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Malignant tumor of prostate

MedGen UID:
138169
Concept ID:
C0376358
Neoplastic Process
Synonym: Prostate cancer
SNOMED CT: Malignant tumor of prostate (399068003); Malignant prostatic tumor (399068003); CA - Cancer of prostate (399068003); Cancer of prostate (399068003)
 
Genes (locations): AR (Xq12); BRCA2 (13q13.1); CDH1 (16q22.1); CHEK2 (22q12.1); KLF6 (10p15.2); MAD1L1 (7p22.3); MXI1 (10q25.2); PTEN (10q23.31); ZFHX3 (16q22.2-22.3)
 
HPO: HP:0012125
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0008315
OMIM®: 176807

Definition

A cancer of the prostate. [from HPO]

Clinical features

From HPO
Malignant tumor of prostate
MedGen UID:
138169
Concept ID:
C0376358
Neoplastic Process
A cancer of the prostate.

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Malignant tumor of prostate
MedGen UID:
138169
Concept ID:
C0376358
Neoplastic Process
A cancer of the prostate.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
322656
Concept ID:
C1835398
Disease or Syndrome
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a cancer predisposition syndrome associated with high risks for a diverse spectrum of childhood- and adult-onset malignancies. The lifetime risk of cancer in individuals with LFS is =70% for men and =90% for women. Five cancer types account for the majority of LFS tumors: adrenocortical carcinomas, breast cancer, central nervous system tumors, osteosarcomas, and soft-tissue sarcomas. LFS is associated with an increased risk of several additional cancers including leukemia, lymphoma, gastrointestinal cancers, cancers of head and neck, kidney, larynx, lung, skin (e.g., melanoma), ovary, pancreas, prostate, testis, and thyroid. Individuals with LFS are at increased risk for cancer in childhood and young adulthood; survivors are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers.
Prostate cancer, hereditary, X-linked 1
MedGen UID:
339479
Concept ID:
C1846279
Neoplastic Process
Prostate cancer/brain cancer susceptibility
MedGen UID:
400334
Concept ID:
C1863600
Finding
Prostate cancer is a common disease that affects men, usually in middle age or later. In this disorder, certain cells in the prostate become abnormal, multiply without control or order, and form a tumor. The prostate is a gland that surrounds the male urethra and helps produce semen, the fluid that carries sperm.\n\nA small percentage of prostate cancers are hereditary and occur in families. These hereditary cancers are associated with inherited gene variants. Hereditary prostate cancers tend to develop earlier in life than non-inherited (sporadic) cases.\n\nEarly prostate cancer usually does not cause pain, and most affected men exhibit no noticeable symptoms. Men are often diagnosed as the result of health screenings, such as a blood test for a substance called prostate specific antigen (PSA) or a medical exam called a digital rectal exam (DRE). As the tumor grows larger, signs and symptoms can include difficulty starting or stopping the flow of urine, a feeling of not being able to empty the bladder completely, blood in the urine or semen, or pain with ejaculation. However, these changes can also occur with many other genitourinary conditions. Having one or more of these symptoms does not necessarily mean that a man has prostate cancer.\n\nThe severity and outcome of prostate cancer varies widely. Early-stage prostate cancer can usually be treated successfully, and some older men have prostate tumors that grow so slowly that they may never cause health problems during their lifetime, even without treatment. In other men, however, the cancer is much more aggressive; in these cases, prostate cancer can be life-threatening.\n\nSome cancerous tumors can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Tumors that begin at one site and then spread to other areas of the body are called metastatic cancers. The signs and symptoms of metastatic cancer depend on where the disease has spread. If prostate cancer spreads, cancerous cells most often appear in the lymph nodes, bones, lungs, liver, or brain.
Prostate cancer, hereditary, 1
MedGen UID:
1648436
Concept ID:
C4722327
Neoplastic Process
Some cancerous tumors can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Tumors that begin at one site and then spread to other areas of the body are called metastatic cancers. The signs and symptoms of metastatic cancer depend on where the disease has spread. If prostate cancer spreads, cancerous cells most often appear in the lymph nodes, bones, lungs, liver, or brain. \n\nThe severity and outcome of prostate cancer varies widely. Early-stage prostate cancer can usually be treated successfully, and some older men have prostate tumors that grow so slowly that they may never cause health problems during their lifetime, even without treatment. In other men, however, the cancer is much more aggressive; in these cases, prostate cancer can be life-threatening.\n\nEarly prostate cancer usually does not cause pain, and most affected men exhibit no noticeable symptoms. Men are often diagnosed as the result of health screenings, such as a blood test for a substance called prostate specific antigen (PSA) or a medical exam called a digital rectal exam (DRE). As the tumor grows larger, signs and symptoms can include difficulty starting or stopping the flow of urine, a feeling of not being able to empty the bladder completely, blood in the urine or semen, or pain with ejaculation. However, these changes can also occur with many other genitourinary conditions. Having one or more of these symptoms does not necessarily mean that a man has prostate cancer.\n\nA small percentage of prostate cancers are hereditary and occur in families. These hereditary cancers are associated with inherited gene variants. Hereditary prostate cancers tend to develop earlier in life than non-inherited (sporadic) cases.\n\nProstate cancer is a common disease that affects men, usually in middle age or later. In this disorder, certain cells in the prostate become abnormal, multiply without control or order, and form a tumor. The prostate is a gland that surrounds the male urethra and helps produce semen, the fluid that carries sperm.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Chiu PKF, Lee EKC, Chan MTY, Chan WHC, Cheung MH, Lam MHC, Ma ESK, Poon DMC
Front Oncol 2022;12:962958. Epub 2022 Jul 18 doi: 10.3389/fonc.2022.962958. PMID: 35924163Free PMC Article
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J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 10;39(11):1274-1305. Epub 2021 Jan 26 doi: 10.1200/JCO.20.03256. PMID: 33497248
Eggener SE, Rumble RB, Armstrong AJ, Morgan TM, Crispino T, Cornford P, van der Kwast T, Grignon DJ, Rai AJ, Agarwal N, Klein EA, Den RB, Beltran H
J Clin Oncol 2020 May 1;38(13):1474-1494. Epub 2019 Dec 12 doi: 10.1200/JCO.19.02768. PMID: 31829902
Hampel H, Bennett RL, Buchanan A, Pearlman R, Wiesner GL; Guideline Development Group, American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics Professional Practice and Guidelines Committee and National Society of Genetic Counselors Practice Guidelines Committee.
Genet Med 2015 Jan;17(1):70-87. Epub 2014 Nov 13 doi: 10.1038/gim.2014.147. PMID: 25394175
Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP) Working Group.
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Sturgeon CM, Duffy MJ, Stenman UH, Lilja H, Brünner N, Chan DW, Babaian R, Bast RC Jr, Dowell B, Esteva FJ, Haglund C, Harbeck N, Hayes DF, Holten-Andersen M, Klee GG, Lamerz R, Looijenga LH, Molina R, Nielsen HJ, Rittenhouse H, Semjonow A, Shih IeM, Sibley P, Sölétormos G, Stephan C, Sokoll L, Hoffman BR, Diamandis EP; National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry.
Clin Chem 2008 Dec;54(12):e11-79. doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2008.105601. PMID: 19042984

External

NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology, Prostate Cancer, Version 4.2022

Suggested Reading

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Xu Y, Li Z, Shi J, Fu Y, Zhu L, Fan X, Foo WC
Virchows Arch 2021 Apr;478(4):619-626. Epub 2020 Aug 20 doi: 10.1007/s00428-020-02909-2. PMID: 32820389
Bakhshwin A, Berry RS, Cox RM, Li R, Reynolds JP, Rubin BP, McKenney JK
Pathology 2020 Oct;52(6):643-648. Epub 2020 Aug 2 doi: 10.1016/j.pathol.2020.06.004. PMID: 32758370
Janiczek M, Szylberg Ł, Antosik P, Kasperska A, Marszałek A
J Immunol Res 2020;2020:4910595. Epub 2020 May 25 doi: 10.1155/2020/4910595. PMID: 32537467Free PMC Article
Dinis Fernandes C, van Houdt PJ, Heijmink SWTPJ, Walraven I, Keesman R, Smolic M, Ghobadi G, van der Poel HG, Schoots IG, Pos FJ, van der Heide UA
J Magn Reson Imaging 2019 Jul;50(1):269-278. Epub 2018 Dec 25 doi: 10.1002/jmri.26581. PMID: 30585368Free PMC Article
Smrkolj T, Gubina B, Bizjak J, Kumer K, Fabjan T, Osredkar J
Adv Clin Exp Med 2017 Oct;26(7):1085-1090. doi: 10.17219/acem/65432. PMID: 29211355

Diagnosis

Xu Y, Li Z, Shi J, Fu Y, Zhu L, Fan X, Foo WC
Virchows Arch 2021 Apr;478(4):619-626. Epub 2020 Aug 20 doi: 10.1007/s00428-020-02909-2. PMID: 32820389
Bakhshwin A, Berry RS, Cox RM, Li R, Reynolds JP, Rubin BP, McKenney JK
Pathology 2020 Oct;52(6):643-648. Epub 2020 Aug 2 doi: 10.1016/j.pathol.2020.06.004. PMID: 32758370
Zhang X, Hu J, Xu X, Cheng L
Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2020 Feb;63(Supplement):S50-S52. doi: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_427_18. PMID: 32108628
Smrkolj T, Gubina B, Bizjak J, Kumer K, Fabjan T, Osredkar J
Adv Clin Exp Med 2017 Oct;26(7):1085-1090. doi: 10.17219/acem/65432. PMID: 29211355
Ronchi A, La Mantia E, Gigantino V, Perdonà S, De Sio M, Facchini G, Franco R, De Chiara A
Diagn Pathol 2017 Jul 7;12(1):50. doi: 10.1186/s13000-017-0640-5. PMID: 28687087Free PMC Article

Therapy

Kulkarni P, Dasgupta P, Bhat NS, Hashimoto Y, Saini S, Shahryari V, Yamamura S, Shiina M, Tanaka Y, Dahiya R, Majid S
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2020 Dec 15;409:115308. Epub 2020 Oct 29 doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2020.115308. PMID: 33129824Free PMC Article
Yan H, Dittmar F, Schagdarsurengin U, Wagenlehner F
Urology 2020 Nov;145:30-37. Epub 2020 Jul 4 doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2020.06.039. PMID: 32634447
Wei SC, Li WH, Xu L, Li WW
Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 May;98(18):e15332. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000015332. PMID: 31045773Free PMC Article
Dinis Fernandes C, van Houdt PJ, Heijmink SWTPJ, Walraven I, Keesman R, Smolic M, Ghobadi G, van der Poel HG, Schoots IG, Pos FJ, van der Heide UA
J Magn Reson Imaging 2019 Jul;50(1):269-278. Epub 2018 Dec 25 doi: 10.1002/jmri.26581. PMID: 30585368Free PMC Article
Kim H, Kim DY, Seol YM, Ku JY, Choi KU, Choi YJ
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Sep;97(39):e12040. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000012040. PMID: 30278486Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Rezaei SD, Hayward JA, Norden S, Pedersen J, Mills J, Hearps AC, Tachedjian G
Viruses 2021 Mar 10;13(3) doi: 10.3390/v13030449. PMID: 33802118Free PMC Article
Xu Y, Li Z, Shi J, Fu Y, Zhu L, Fan X, Foo WC
Virchows Arch 2021 Apr;478(4):619-626. Epub 2020 Aug 20 doi: 10.1007/s00428-020-02909-2. PMID: 32820389
Bakhshwin A, Berry RS, Cox RM, Li R, Reynolds JP, Rubin BP, McKenney JK
Pathology 2020 Oct;52(6):643-648. Epub 2020 Aug 2 doi: 10.1016/j.pathol.2020.06.004. PMID: 32758370
Li Q, Shi Y, Sa R, Hao J, Hu J, Xiao M, Wang C, Yan L, Qiao B, Chen G
BMC Cancer 2020 Jun 15;20(1):555. doi: 10.1186/s12885-020-07049-z. PMID: 32539763Free PMC Article
Zhang X, Hu J, Xu X, Cheng L
Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2020 Feb;63(Supplement):S50-S52. doi: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_427_18. PMID: 32108628

Clinical prediction guides

Li Q, Shi Y, Sa R, Hao J, Hu J, Xiao M, Wang C, Yan L, Qiao B, Chen G
BMC Cancer 2020 Jun 15;20(1):555. doi: 10.1186/s12885-020-07049-z. PMID: 32539763Free PMC Article
Janiczek M, Szylberg Ł, Antosik P, Kasperska A, Marszałek A
J Immunol Res 2020;2020:4910595. Epub 2020 May 25 doi: 10.1155/2020/4910595. PMID: 32537467Free PMC Article
Smrkolj T, Gubina B, Bizjak J, Kumer K, Fabjan T, Osredkar J
Adv Clin Exp Med 2017 Oct;26(7):1085-1090. doi: 10.17219/acem/65432. PMID: 29211355
Ronchi A, La Mantia E, Gigantino V, Perdonà S, De Sio M, Facchini G, Franco R, De Chiara A
Diagn Pathol 2017 Jul 7;12(1):50. doi: 10.1186/s13000-017-0640-5. PMID: 28687087Free PMC Article
Norström MM, Rådestad E, Sundberg B, Mattsson J, Henningsohn L, Levitsky V, Uhlin M
Oncotarget 2016 Apr 26;7(17):23581-93. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8051. PMID: 26993768Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Bansal N, Kumar M, Sankhwar SN, Gupta A
Expert Rev Mol Med 2022 Jun 22;24:e25. doi: 10.1017/erm.2022.20. PMID: 35730322
Cattelan L, Abi-Rafeh J, Brimo F, Kazan R, Redpath M, Chergui M
Am J Dermatopathol 2020 Sep;42(9):700-705. doi: 10.1097/DAD.0000000000001633. PMID: 32568842
Wang N, Xu L, Wang JS, Yu XD, Chu LY, Deng S, Ge FX, Li HS
Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Nov;98(44):e17624. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000017624. PMID: 31689770Free PMC Article
van den Bergh RC, Ahmed HU, Bangma CH, Cooperberg MR, Villers A, Parker CC
Eur Urol 2014 Jun;65(6):1023-31. Epub 2014 Jan 28 doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2014.01.027. PMID: 24491309
Botelho F, Pina F, Lunet N
Eur J Cancer Prev 2010 Sep;19(5):385-92. doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0b013e32833b48e1. PMID: 20502342

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