophy and retinal degeneration. Affected individuals show profound psychomotor retardation, with only some achieving rolling, sitting, or recognition of family. Brain MRI shows progressive cerebral and cerebellar degeneration (summary by Spiegel et al., 2012). A subset of patients may have a milder phenotype with variable features, including ataxia, developmental delay, and behavioral abnormalities (Blackburn et al., 2020).
Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 11
MedGen UID:
761331
Concept ID:
C3539123
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-11 is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by rapidly progressive visual loss due to retinal dystrophy, seizures, cerebellar ataxia, and cerebellar atrophy. Cognitive decline may also occur (summary by Smith et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730).
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 5B
MedGen UID:
762202
Concept ID:
C3542026
Disease or Syndrome
The overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD) represent the milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX2 gene have cells of complementation group 5 (CG5, equivalent to CG10 and CGF). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder type 3B
MedGen UID:
763607
Concept ID:
C3550693
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1b
MedGen UID:
766363
Concept ID:
C3553449
Disease or Syndrome
EXOSC3 pontocerebellar hypoplasia (EXOSC3-PCH) is characterized by abnormalities in the posterior fossa and degeneration of the anterior horn cells. At birth, skeletal muscle weakness manifests as hypotonia (sometimes with congenital joint contractures) and poor feeding. In persons with prolonged survival, spasticity, dystonia, and seizures become evident. Within the first year of life respiratory insufficiency and swallowing difficulties are common. Intellectual disability is severe. Life expectancy ranges from a few weeks to adolescence. To date, 82 individuals (from 58 families) with EXOSC3-PCH have been described.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 4B
MedGen UID:
766851
Concept ID:
C3553937
Disease or Syndrome
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder-4B (PBD4B) includes the overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD), which represent milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs). The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX6 gene have cells of complementation group 4 (CG4, equivalent to CG6 and CGC). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 6B
MedGen UID:
766862
Concept ID:
C3553948
Disease or Syndrome
The overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD) represent the milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood. Some patients with PEX10 mutations have a milder disorder characterized by childhood-onset cerebellar ataxia and neuropathy without mental retardation (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX10 gene have cells of complementation group 7 (CG7, equivalent to CGB). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 7B
MedGen UID:
766865
Concept ID:
C3553951
Disease or Syndrome
The overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD) represent the milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX26 gene have cells of complementation group 8 (CG8, equivalent to CGA). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 8B
MedGen UID:
766874
Concept ID:
C3553960
Disease or Syndrome
The overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD) represent the milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX16 gene have cells of complementation group 9 (CG9, equivalent to CGD). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Retinal dystrophy, iris coloboma, and comedogenic acne syndrome
MedGen UID:
767507
Concept ID:
C3554593
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive retinal dystrophy due to retinol transport defect is a rare, genetic, metabolite absorption and transport disorder characterized by progressive rod-cone dystrophy, usually presenting with impaired night vision in childhood, progressive loss of visual acuity and severe retinol deficiency without keratomalacia. Association with ocular colobomas, severe acne and hypercholesterolemia has been reported.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 18
MedGen UID:
812504
Concept ID:
C3806174
Disease or Syndrome
BBS18 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy described in a single patient and characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, kidney failure, and cognitive disability (Scheidecker et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Cataract 16, multiple types
MedGen UID:
814707
Concept ID:
C3808377
Disease or Syndrome
Mutations in the CRYAB gene have been found to cause multiple types of cataract, which have been described as congenital posterior polar, congenital lamellar, and juvenile. Autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive forms have been described. The preferred title/symbol of this entry was formerly 'Cataract, Posterior Polar, 2; CTPP2.'
Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 42
MedGen UID:
862780
Concept ID:
C4014343
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic features, spasticity, and brain abnormalities (NEDDSBA) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed global development, with hypotonia, impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech. Most patients have spasticity with limb hypertonia and brisk tendon reflexes. Additional features include nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, structural brain abnormalities, and cortical visual impairment (summary by Bosch et al., 2015). Novarino et al. (2014) labeled the disorder 'spastic paraplegia-67' (SPG67). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Cone-rod dystrophy 19
MedGen UID:
862938
Concept ID:
C4014501
Disease or Syndrome
There are more than 30 types of cone-rod dystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their pattern of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked. Additionally, cone-rod dystrophy can occur alone without any other signs and symptoms or it can occur as part of a syndrome that affects multiple parts of the body.\n\nThe first signs and symptoms of cone-rod dystrophy, which often occur in childhood, are usually decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). These features are typically followed by impaired color vision (dyschromatopsia), blind spots (scotomas) in the center of the visual field, and partial side (peripheral) vision loss. Over time, affected individuals develop night blindness and a worsening of their peripheral vision, which can limit independent mobility. Decreasing visual acuity makes reading increasingly difficult and most affected individuals are legally blind by mid-adulthood. As the condition progresses, individuals may develop involuntary eye movements (nystagmus).\n\nCone-rod dystrophy is a group of related eye disorders that causes vision loss, which becomes more severe over time. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In people with cone-rod dystrophy, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate.
Poretti-Boltshauser syndrome
MedGen UID:
863258
Concept ID:
C4014821
Disease or Syndrome
Poretti-Boltshauser syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar dysplasia, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, cerebellar cysts in most patients, high myopia, variable retinal dystrophy, and eye movement abnormalities. Affected individuals have delayed motor development and often have speech delay. Cognitive function can range from normal to intellectually disabled (summary by Aldinger et al., 2014).
Retinal dystrophy with inner retinal dysfunction and ganglion cell abnormalities
MedGen UID:
863583
Concept ID:
C4015146
Disease or Syndrome
Retinal dystrophy with inner retinal dysfunction and ganglion cell anomalies is a rare, genetic, retinal dystrophy disorder characterized by decreased central retinal sensitivity associated with hyper-reflectivity of ganglion cells and nerve fiber layer with loss of optic nerve fibers manifesting with fotophobia, optic disc pallor and progressive loss of central vision with preservation of peripheral visual field.
Retinal dystrophy, juvenile cataracts, and short stature syndrome
MedGen UID:
863679
Concept ID:
C4015242
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, syndromic rod-cone dystrophy disorder characterized by psychomotor developmental delay from early childhood, intellectual disability, short stature, mild facial dysmorphism (e.g. upslanted palpebral fissures, hypoplastic alae nasi, malar hypoplasia, attached earlobes), excessive dental spacing and malocclusion, juvenile cataract and ophthalmologic findings of atypical retinitis pigmentosa (i.e. salt-and-pepper retinopathy, attenuated retinal arterioles, generalized rod-cone dysfunction, mottled macula, peripapillary sparing of retinal pigment epithelium).
Retinal dystrophy and obesity
MedGen UID:
863861
Concept ID:
C4015424
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy 21
MedGen UID:
891534
Concept ID:
C4049066
Disease or Syndrome
Any cone-rod dystrophy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the DRAM2 gene.
Spastic paraplegia and psychomotor retardation with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
897828
Concept ID:
C4225215
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia and psychomotor retardation with or without seizures is an autosomal recessive complex neurodevelopmental disorder with onset in infancy. Affected children show hypotonia followed by severely impaired global development and significant motor disability. Most develop seizures in childhood and have speech delay. Other features, such as ocular abnormalities, foot deformities, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and decreased white matter, are more variable (summary by Hollstein et al., 2015).
Senior-Loken syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
899086
Concept ID:
C4225263
Disease or Syndrome
Senior-Loken syndrome-9 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset nephronophthisis and pigmentary retinopathy. Additional more variable features can include liver defects, skeletal anomalies, and obesity (summary by Bizet et al., 2015). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Senior-Loken syndrome, see 266900.
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type a, 9
MedGen UID:
902513
Concept ID:
C4225291
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A) is an autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, and congenital muscular dystrophy. The phenotype includes the alternative clinical designation Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS), which is associated with death in infancy. The disorder represents the most severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (summary by Geis et al., 2013 and Riemersma et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A, see MDDGA1 (236670).
Trichothiodystrophy 5, nonphotosensitive
MedGen UID:
899675
Concept ID:
C4225420
Disease or Syndrome
Trichothiodystrophy-5 (TTD5) is an X-linked disorder characterized by sparse and brittle hair, facial dysmorphism, global developmental delays, growth deficiency, hypogonadism, and structural brain abnormalities (summary by Mendelsohn et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of trichothiodystrophy, see TTD1 (601675).
Colobomatous optic disc-macular atrophy-chorioretinopathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
894574
Concept ID:
C4225424
Disease or Syndrome
Retinal dystrophy with or without extraocular anomalies
MedGen UID:
934647
Concept ID:
C4310680
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive condition caused by mutation(s) in the RCBTB1 gene, encoding RCC1 and BTB domain-containing protein 1. It is characterized by severe retinal dystrophy. Associated extraocular abnormalities may or may not be present.
Bone marrow failure syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
934711
Concept ID:
C4310744
Disease or Syndrome
Bone marrow failure syndrome-3 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of pancytopenia in early childhood. Patients may have additional variable nonspecific somatic abnormalities, including poor growth, microcephaly, and skin anomalies (summary by Tummala et al., 2016). BMFS3 has a distinct phenotype and may include features that overlap with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS1; 260400), such as pancreatic insufficiency and short stature, and with dyskeratosis congenita (see, e.g., DKCA1, 127550), such as dental and hair abnormalities and shortened telomeres. In addition, some patients may have joint and skeletal abnormalities, impaired development, and retinal dysplasia (summary by D'Amours et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of BMFS, see BMFS1 (614675).
Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 38
MedGen UID:
934729
Concept ID:
C4310762
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-38 (DEE38) is an autosomal recessive neurologic and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the onset of various type of seizures usually between about 4 and 7 months of age. Prior to the onset of seizures, most infants show severely impaired global development, hypotonia with poor head control, and visual inattention with roving eye movements and nystagmus. Seizures are usually refractory to treatment and associated with status epilepticus. Patients have little or no development with inability to walk or speak, spasticity or abnormal movements, and often cortical blindness. There is failure to thrive, and many require tube-feeding. Death in early childhood due to aspiration or intractable epilepsy may occur. The disorder is associated with a defect in GPI-anchoring of membrane-bound proteins (summary by Palmer et al., 2016; Davids et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Retinal dystrophy with or without macular staphyloma
MedGen UID:
1381980
Concept ID:
C4479651
Disease or Syndrome
Joubert syndrome 30
MedGen UID:
1613861
Concept ID:
C4539937
Disease or Syndrome
Joubert syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1644883
Concept ID:
C4551568
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Warburg-Cinotti syndrome
MedGen UID:
1677486
Concept ID:
C5193019
Disease or Syndrome
Warburg-Cinotti syndrome is characterized by progressive corneal neovascularization, keloid formation, chronic skin ulcers, wasting of subcutaneous tissue, flexion contractures of the fingers, and acroosteolysis (Xu et al., 2018).

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Georgiou M, Ali N, Yang E, Grewal PS, Rotsos T, Pontikos N, Robson AG, Michaelides M
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Mar 12;16(1):128. doi: 10.1186/s13023-021-01759-8. PMID: 33712029Free PMC Article
Xu K, Xie Y, Sun T, Zhang X, Chen C, Li Y
Br J Ophthalmol 2020 Jul;104(7):932-937. Epub 2019 Oct 19 doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2019-314281. PMID: 31630094
Motta FL, Martin RP, Porto FBO, Wohler ES, Resende RG, Gomes CP, Pesquero JB, Sallum JMF
Genes (Basel) 2019 Dec 24;11(1) doi: 10.3390/genes11010024. PMID: 31878136Free PMC Article
Murro V, Mucciolo DP, Sodi A, Passerini I, Giorgio D, Virgili G, Rizzo S
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2019 Jan;257(1):9-22. Epub 2018 Oct 15 doi: 10.1007/s00417-018-4161-z. PMID: 30324420
Khan AO
Ophthalmic Genet 2018 Oct;39(5):628-630. Epub 2018 Jul 18 doi: 10.1080/13816810.2018.1498529. PMID: 30019980

Diagnosis

Georgiou M, Ali N, Yang E, Grewal PS, Rotsos T, Pontikos N, Robson AG, Michaelides M
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Mar 12;16(1):128. doi: 10.1186/s13023-021-01759-8. PMID: 33712029Free PMC Article
Hull S, Kiray G, Chiang JP, Vincent AL
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2020 Sep;184(3):708-717. Epub 2020 Aug 28 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31836. PMID: 32856788
Cusumano A, Falsini B, Giardina E, Cascella R, Sebastiani J, Marshall J
J Med Case Rep 2019 Jan 10;13(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s13256-018-1935-1. PMID: 30626431Free PMC Article
Murro V, Mucciolo DP, Sodi A, Passerini I, Giorgio D, Virgili G, Rizzo S
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2019 Jan;257(1):9-22. Epub 2018 Oct 15 doi: 10.1007/s00417-018-4161-z. PMID: 30324420
Toma C, Ruberto G, Marzi F, Vandelli G, Signorini S, Valente EM, Antonini M, Bertone C, Bianchi PE
Doc Ophthalmol 2018 Aug;137(1):25-36. Epub 2018 Jul 10 doi: 10.1007/s10633-018-9646-x. PMID: 29987673

Therapy

Parameswarappa DC, Rani PK
BMJ Case Rep 2021 Feb 1;14(2) doi: 10.1136/bcr-2020-237635. PMID: 33526522Free PMC Article
Khojasteh H, Roohipoor R, Riazi-Esfahani H, Ghasempour M
Retin Cases Brief Rep 2021 May 1;15(3):306-309. doi: 10.1097/ICB.0000000000000792. PMID: 30028788
Feathers KL, Jia L, Perera ND, Chen A, Presswalla FK, Khan NW, Fahim AT, Smith AJ, Ali RR, Thompson DA
Hum Gene Ther 2019 Nov;30(11):1325-1335. Epub 2019 Aug 5 doi: 10.1089/hum.2019.017. PMID: 31237438Free PMC Article
Russell S, Bennett J, Wellman JA, Chung DC, Yu ZF, Tillman A, Wittes J, Pappas J, Elci O, McCague S, Cross D, Marshall KA, Walshire J, Kehoe TL, Reichert H, Davis M, Raffini L, George LA, Hudson FP, Dingfield L, Zhu X, Haller JA, Sohn EH, Mahajan VB, Pfeifer W, Weckmann M, Johnson C, Gewaily D, Drack A, Stone E, Wachtel K, Simonelli F, Leroy BP, Wright JF, High KA, Maguire AM
Lancet 2017 Aug 26;390(10097):849-860. Epub 2017 Jul 14 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31868-8. PMID: 28712537Free PMC Article
Murro V, Mucciolo DP, Sodi A, Vannozzi L, De Libero C, Simonini G, Rizzo S
Ophthalmic Genet 2017 Dec;38(6):555-558. Epub 2017 Jan 27 doi: 10.1080/13816810.2017.1281966. PMID: 28129017

Prognosis

Shen RJ, Wang JG, Li Y, Jin ZB
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Jun 15;16(1):278. doi: 10.1186/s13023-021-01902-5. PMID: 34130719Free PMC Article
Daftarian N, Mirrahimi M, Sabbaghi H, Moghadasi A, Zal N, Dehghan Banadaki H, Ahmadieh H, Suri F
Ophthalmic Genet 2019 Oct;40(5):436-442. Epub 2019 Oct 16 doi: 10.1080/13816810.2019.1678178. PMID: 31618092
Wolock CJ, Stong N, Ma CJ, Nagasaki T, Lee W, Tsang SH, Kamalakaran S, Goldstein DB, Allikmets R
Genet Med 2019 Oct;21(10):2336-2344. Epub 2019 Mar 30 doi: 10.1038/s41436-019-0495-0. PMID: 30926958Free PMC Article
Murro V, Mucciolo DP, Sodi A, Passerini I, Giorgio D, Virgili G, Rizzo S
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2019 Jan;257(1):9-22. Epub 2018 Oct 15 doi: 10.1007/s00417-018-4161-z. PMID: 30324420
Khan AO
Ophthalmic Genet 2018 Oct;39(5):628-630. Epub 2018 Jul 18 doi: 10.1080/13816810.2018.1498529. PMID: 30019980

Clinical prediction guides

Smirnov V, Grunewald O, Muller J, Zeitz C, Obermaier CD, Devos A, Pelletier V, Bocquet B, Andrieu C, Bacquet JL, Lebredonchel E, Mohand-Saïd S, Defoort-Dhellemmes S, Sahel JA, Dollfus H, Zanlonghi X, Audo I, Meunier I, Boulanger-Scemama E, Dhaenens CM
Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 15;22(12) doi: 10.3390/ijms22126410. PMID: 34203883Free PMC Article
Hull S, Kiray G, Chiang JP, Vincent AL
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2020 Sep;184(3):708-717. Epub 2020 Aug 28 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31836. PMID: 32856788
Mizobuchi K, Hayashi T, Yoshitake K, Fujinami K, Tachibana T, Tsunoda K, Iwata T, Nakano T
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 Aug;8(8):e1308. Epub 2020 May 22 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.1308. PMID: 32441891Free PMC Article
Wolock CJ, Stong N, Ma CJ, Nagasaki T, Lee W, Tsang SH, Kamalakaran S, Goldstein DB, Allikmets R
Genet Med 2019 Oct;21(10):2336-2344. Epub 2019 Mar 30 doi: 10.1038/s41436-019-0495-0. PMID: 30926958Free PMC Article
Cusumano A, Falsini B, Giardina E, Cascella R, Sebastiani J, Marshall J
J Med Case Rep 2019 Jan 10;13(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s13256-018-1935-1. PMID: 30626431Free PMC Article

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