Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Myhre syndrome(MYHRS)

MedGen UID:
167103
Concept ID:
C0796081
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Growth mental deficiency syndrome of Myhre; Laryngotracheal stenosis, progressive, with short stature and arthropathy; MYHRS
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
Autosomal dominant inheritance refers to genetic conditions that occur when a mutation is present in one copy of a given gene (i.e., the person is heterozygous).
Autosomal dominant inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
SNOMED CT: Facial dysmorphism, intellectual deficit, short stature and hearing loss (699316006); Laryngotracheal stenosis, arthropathy, prognathism and short stature (699316006); Myhre syndrome (699316006)
 
Gene (location): SMAD4 (18q21.2)
OMIM®: 139210
Orphanet: ORPHA2588

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Myhre Syndrome
Myhre syndrome is a connective tissue disorder with multisystem involvement, progressive and proliferative fibrosis that may occur spontaneously or following trauma or surgery, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and in some instances, autistic-like behaviors. Organ systems primarily involved include: cardiovascular (congenital heart defects, long- and short-segment stenosis of the aorta and peripheral arteries, pericardial effusion, constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and hypertension); respiratory (choanal stenosis, laryngotracheal narrowing, obstructive airway disease, or restrictive pulmonary disease), gastrointestinal (pyloric stenosis, duodenal strictures, severe constipation); and skin (thickened particularly on the hands and extensor surfaces). Additional findings include distinctive craniofacial features and skeletal involvement (intrauterine growth restriction, short stature, limited joint range of motion). To date, 55 individuals with molecularly confirmed Myhre syndrome have been reported. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Lois J Starr  |  Noralane M Lindor  |  Angela E Lin   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Myhre syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by mental retardation, dysmorphic facial features, including microcephaly, midface hypoplasia, prognathism, and blepharophimosis, typical skeletal anomalies, including short stature, square body shape, broad ribs, iliac hypoplasia, brachydactyly, flattened vertebrae, and thickened calvaria, and cardiovascular defects with a striking fibroproliferative response to surgical intervention. All reported cases have been sporadic (summary by Bachmann-Gagescu et al., 2011 and Lin et al., 2016).  http://www.omim.org/entry/139210
From GHR
Myhre syndrome is a condition involving short stature, characteristic facial features, hearing loss, limited joint mobility, a buildup of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the skin and internal organs, and other problems affecting multiple body systems. Affected individuals often have problems with the heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular system), the lungs and airways (respiratory system), and the skeletal system. The cardiovascular and respiratory problems gradually get worse and can lead to potentially life-threatening complications. Cancer also occasionally occurs in Myhre syndrome.People with Myhre syndrome usually have delayed development of language and motor skills such as crawling and walking. Although intelligence can be normal in affected individuals, most have intellectual disability that ranges from mild to moderate. Some people with this disorder have behavioral issues such as features of autism spectrum disorder affecting communication and social interaction. Hearing loss occurs in most people with Myhre syndrome, usually beginning in early childhood and gradually worsening; this hearing loss may not be detected promptly and can contribute to learning and behavioral problems.Fibrosis in Myhre syndrome can occur spontaneously or develop following surgery or trauma. Affected individuals typically have stiff, thickened skin; this skin condition may not be noticeable during infancy, but worsens over time. Usually the skin changes first appear on the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, the back of the elbows, and the front of the knees. Eventually the skin thickens on other parts of the body. As a result of the thicker skin, affected individuals typically have fewer facial creases (wrinkles) than others of their age. Fibrosis can also occur in the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal tract, causing dysfunction in these systems.Individuals with Myhre syndrome often have problems with the structure of the heart that are present at birth (congenital heart defects). Fibrosis in the cardiovascular system can lead to the development of additional problems such as high blood pressure (hypertension); narrowing (stenosis) of the heart valves or blood vessels; tightening of the pericardium, which is the membrane that surrounds the heart (constrictive pericarditis); or restrictive cardiomyopathy, in which the heart muscle is stiff and cannot fully relax after each contraction.In Myhre syndrome, fibrosis of the respiratory tract can lead to narrowing of the windpipe (laryngotracheal stenosis) and the passages leading from the windpipe to the lungs (bronchi), high blood pressure in the vessels that carry blood from the heart to the lungs (the pulmonary arteries), damage to lung tissue (interstitial pulmonary disease), and an impairment of lung expansion (restrictive pulmonary disease). In the gastrointestinal tract, fibrosis can result in narrowing of the lower part of the stomach (pyloric stenosis) or of the upper part of the small intestine (duodenal strictures), or severe constipation.Growth is reduced in people with Myhre syndrome, beginning before birth and continuing through adolescence. Affected individuals have a low birth weight and are generally shorter than about 97 percent of their peers throughout life. They have shortened long bones of the arms and legs, and unusually short fingers and toes (brachydactyly). Other skeletal abnormalities associated with this disorder include thickening of the skull bones, flattened bones of the spine (platyspondyly), broad ribs, and underdevelopment of the wing-shaped structures of the pelvis (hypoplastic iliac wings). Affected individuals often have joint problems (arthropathy), including stiffness and limited mobility.Typical facial features in people with Myhre syndrome include narrow openings of the eyelids (short palpebral fissures), deeply set eyes, a shortened distance between the nose and upper lip (a short philtrum), a narrow mouth with a thin upper lip, an underdeveloped upper jaw, and a protruding lower jaw (prognathism). Some affected individuals are born with an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate), a split in the lip (a cleft lip), or both. Vision problems are common in this disorder and can include eyes that do not point in the same direction (strabismus), nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia), an irregular curvature of the front of the eye (astigmatism), clouding of the lenses (cataracts), or an abnormality of the back of the eye called pseudopapilledema.  https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/myhre-syndrome

Clinical features

Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
8638
Concept ID:
C0014306
Disease or Syndrome
An eye that is more deeply recessed into the plane of the face than is typical.
Hypermetropia
MedGen UID:
43780
Concept ID:
C0020490
Disease or Syndrome
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (145410), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Microphthalmos
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.People with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.People with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.Between one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
Strabismus (also known as squint) is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other.
Cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Brachydactyly
MedGen UID:
67454
Concept ID:
C0221357
Congenital Abnormality
Digits that appear disproportionately short compared to the hand/foot. The word brachydactyly is used to describe a series of Mendelian diseases characterized by distinct patterns of shortened digits (brachydactyly types A-E). This is the sense used here, however, it is preferable to described the observed phenotypic abnormalities precisely.
Short finger
MedGen UID:
68683
Concept ID:
C0239594
Finding
Abnormally short finger associated with developmental hypoplasia.
Clinodactyly
MedGen UID:
120550
Concept ID:
C0265610
Congenital Abnormality
An angulation of a digit at an interphalangeal joint in the plane of the palm (finger) or sole (toe).
2-3 toe cutaneous syndactyly
MedGen UID:
98470
Concept ID:
C0432040
Congenital Abnormality
Syndactyly with fusion of toes two and three.
Overlapping toe
MedGen UID:
182531
Concept ID:
C0920299
Anatomical Abnormality
Describes a foot digit resting on the dorsal surface of an adjacent digit when the foot is at rest.
Radial deviation of finger
MedGen UID:
322852
Concept ID:
C1836189
Finding
Bending or curvature of a finger toward the radial side (i.e., towards the thumb). The deviation is at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint, and this finding is distinct from clinodactyly.
Short toe
MedGen UID:
322858
Concept ID:
C1836195
Finding
A toe that appears disproportionately short compared to the foot.
Coarctation of aorta
MedGen UID:
1617
Concept ID:
C0003492
Congenital Abnormality
A birth defect characterized by the narrowing of the AORTA that can be of varying degree and at any point from the transverse arch to the iliac bifurcation. Aortic coarctation causes arterial HYPERTENSION before the point of narrowing and arterial HYPOTENSION beyond the narrowed portion.
Aortic valve stenosis
MedGen UID:
1621
Concept ID:
C0003507
Disease or Syndrome
constriction in the opening of the aortic valve or of the supravalvular or subvalvular regions.
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Congenital septal defect
MedGen UID:
6752
Concept ID:
C0018816
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.
Hypertension
MedGen UID:
6969
Concept ID:
C0020538
Disease or Syndrome
Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart beats, it pumps blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure. When your heart is at rest, between beats, your blood pressure falls. This is called diastolic pressure. . Your blood pressure reading uses these two numbers. Usually the systolic number comes before or above the diastolic number. A reading of. -119/79 or lower is normal blood pressure. -140/90 or higher is high blood pressure. -Between 120 and 139 for the top number, or between 80 and 89 for the bottom number is called prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High blood pressure usually has no symptoms, but it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart failure, heart attack and kidney failure. You can control high blood pressure through healthy lifestyle habits such as exercise and the DASH diet and taking medicines, if needed. . NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Pericardial effusion
MedGen UID:
10653
Concept ID:
C0031039
Disease or Syndrome
Accumulation of fluid within the pericardium.
Obesity
MedGen UID:
18127
Concept ID:
C0028754
Disease or Syndrome
Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too much. The weight may come from muscle, bone, fat, and/or body water. Both terms mean that a person's weight is greater than what's considered healthy for his or her height. . Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories than you use. The balance between calories-in and calories-out differs for each person. Factors that might affect your weight include your genetic makeup, overeating, eating high-fat foods, and not being physically active. . Being obese increases your risk of diabetes, heart disease, stroke, arthritis, and some cancers. If you are obese, losing even 5 to 10 percent of your weight can delay or prevent some of these diseases. For example, that means losing 10 to 20 pounds if you weigh 200 pounds. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
Height greater than two standard deviations below the mean of the appropriate reference population for the age and sex of the individual.
Intrauterine growth retardation
MedGen UID:
473406
Concept ID:
C1386048
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
5453
Concept ID:
C0018772
Finding
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Microtia
MedGen UID:
57535
Concept ID:
C0152423
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the external ear.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Autistic disorder of childhood onset
MedGen UID:
13966
Concept ID:
C0004352
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypic, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Mental retardation coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which mental retardation is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). Levy et al. (2009) provided a general review of autism and autism spectrum disorder, including epidemiology, characteristics of the disorder, diagnosis, neurobiologic hypotheses for the etiology, genetics, and treatment options. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autism Autism is considered to be a complex multifactorial disorder involving many genes. Accordingly, several loci have been identified, some or all of which may contribute to the phenotype. Included in this entry is AUTS1, which has been mapped to chromosome 7q22. Other susceptibility loci include AUTS3 (608049), which maps to chromosome 13q14; AUTS4 (608636), which maps to chromosome 15q11; AUTS5 (606053), which maps to chromosome 2q; AUTS6 (609378), which maps to chromosome 17q11; AUTS7 (610676), which maps to chromosome 17q21; AUTS8 (607373), which maps to chromosome 3q25-q27; AUTS9 (611015), which maps to chromosome 7q31; AUTS10 (611016), which maps to chromosome 7q36; AUTS11 (610836), which maps to chromosome 1q41; AUTS12 (610838), which maps to chromosome 21p13-q11; AUTS13 (610908), which maps to chromosome 12q14; AUTS14A (611913), which has been found in patients with a deletion of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS14B (614671), which has been found in patients with a duplication of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS15 (612100), associated with mutation in the CNTNAP2 gene (604569) on chromosome 7q35-q36; AUTS16 (613410), associated with mutation in the SLC9A9 gene (608396) on chromosome 3q24; AUTS17 (613436), associated with mutation in the SHANK2 gene (603290) on chromosome 11q13; and AUTS18 (615032), associated with mutation in the CHD8 gene (610528). (NOTE: the symbol 'AUTS2' has been used to refer to a gene on chromosome 7q11 (KIAA0442; 607270) and therefore is not used as a part of this autism locus series.) There are several X-linked forms of autism susceptibility: AUTSX1 (300425), associated with mutations in the NLGN3 gene (300336); AUTSX2 (300495), associated with mutations in NLGN4 (300427); AUTSX3 (300496), associated with mutations in MECP2 (300005); AUTSX4 (300830), associated with variation in the region on chromosome Xp22.11 containing the PTCHD1 gene (300828); AUTSX5 (300847), associated with mutations in the RPL10 gene (312173); and AUTSX6 (300872), associated with mutation in the TMLHE gene (300777). Folstein and Rosen-Sheidley (2001) reviewed the genetics of autism.
Ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Sign or Symptom
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- oder overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Seizure Disorders
MedGen UID:
4506
Concept ID:
C0014544
Disease or Syndrome
Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures. The seizures happen when clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain send out the wrong signals. People may have strange sensations and emotions or behave strangely. They may have violent muscle spasms or lose consciousness. Epilepsy has many possible causes, including illness, brain injury, and abnormal brain development. In many cases, the cause is unknown. Doctors use brain scans and other tests to diagnose epilepsy. It is important to start treatment right away. There is no cure for epilepsy, but medicines can control seizures for most people. When medicines are not working well, surgery or implanted devices such as vagus nerve stimulators may help. Special diets can help some children with epilepsy. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Respiratory insufficiency
MedGen UID:
11197
Concept ID:
C0035229
Pathologic Function
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Respiratory failure
MedGen UID:
257837
Concept ID:
C1145670
Disease or Syndrome
Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, such as your heart and brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can't remove carbon dioxide (a waste gas) from your blood. Too much carbon dioxide in your blood can harm your body's organs. Diseases and conditions that affect your breathing can cause respiratory failure. Examples include. -Lung diseases such as COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, and cystic fibrosis. -Conditions that affect the nerves and muscles that control breathing, such as spinal cord injuries, muscular dystrophy and stroke. -Damage to the tissues and ribs around the lungs. An injury to the chest can cause this damage. -Drug or alcohol overdose. -Injuries from inhaling smoke or harmful fumes. Treatment for respiratory failure depends on whether the condition is acute (short-term) or chronic (ongoing) and how severe it is. It also depends on the underlying cause. You may receive oxygen therapy and other treatment to help you breathe. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Laryngotracheal stenosis
MedGen UID:
812610
Concept ID:
C3806280
Finding
Cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Camptodactyly
MedGen UID:
195780
Concept ID:
C0685409
Congenital Abnormality
The distal interphalangeal joint and/or the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fingers or toes cannot be extended to 180 degrees by either active or passive extension.
Generalized muscle hypertrophy
MedGen UID:
811969
Concept ID:
C3805639
Finding
Hypertrophy (increase in size) of muscle cells in a generalized (not localized) distribution.
Abnormality of the voice
MedGen UID:
867406
Concept ID:
C4021776
Anatomical Abnormality
Brachydactyly
MedGen UID:
67454
Concept ID:
C0221357
Congenital Abnormality
Digits that appear disproportionately short compared to the hand/foot. The word brachydactyly is used to describe a series of Mendelian diseases characterized by distinct patterns of shortened digits (brachydactyly types A-E). This is the sense used here, however, it is preferable to described the observed phenotypic abnormalities precisely.
Short finger
MedGen UID:
68683
Concept ID:
C0239594
Finding
Abnormally short finger associated with developmental hypoplasia.
Hypoplasia of the maxilla
MedGen UID:
66804
Concept ID:
C0240310
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally small dimension of the Maxilla. Usually creating a malocclusion or malalignment between the upper and lower teeth or resulting in a deficient amount of projection of the base of the nose and lower midface region.
Clinodactyly
MedGen UID:
120550
Concept ID:
C0265610
Congenital Abnormality
An angulation of a digit at an interphalangeal joint in the plane of the palm (finger) or sole (toe).
Mandibular prognathia
MedGen UID:
98316
Concept ID:
C0399526
Finding
Abnormal prominence of the chin related to increased length of the mandible.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
2-3 toe cutaneous syndactyly
MedGen UID:
98470
Concept ID:
C0432040
Congenital Abnormality
Syndactyly with fusion of toes two and three.
Short neck
MedGen UID:
99267
Concept ID:
C0521525
Finding
Diminished length of the neck.
Camptodactyly
MedGen UID:
195780
Concept ID:
C0685409
Congenital Abnormality
The distal interphalangeal joint and/or the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fingers or toes cannot be extended to 180 degrees by either active or passive extension.
Overlapping toe
MedGen UID:
182531
Concept ID:
C0920299
Anatomical Abnormality
Describes a foot digit resting on the dorsal surface of an adjacent digit when the foot is at rest.
Radial deviation of finger
MedGen UID:
322852
Concept ID:
C1836189
Finding
Bending or curvature of a finger toward the radial side (i.e., towards the thumb). The deviation is at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint, and this finding is distinct from clinodactyly.
Short toe
MedGen UID:
322858
Concept ID:
C1836195
Finding
A toe that appears disproportionately short compared to the foot.
Platyspondyly
MedGen UID:
335010
Concept ID:
C1844704
Finding
A flattened vertebral body shape with reduced distance between the vertebral endplates.
Broad ribs
MedGen UID:
336390
Concept ID:
C1848654
Finding
Increased width of ribs
short long bones
MedGen UID:
344385
Concept ID:
C1854912
Finding
One or more abnormally short long bone.
Limitation of joint mobility
MedGen UID:
341696
Concept ID:
C1857108
Finding
A reduction in the freedom of movement of one or more joints.
Malar flattening
MedGen UID:
347616
Concept ID:
C1858085
Anatomical Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the malar prominence of the jugal bone (zygomatic bone in mammals), appreciated in profile, frontal view, and/or by palpation.
Thickened calvaria
MedGen UID:
346823
Concept ID:
C1858452
Finding
The presence of an abnormally thick calvaria.
Hypoplastic iliac wing
MedGen UID:
351279
Concept ID:
C1865027
Anatomical Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the ilium ala.
Cone-shaped epiphysis
MedGen UID:
351282
Concept ID:
C1865037
Finding
Cone-shaped epiphyses (also known as coned epiphyses) are epiphyses that invaginate into cupped metaphyses. That is, the epiphysis has a cone-shaped distal extension resulting from increased growth of the central portion of the epiphysis relative to its periphery.
Vertebral fusion
MedGen UID:
480139
Concept ID:
C3278509
Anatomical Abnormality
A developmental defect leading to the union of two adjacent vertebrae.
Enlarged vertebral pedicles
MedGen UID:
870843
Concept ID:
C4025303
Anatomical Abnormality
Increased size of the vertebral pedicle.
Blepharophimosis
MedGen UID:
2670
Concept ID:
C0005744
Congenital Abnormality
A fixed reduction in the vertical distance between the upper and lower eyelids with short palpebral fissures.
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
8638
Concept ID:
C0014306
Disease or Syndrome
An eye that is more deeply recessed into the plane of the face than is typical.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (145410), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Microphthalmos
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.People with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.People with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.Between one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Narrow mouth
MedGen UID:
44435
Concept ID:
C0026034
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital defect in which the mouth is unusually small. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Cleft lip/palate
MedGen UID:
57640
Concept ID:
C0158646
Finding
Cleft lip and cleft palate are birth defects that occur when a baby's lip or mouth do not form properly. They happen early during pregnancy. A baby can have a cleft lip, a cleft palate, or both. A cleft lip happens if the tissue that makes up the lip does not join completely before birth. This causes an opening in the upper lip. The opening can be a small slit or a large opening that goes through the lip into the nose. It can be on one or both sides of the lip or, rarely, in the middle of the lip. Children with a cleft lip also can have a cleft palate. The roof of the mouth is called the palate. With a cleft palate, the tissue that makes up the roof of the mouth does not join correctly. Babies may have both the front and back parts of the palate open, or they may have only one part open. Children with a cleft lip or a cleft palate often have problems with feeding and talking. They also might have ear infections, hearing loss, and problems with their teeth. Often, surgery can close the lip and palate. Cleft lip surgery is usually done before age 12 months, and cleft palate surgery is done before 18 months. Many children have other complications. They may need additional surgeries, dental and orthodontic care, and speech therapy as they get older. With treatment, most children with clefts do well and lead a healthy life. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Hypoplasia of the maxilla
MedGen UID:
66804
Concept ID:
C0240310
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally small dimension of the Maxilla. Usually creating a malocclusion or malalignment between the upper and lower teeth or resulting in a deficient amount of projection of the base of the nose and lower midface region.
Mandibular prognathia
MedGen UID:
98316
Concept ID:
C0399526
Finding
Abnormal prominence of the chin related to increased length of the mandible.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Short neck
MedGen UID:
99267
Concept ID:
C0521525
Finding
Diminished length of the neck.
Thick eyebrow
MedGen UID:
377914
Concept ID:
C1853487
Finding
Increased density/number and/or increased diameter of eyebrow hairs.
Prominent nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
343051
Concept ID:
C1854113
Finding
Anterior positioning of the nasal root in comparison to the usual positioning for age.
Malar flattening
MedGen UID:
347616
Concept ID:
C1858085
Anatomical Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the malar prominence of the jugal bone (zygomatic bone in mammals), appreciated in profile, frontal view, and/or by palpation.
Thickened calvaria
MedGen UID:
346823
Concept ID:
C1858452
Finding
The presence of an abnormally thick calvaria.
Short philtrum
MedGen UID:
350006
Concept ID:
C1861324
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Midface retrusion
MedGen UID:
767172
Concept ID:
C3554258
Posterior positions and/or vertical shortening of the infraorbital and perialar regions, or increased concavity of the face and/or reduced nasolabial angle.
Camptodactyly
MedGen UID:
195780
Concept ID:
C0685409
Congenital Abnormality
The distal interphalangeal joint and/or the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fingers or toes cannot be extended to 180 degrees by either active or passive extension.
Thickened skin
MedGen UID:
90736
Concept ID:
C0334008
Finding
Laminar thickening of skin.
Fine hair
MedGen UID:
98401
Concept ID:
C0423867
Finding
Hair that is fine or thin to the touch.
Thick eyebrow
MedGen UID:
377914
Concept ID:
C1853487
Finding
Increased density/number and/or increased diameter of eyebrow hairs.
Thin, sparse hair
MedGen UID:
349904
Concept ID:
C1860844
Sign or Symptom
Reduced density of hairs.
Stiff skin
MedGen UID:
478445
Concept ID:
C3276815
Finding
An induration (hardening) of the skin

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
Follow this link to review classifications for Myhre syndrome in Orphanet.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Garavelli L, Maini I, Baccilieri F, Ivanovski I, Pollazzon M, Rosato S, Iughetti L, Unger S, Superti-Furga A, Tartaglia M
Eur J Pediatr 2016 Oct;175(10):1307-15. Epub 2016 Aug 25 doi: 10.1007/s00431-016-2761-3. PMID: 27562837
Banka S, Cain SA, Carim S, Daly SB, Urquhart JE, Erdem G, Harris J, Bottomley M, Donnai D, Kerr B, Kingston H, Superti-Furga A, Unger S, Ennis H, Worthington J, Herrick AL, Merry CL, Yue WW, Kielty CM, Newman WG
Ann Rheum Dis 2015 Jun;74(6):1249-56. Epub 2014 Jan 17 doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204309. PMID: 24442880
Le Goff C, Michot C, Cormier-Daire V
Clin Genet 2014 Jun;85(6):503-13. Epub 2014 Apr 2 doi: 10.1111/cge.12365. PMID: 24580733
Michot C, Le Goff C, Mahaut C, Afenjar A, Brooks AS, Campeau PM, Destree A, Di Rocco M, Donnai D, Hennekam R, Heron D, Jacquemont S, Kannu P, Lin AE, Manouvrier-Hanu S, Mansour S, Marlin S, McGowan R, Murphy H, Raas-Rothschild A, Rio M, Simon M, Stolte-Dijkstra I, Stone JR, Sznajer Y, Tolmie J, Touraine R, van den Ende J, Van der Aa N, van Essen T, Verloes A, Munnich A, Cormier-Daire V
Eur J Hum Genet 2014 Nov;22(11):1272-7. Epub 2014 Jan 15 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2013.288. PMID: 24424121Free PMC Article
Le Goff C, Cormier-Daire V
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2012 Aug 15;160C(3):145-53. Epub 2012 Jul 12 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31337. PMID: 22791552

Diagnosis

Garavelli L, Maini I, Baccilieri F, Ivanovski I, Pollazzon M, Rosato S, Iughetti L, Unger S, Superti-Furga A, Tartaglia M
Eur J Pediatr 2016 Oct;175(10):1307-15. Epub 2016 Aug 25 doi: 10.1007/s00431-016-2761-3. PMID: 27562837
Bassett JK, Douzgou S, Kerr B
Clin Dysmorphol 2016 Apr;25(2):54-7. doi: 10.1097/MCD.0000000000000109. PMID: 26636501
Caputo V, Bocchinfuso G, Castori M, Traversa A, Pizzuti A, Stella L, Grammatico P, Tartaglia M
Am J Med Genet A 2014 Jul;164A(7):1835-40. Epub 2014 Apr 8 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36544. PMID: 24715504
Al Ageeli E, Mignot C, Afenjar A, Whalen S, Dorison N, Mayer M, Esteva B, Dubern B, Momtchilova M, Le Gargasson JF, Bursztyn J, Héron D
Eur J Med Genet 2012 Oct;55(10):541-7. Epub 2012 Jun 7 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2012.05.006. PMID: 22683461
McGowan R, Gulati R, McHenry P, Cooke A, Butler S, Keng WT, Murday V, Whiteford M, Dikkers FG, Sikkema-Raddatz B, van Essen T, Tolmie J
Eur J Med Genet 2011 Nov-Dec;54(6):e553-9. Epub 2011 Jul 21 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2011.07.001. PMID: 21816239

Therapy

Picco P, Naselli A, Pala G, Marsciani A, Buoncompagni A, Martini A
Am J Med Genet A 2013 May;161A(5):1164-6. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35892. PMID: 23610053

Prognosis

Le Goff C, Michot C, Cormier-Daire V
Clin Genet 2014 Jun;85(6):503-13. Epub 2014 Apr 2 doi: 10.1111/cge.12365. PMID: 24580733
Michot C, Le Goff C, Mahaut C, Afenjar A, Brooks AS, Campeau PM, Destree A, Di Rocco M, Donnai D, Hennekam R, Heron D, Jacquemont S, Kannu P, Lin AE, Manouvrier-Hanu S, Mansour S, Marlin S, McGowan R, Murphy H, Raas-Rothschild A, Rio M, Simon M, Stolte-Dijkstra I, Stone JR, Sznajer Y, Tolmie J, Touraine R, van den Ende J, Van der Aa N, van Essen T, Verloes A, Munnich A, Cormier-Daire V
Eur J Hum Genet 2014 Nov;22(11):1272-7. Epub 2014 Jan 15 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2013.288. PMID: 24424121Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Le Goff C, Cormier-Daire V
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2012 Aug 15;160C(3):145-53. Epub 2012 Jul 12 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31337. PMID: 22791552
Le Goff C, Mahaut C, Abhyankar A, Le Goff W, Serre V, Afenjar A, Destrée A, di Rocco M, Héron D, Jacquemont S, Marlin S, Simon M, Tolmie J, Verloes A, Casanova JL, Munnich A, Cormier-Daire V
Nat Genet 2011 Dec 11;44(1):85-8. doi: 10.1038/ng.1016. PMID: 22158539

Supplemental Content

Recent activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...
Support Center