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Walker-Warburg congenital muscular dystrophy(MDDGA1)

MedGen UID:
75553
Concept ID:
C0265221
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Hard syndrome; MDDGA1; Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy, type A; Walker-Warburg syndrome
Modes of inheritance:
Heterogeneous
MedGen UID:
67020
Concept ID:
C0242960
Organism Attribute
Source: HPO
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in homozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, autosomal recessive disorders manifest in homozygotes (with two copies of the mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Autosomal recessive inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
SNOMED CT: Hydrocephalus, agyria and retinal dysplasia (111504002); Walker Warburg syndrome (111504002); HARD - Hydrocephalus, agyria and retinal dysplasia (111504002); Warburg syndrome (91064002); Hard E syndrome (91064002); Walker-Warburg congenital muscular dystrophy (111504002)
 
OMIM®: 236670; 607423
OMIM® Phenotypic series: PS236670
Orphanet: ORPHA899

Definition

Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited muscle disorders. Muscle weakness typically presents from birth to early infancy. Affected infants typically appear "floppy" with low muscle tone and poor spontaneous movements. Affected children may present with delay or arrest of gross motor development together with joint and/or spinal rigidity. Muscle weakness may improve, worsen, or stabilize in the short term; however, with time progressive weakness and joint contractures, spinal deformities, and respiratory compromise may affect quality of life and life span. The main CMD subtypes, grouped by involved protein function and gene in which causative allelic variants occur, are laminin alpha-2 (merosin) deficiency (MDC1A), collagen VI-deficient CMD, the dystroglycanopathies (caused by mutation of POMT1, POMT2, FKTN, FKRP, LARGE1, POMGNT1, and ISPD), SELENON (SEPN1)-related CMD (previously known as rigid spine syndrome, RSMD1) and LMNA-related CMD (L-CMD). Several less known CMD subtypes have been reported in a limited number of individuals. Cognitive impairment ranging from intellectual disability to mild cognitive delay, structural brain and/or eye abnormalities, and seizures are found almost exclusively in the dystroglycanopathies while white matter abnormalities without major cognitive involvement tend to be seen in the laminin alpha-2-deficient subtype. [from GTR]

Additional descriptions

From GeneReviews
Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited muscle disorders. Muscle weakness typically presents from birth to early infancy. Affected infants typically appear "floppy" with low muscle tone and poor spontaneous movements. Affected children may present with delay or arrest of gross motor development together with joint and/or spinal rigidity. Muscle weakness may improve, worsen, or stabilize in the short term; however, with time progressive weakness and joint contractures, spinal deformities, and respiratory compromise may affect quality of life and life span. The main CMD subtypes, grouped by involved protein function and gene in which causative allelic variants occur, are laminin alpha-2 (merosin) deficiency (MDC1A), collagen VI-deficient CMD, the dystroglycanopathies (caused by mutation of POMT1, POMT2, FKTN, FKRP, LARGE1, POMGNT1, and ISPD), SELENON (SEPN1)-related CMD (previously known as rigid spine syndrome, RSMD1) and LMNA-related CMD (L-CMD). Several less known CMD subtypes have been reported in a limited number of individuals. Cognitive impairment ranging from intellectual disability to mild cognitive delay, structural brain and/or eye abnormalities, and seizures are found almost exclusively in the dystroglycanopathies while white matter abnormalities without major cognitive involvement tend to be seen in the laminin alpha-2-deficient subtype.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1291
From GHR
Walker-Warburg syndrome is an inherited disorder that affects development of the muscles, brain, and eyes. It is the most severe of a group of genetic conditions known as congenital muscular dystrophies, which cause muscle weakness and wasting (atrophy) beginning very early in life. The signs and symptoms of Walker-Warburg syndrome are present at birth or in early infancy. Because of the severity of the problems caused by Walker-Warburg syndrome, most affected individuals do not survive past age 3.Walker-Warburg syndrome affects the skeletal muscles, which are muscles the body uses for movement. Affected babies have weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and are sometimes described as "floppy." The muscle weakness worsens over time.Walker-Warburg syndrome also affects the brain; individuals with this condition typically have a brain abnormality called cobblestone lissencephaly, in which the surface of the brain lacks the normal folds and grooves and instead develops a bumpy, irregular appearance (like that of cobblestones). These individuals may also have a buildup of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus) or abnormalities of certain parts of the brain, including a region called the cerebellum and the part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord (the brainstem). These changes in the structure of the brain lead to significantly delayed development and intellectual disability. Some individuals with Walker-Warburg syndrome experience seizures.Eye abnormalities are also characteristic of Walker-Warburg syndrome. These can include unusually small eyeballs (microphthalmia), enlarged eyeballs caused by increased pressure in the eyes (buphthalmos), clouding of the lenses of the eyes (cataracts), and problems with the nerve that relays visual information from the eyes to the brain (the optic nerve). These eye problems lead to vision impairment in affected individuals.  https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/walker-warburg-syndrome

Clinical features

Microphthalmos
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.People with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.People with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.Between one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
Retinal degeneration
MedGen UID:
48432
Concept ID:
C0035304
Finding
A deterioration of the retina. This nonspecific term is retained here because of its wide use in the literature, but if possible new annotations should indicate the precise type of retinal abnormality.
Retinal detachment
MedGen UID:
19759
Concept ID:
C0035305
Disease or Syndrome
Primary or spontaneous detachment of the retina occurs due to underlying ocular disease and often involves the vitreous as well as the retina. The precipitating event is formation of a retinal tear or hole, which permits fluid to accumulate under the sensory layers of the retina and creates an intraretinal cleavage that destroys the neurosensory process of visual reception. Vitreoretinal degeneration and tear formation are painless phenomena, and in most cases, significant vitreoretinal pathology is found only after detachment of the retina starts to cause loss of vision or visual field. Without surgical intervention, retinal detachment will almost inevitably lead to total blindness (summary by McNiel and McPherson, 1971).
Retinal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
48433
Concept ID:
C0035313
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital, often bilateral, retinal abnormality characterized by the arrangement of outer nuclear retinal cells in a palisading or radiating pattern surrounding a central ocular space. This disorder is sometimes hereditary.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Acquired Abnormality
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Optic nerve hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
137901
Concept ID:
C0338502
Disease or Syndrome
A congenital abnormality characterized by the underdevelopment of the optic nerve.
Irido-corneo-trabecular dysgenesis
MedGen UID:
91031
Concept ID:
C0344559
Congenital Abnormality
Anterior segment dysgeneses (ASGD or ASMD) are a heterogeneous group of developmental disorders affecting the anterior segment of the eye, including the cornea, iris, lens, trabecular meshwork, and Schlemm canal. The clinical features of ASGD include iris hypoplasia, an enlarged or reduced corneal diameter, corneal vascularization and opacity, posterior embryotoxon, corectopia, polycoria, an abnormal iridocorneal angle, ectopia lentis, and anterior synechiae between the iris and posterior corneal surface (summary by Cheong et al., 2016). Anterior segment dysgenesis is sometimes divided into subtypes including aniridia (see 106210), Axenfeld and Rieger anomalies, iridogoniodysgenesis, Peters anomaly, and posterior embryotoxon (Gould and John, 2002). Patients with ASGD5 have been reported with the Peters anomaly, Axenfeld anomaly, and Rieger anomaly subtypes. Peters anomaly consists of a central corneal leukoma, absence of the posterior corneal stroma and Descemet membrane, and a variable degree of iris and lenticular attachments to the central aspect of the posterior cornea (Peters, 1906). It occurs as an isolated ocular abnormality or in association with other ocular defects. In Axenfeld anomaly, strands of iris tissue attach to the Schwalbe line; in Rieger anomaly, in addition to the attachment of iris tissue to the Schwalbe line, there is clinically evident iris stromal atrophy with hole or pseudo-hole formation and corectopia (summary by Smith and Traboulsi, 2012).
Large eyes
MedGen UID:
602165
Concept ID:
C0423221
Finding
Buphthalmos refers to a congenital open-angle glaucoma of the eye. The term buphthalmos (from Greek 'bous' or ox and 'ophthalmos' or eye) is descriptive of an enlarged eyeglobe resulting from increased intraocular pressure. The eyeglobe is especially prone to distension in newborns and infants because its collagen filaments are not as rigid as in adults and may easily be stretched.
Blindness
MedGen UID:
99138
Concept ID:
C0456909
Finding
Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors.
Corneal clouding
MedGen UID:
636782
Concept ID:
C0521719
Disease or Syndrome
A reduction of corneal clarity.
Megalocornea
MedGen UID:
223913
Concept ID:
C1167712
Finding
An enlargement of the cornea with normal clarity and function. Megalocornea is diagnosed with a horizontal corneal diameter of 12 mm or more at birth or 13 mm or more after two years of age.
Renal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
760690
Concept ID:
C3536714
Congenital Abnormality
A developmental defect characterized by absence or poor development of proximal renal tubules.
Imperforate anus
MedGen UID:
1997
Concept ID:
C0003466
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality characterized by the persistence of the anal membrane, resulting in a thin membrane covering the normal ANAL CANAL. Imperforation is not always complete and is treated by surgery in infancy. This defect is often associated with NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS; MENTAL RETARDATION; and DOWN SYNDROME.
Microtia
MedGen UID:
57535
Concept ID:
C0152423
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the external ear.
Atresia of the external auditory canal
MedGen UID:
400938
Concept ID:
C1866190
Anatomical Abnormality
Absence or failure to form of the external auditory canal.
Dandy-Walker syndrome
MedGen UID:
4150
Concept ID:
C0010964
Disease or Syndrome
Dandy-Walker malformation is defined by hypoplasia and upward rotation of the cerebellar vermis and cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle. Affected individuals often have motor deficits such as delayed motor development, hypotonia, and ataxia; about half have mental retardation and some have hydrocephalus. DWM is a heterogeneous disorder. The low empiric recurrence risk of approximately 1 to 2% for nonsyndromic DWM suggests that mendelian inheritance is unlikely (summary by Murray et al., 1985).
Occipital encephalocele
MedGen UID:
4935
Concept ID:
C0014067
Congenital Abnormality
A type of encephalocele (that is, a a protrusion of part of the cranial contents including brain tissue through a congenital opening in the cranium, typically covered with skin or mucous membrane) in the occipital region of the skull. Occipital encephalocele presents as a midline swelling over the occipital bone. It is usually covered with normal full-thickness scalp.
Seizure Disorders
MedGen UID:
4506
Concept ID:
C0014544
Disease or Syndrome
A brain disorder characterized by episodes of abnormally increased neuronal discharge resulting in transient episodes of sensory or motor neurological dysfunction, or psychic dysfunction. These episodes may or may not be associated with loss of consciousness or convulsions.
Hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
9335
Concept ID:
C0020255
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hydrocephalus is characterized by onset in utero of enlarged ventricles due to a disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid accumulation. Affected individuals may have neurologic impairment (summary by Drielsma et al., 2012). Hydrocephalus can also be caused by Arnold-Chiari malformation, atresia of foramen of Magendie, stenosis of aqueduct of Sylvius (307000), toxoplasmosis, hydranencephaly, etc. Furthermore, it develops in infancy or childhood in achondroplasia (100800) and in Hurler disease (607014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Hydrocephalus See also autosomal recessive HYC2 (615219), caused by mutation in the MPDZ gene (603785) on chromosome 9p. An X-linked form (307000) is caused by mutation in the L1CAM gene on (308840) on chromosome Xq28.
Intellectual disability, profound
MedGen UID:
43816
Concept ID:
C0020796
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Profound mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) below 20.
Intellectual disability, severe
MedGen UID:
48638
Concept ID:
C0036857
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Severe mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 20-34.
Corpus callosum agenesis
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Meningoencephalocele
MedGen UID:
82743
Concept ID:
C0266456
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital neural tube closure defect resulting in the protrusion of the brain and meninges through a skull opening.
Polymicrogyria
MedGen UID:
78605
Concept ID:
C0266464
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality of the cerebral hemisphere characterized by an excessive number of small gyri (convolutions) on the surface of the brain.
Congenital cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120578
Concept ID:
C0266470
Congenital Abnormality
Hypoplasia of the cerebellum that is associated with inherited metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative disorders. Signs and symptoms include mental and developmental delays, walking and balance difficulties, floppy muscle tone, and seizures.
Macrogyria
MedGen UID:
120579
Concept ID:
C0266483
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality of the cerebral hemisphere chacterized by unusually thick gyrations (convolutions) of the cerebral cortex.
Optic nerve hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
137901
Concept ID:
C0338502
Disease or Syndrome
A congenital abnormality characterized by the underdevelopment of the optic nerve.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Type II lissencephaly
MedGen UID:
96562
Concept ID:
C0431376
Congenital Abnormality
A form of lissencephaly characterized by an uneven cortical surface with a so called 'cobblestone' appearace. There are no distinguishable cortical layers.
Excessive daytime sleepiness
MedGen UID:
151959
Concept ID:
C0694563
Sign or Symptom
Hypoplasia of the brainstem
MedGen UID:
334226
Concept ID:
C1842688
Finding
Underdevelopment of the brainstem.
Posterior fossa cyst
MedGen UID:
341753
Concept ID:
C1857353
Finding
A discrete posterior fossa cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection that does not communicate directly with the fourth ventricle.
Cognitive delay
MedGen UID:
351243
Concept ID:
C1864897
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Cerebellar dysplasia
MedGen UID:
479952
Concept ID:
C3278322
Finding
The presence of developmental dysplasia of the cerebellum.
Thick cerebral cortex
MedGen UID:
429066
Concept ID:
CN006007
Finding
Hypoplastic male external genitalia
MedGen UID:
338952
Concept ID:
C1852534
Finding
Underdevelopment of part or all of the male external reproductive organs (which include the penis, the scrotum and the urethra).
Renal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
760690
Concept ID:
C3536714
Congenital Abnormality
A developmental defect characterized by absence or poor development of proximal renal tubules.
Congenital contracture
MedGen UID:
83066
Concept ID:
C0332878
Congenital Abnormality
One or more flexion contractures (a bent joint that cannot be straightened actively or passively) that are present at birth.
Congenital muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
147063
Concept ID:
C0699743
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited muscle disorders. Muscle weakness typically presents from birth to early infancy. Affected infants typically appear "floppy" with low muscle tone and poor spontaneous movements. Affected children may present with delay or arrest of gross motor development together with joint and/or spinal rigidity. Muscle weakness may improve, worsen, or stabilize in the short term; however, with time progressive weakness and joint contractures, spinal deformities, and respiratory compromise may affect quality of life and life span. The main CMD subtypes, grouped by involved protein function and gene in which causative allelic variants occur, are laminin alpha-2 (merosin) deficiency (MDC1A), collagen VI-deficient CMD, the dystroglycanopathies (caused by mutation of POMT1, POMT2, FKTN, FKRP, LARGE1, POMGNT1, and ISPD), SELENON (SEPN1)-related CMD (previously known as rigid spine syndrome, RSMD1) and LMNA-related CMD (L-CMD). Several less known CMD subtypes have been reported in a limited number of individuals. Cognitive impairment ranging from intellectual disability to mild cognitive delay, structural brain and/or eye abnormalities, and seizures are found almost exclusively in the dystroglycanopathies while white matter abnormalities without major cognitive involvement tend to be seen in the laminin alpha-2-deficient subtype.
Severe muscular hypotonia
MedGen UID:
326544
Concept ID:
C1839630
Finding
A severe degree of muscular hypotonia characterized by markedly reduced muscle tone.
Creatine phosphokinase, elevated serum
MedGen UID:
69128
Concept ID:
C0241005
Finding
The caveolinopathies, a group of muscle diseases, can be classified into five phenotypes, which can be seen in different members of the same family: Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1C (LGMD1C), characterized by onset usually in the first decade, mild-to-moderate proximal muscle weakness, calf hypertrophy, positive Gower sign, and variable muscle cramps after exercise. Isolated hyperCKemia (i.e., elevated serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK) in the absence of signs of muscle disease) (HCK). Rippling muscle disease (RMD), characterized by signs of increased muscle irritability, such as percussion-induced rapid contraction (PIRC), percussion-induced muscle mounding (PIMM), and/or electrically silent muscle contractions (rippling muscle). Distal myopathy (DM), observed in one individual only Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), without skeletal muscle manifestations.
Dandy-Walker syndrome
MedGen UID:
4150
Concept ID:
C0010964
Disease or Syndrome
Dandy-Walker malformation is defined by hypoplasia and upward rotation of the cerebellar vermis and cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle. Affected individuals often have motor deficits such as delayed motor development, hypotonia, and ataxia; about half have mental retardation and some have hydrocephalus. DWM is a heterogeneous disorder. The low empiric recurrence risk of approximately 1 to 2% for nonsyndromic DWM suggests that mendelian inheritance is unlikely (summary by Murray et al., 1985).
Occipital encephalocele
MedGen UID:
4935
Concept ID:
C0014067
Congenital Abnormality
A type of encephalocele (that is, a a protrusion of part of the cranial contents including brain tissue through a congenital opening in the cranium, typically covered with skin or mucous membrane) in the occipital region of the skull. Occipital encephalocele presents as a midline swelling over the occipital bone. It is usually covered with normal full-thickness scalp.
Meningoencephalocele
MedGen UID:
82743
Concept ID:
C0266456
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital neural tube closure defect resulting in the protrusion of the brain and meninges through a skull opening.
Congenital contracture
MedGen UID:
83066
Concept ID:
C0332878
Congenital Abnormality
One or more flexion contractures (a bent joint that cannot be straightened actively or passively) that are present at birth.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Posterior fossa cyst
MedGen UID:
341753
Concept ID:
C1857353
Finding
A discrete posterior fossa cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection that does not communicate directly with the fourth ventricle.
Congenital ocular coloboma
MedGen UID:
1046
Concept ID:
C0009363
Congenital Abnormality
Coloboma is an ocular birth defect resulting from abnormal development of the eye during embryogenesis. It is defined as a congenital defect in any ocular tissue, typically presenting as absent tissue or a gap, at a site consistent with aberrant closure of the optic fissure. Failure of fusion can lead to coloboma of one or multiple regions of the inferior portion of the eye affecting any part of the globe traversed by the fissure, from the iris to the optic nerve, including the ciliary body, retina, and choroid. Coloboma is also frequently associated with small (microphthalmic) or absent (anophthalmic) eyes as part of an interrelated spectrum of developmental eye anomalies, and can affect either one or both eyes (summary by Kelberman et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Ocular Coloboma A recessive form of ocular coloboma (216820) is caused by mutation in the SALL2 gene (602219) on chromosome 14q11.
Dandy-Walker syndrome
MedGen UID:
4150
Concept ID:
C0010964
Disease or Syndrome
Dandy-Walker malformation is defined by hypoplasia and upward rotation of the cerebellar vermis and cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle. Affected individuals often have motor deficits such as delayed motor development, hypotonia, and ataxia; about half have mental retardation and some have hydrocephalus. DWM is a heterogeneous disorder. The low empiric recurrence risk of approximately 1 to 2% for nonsyndromic DWM suggests that mendelian inheritance is unlikely (summary by Murray et al., 1985).
Occipital encephalocele
MedGen UID:
4935
Concept ID:
C0014067
Congenital Abnormality
A type of encephalocele (that is, a a protrusion of part of the cranial contents including brain tissue through a congenital opening in the cranium, typically covered with skin or mucous membrane) in the occipital region of the skull. Occipital encephalocele presents as a midline swelling over the occipital bone. It is usually covered with normal full-thickness scalp.
Microphthalmos
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.People with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.People with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.Between one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Meningoencephalocele
MedGen UID:
82743
Concept ID:
C0266456
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital neural tube closure defect resulting in the protrusion of the brain and meninges through a skull opening.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Posterior fossa cyst
MedGen UID:
341753
Concept ID:
C1857353
Finding
A discrete posterior fossa cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection that does not communicate directly with the fourth ventricle.
Cleft secondary palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Cleft upper lip
MedGen UID:
892653
Concept ID:
C4020893
A gap in the upper lip. This is a congenital defect resulting from nonfusion of tissues of the lip during embryonal development.
Congenital contracture
MedGen UID:
83066
Concept ID:
C0332878
Congenital Abnormality
One or more flexion contractures (a bent joint that cannot be straightened actively or passively) that are present at birth.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVWalker-Warburg congenital muscular dystrophy

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Wallace SE, Conta JH, Winder TL, Willer T, Eskuri JM, Haas R, Patterson K, Campbell KP, Moore SA, Gospe SM Jr
Neuromuscul Disord 2014 Apr;24(4):312-20. Epub 2014 Jan 11 doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2014.01.001. PMID: 24491487Free PMC Article
Buysse K, Riemersma M, Powell G, van Reeuwijk J, Chitayat D, Roscioli T, Kamsteeg EJ, van den Elzen C, van Beusekom E, Blaser S, Babul-Hirji R, Halliday W, Wright GJ, Stemple DL, Lin YY, Lefeber DJ, van Bokhoven H
Hum Mol Genet 2013 May 1;22(9):1746-54. Epub 2013 Jan 28 doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddt021. PMID: 23359570Free PMC Article
Willer T, Lee H, Lommel M, Yoshida-Moriguchi T, de Bernabe DB, Venzke D, Cirak S, Schachter H, Vajsar J, Voit T, Muntoni F, Loder AS, Dobyns WB, Winder TL, Strahl S, Mathews KD, Nelson SF, Moore SA, Campbell KP
Nat Genet 2012 May;44(5):575-80. doi: 10.1038/ng.2252. PMID: 22522420Free PMC Article
Preuss M, Heckmann M, Stein M, Nestler U
Pediatr Neurosurg 2010;46(1):34-8. Epub 2010 May 27 doi: 10.1159/000314999. PMID: 20516736
Van Reeuwijk J, Olderode-Berends MJ, Van den Elzen C, Brouwer OF, Roscioli T, Van Pampus MG, Scheffer H, Brunner HG, Van Bokhoven H, Hol FA
Clin Genet 2010 Sep;78(3):275-81. Epub 2010 Feb 11 doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2010.01384.x. PMID: 20236121

Diagnosis

Trkova M, Krutilkova V, Smetanova D, Becvarova V, Hlavova E, Jencikova N, Hodacova J, Hnykova L, Hroncova H, Horacek J, Stejskal D
Eur J Med Genet 2015 Aug;58(8):372-5. Epub 2015 Jun 16 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2015.05.004. PMID: 26087224
Lee CY
Hong Kong Med J 2014 Dec;20(6):556.e4-5. PMID: 25488038
Kose EA, Bakar B, Ates G, Aliefendioglu D, Apan A
Braz J Anesthesiol 2014 Mar-Apr;64(2):128-30. Epub 2013 Oct 11 doi: 10.1016/j.bjane.2012.12.002. PMID: 24794457
Czeschik JC, Hehr U, Hartmann B, Lüdecke HJ, Rosenbaum T, Schweiger B, Wieczorek D
Eur J Med Genet 2013 Dec;56(12):689-94. Epub 2013 Oct 10 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2013.09.014. PMID: 24120487
Brasseur-Daudruy M, Vivier PH, Ickowicz V, Eurin D, Verspyck E
Pediatr Radiol 2012 Apr;42(4):488-90. Epub 2011 Oct 15 doi: 10.1007/s00247-011-2242-9. PMID: 22002842

Therapy

Touznik A, Lee JJ, Yokota T
Expert Opin Biol Ther 2014 Jun;14(6):809-19. Epub 2014 Mar 12 doi: 10.1517/14712598.2014.896335. PMID: 24620745
Taniguchi-Ikeda M, Kobayashi K, Kanagawa M, Yu CC, Mori K, Oda T, Kuga A, Kurahashi H, Akman HO, DiMauro S, Kaji R, Yokota T, Takeda S, Toda T
Nature 2011 Oct 5;478(7367):127-31. doi: 10.1038/nature10456. PMID: 21979053Free PMC Article
Di Rosa G, Messina S, D'Amico A, Bertini E, Pustorino G, Spanò M, Tortorella G
Epileptic Disord 2011 Sep;13(3):259-62. doi: 10.1684/epd.2011.0461. PMID: 21914590
Sahajananda H, Meneges J
Paediatr Anaesth 2003 Sep;13(7):624-8. PMID: 12950865
Philpot J, Cowan F, Pennock J, Sewry C, Dubowitz V, Bydder G, Muntoni F
Neuromuscul Disord 1999 Mar;9(2):81-5. PMID: 10220862

Prognosis

Czeschik JC, Hehr U, Hartmann B, Lüdecke HJ, Rosenbaum T, Schweiger B, Wieczorek D
Eur J Med Genet 2013 Dec;56(12):689-94. Epub 2013 Oct 10 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2013.09.014. PMID: 24120487
Preuss M, Heckmann M, Stein M, Nestler U
Pediatr Neurosurg 2010;46(1):34-8. Epub 2010 May 27 doi: 10.1159/000314999. PMID: 20516736
Van Reeuwijk J, Olderode-Berends MJ, Van den Elzen C, Brouwer OF, Roscioli T, Van Pampus MG, Scheffer H, Brunner HG, Van Bokhoven H, Hol FA
Clin Genet 2010 Sep;78(3):275-81. Epub 2010 Feb 11 doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.2010.01384.x. PMID: 20236121
Chang W, Winder TL, LeDuc CA, Simpson LL, Millar WS, Dungan J, Ginsberg N, Plaga S, Moore SA, Chung WK
Prenat Diagn 2009 Jun;29(6):560-9. doi: 10.1002/pd.2238. PMID: 19266496Free PMC Article
Pratap A, Agrawal A, Tiwari A, Lakshmi R, Rajbanshi S
Singapore Med J 2007 Feb;48(2):e66-7. PMID: 17304384

Clinical prediction guides

Geis T, Marquard K, Rödl T, Reihle C, Schirmer S, von Kalle T, Bornemann A, Hehr U, Blankenburg M
Neurogenetics 2013 Nov;14(3-4):205-13. Epub 2013 Sep 20 doi: 10.1007/s10048-013-0374-9. PMID: 24052401
Manzini MC, Tambunan DE, Hill RS, Yu TW, Maynard TM, Heinzen EL, Shianna KV, Stevens CR, Partlow JN, Barry BJ, Rodriguez J, Gupta VA, Al-Qudah AK, Eyaid WM, Friedman JM, Salih MA, Clark R, Moroni I, Mora M, Beggs AH, Gabriel SB, Walsh CA
Am J Hum Genet 2012 Sep 7;91(3):541-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.07.009. PMID: 22958903Free PMC Article
Currier SC, Lee CK, Chang BS, Bodell AL, Pai GS, Job L, Lagae LG, Al-Gazali LI, Eyaid WM, Enns G, Dobyns WB, Walsh CA
Am J Med Genet A 2005 Feb 15;133A(1):53-7. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.30487. PMID: 15637732
Akasaka-Manya K, Manya H, Endo T
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004 Dec 3;325(1):75-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.10.001. PMID: 15522202
Willer T, Prados B, Falcón-Pérez JM, Renner-Müller I, Przemeck GK, Lommel M, Coloma A, Valero MC, de Angelis MH, Tanner W, Wolf E, Strahl S, Cruces J
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004 Sep 28;101(39):14126-31. Epub 2004 Sep 21 doi: 10.1073/pnas.0405899101. PMID: 15383666Free PMC Article

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