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Gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST)

MedGen UID:
116049
Concept ID:
C0238198
Neoplastic Process
Synonyms: Gastrointestinal Stromal Sarcoma; Gastrointestinal stromal tumor, somatic; GIST
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
Autosomal dominant inheritance refers to genetic conditions that occur when a mutation is present in one copy of a given gene (i.e., the person is heterozygous).
Sporadic
MedGen UID:
342827
Concept ID:
C1853237
Finding
Sources: HPO, OMIM
Cases of the disease in question occur without a previous family history, i.e., as isolated cases without being transmitted from a parent and without other siblings being affected.
not inherited
MedGen UID:
832438
Concept ID:
CN227390
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
Describes a disorder that is not inherited.
Autosomal dominant inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
Sporadic (HPO, OMIM)
not inherited (Orphanet)
SNOMED CT: Gastrointestinal pacemaker cell tumor (128755003); GIST (128755003); Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (128755003); Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (420120006); GIST - Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (420120006)
 
Genes (locations): KIT (4q12); PDGFRA (4q12); SDHB (1p36.13); SDHC (1q23.3)
OMIM®: 606764
HPO: HP:0100723
Orphanet: ORPHA44890

Definition

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors found in the gastrointestinal tract that originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal, the pacemaker cells that regulate peristalsis in the digestive tract. Approximately 70% of GISTs develop in the stomach, 20% in the small intestine, and less than 10% in the esophagus, colon, and rectum. GISTs are typically more cellular than other gastrointestinal sarcomas. They occur predominantly in patients who are 40 to 70 years old but in rare cases may occur in younger persons (Miettinen et al., 1999, 1999). GISTs can also be seen in neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1; 162200) due to mutations in the NF1 gene, and are thus distinct from the GISTs described here. Sandberg and Bridge (2002) reviewed the cytogenetics and molecular genetics of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Coffey et al. (2007) reviewed the clinical features, pathogenesis, and molecular treatments of Menetrier disease (137280) and GIST, both of which are hyperproliferative disorders of the stomach caused by dysregulated receptor tyrosine kinases. [from OMIM]

Additional description

From GHR
A gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a type of tumor that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly in the stomach or small intestine. The tumors are thought to grow from specialized cells found in the gastrointestinal tract called interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) or precursors to these cells. GISTs are usually found in adults between ages 40 and 70; rarely, children and young adults develop these tumors. The tumors can be cancerous (malignant) or noncancerous (benign).Small tumors may cause no signs or symptoms. However, some people with GISTs may experience pain or swelling in the abdomen, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, or weight loss. Sometimes, tumors cause bleeding, which may lead to low red blood cell counts (anemia) and, consequently, weakness and tiredness. Bleeding into the intestinal tract may cause black and tarry stools, and bleeding into the throat or stomach may cause vomiting of blood.Affected individuals with no family history of GIST typically have only one tumor (called a sporadic GIST). People with a family history of GISTs (called familial GISTs) often have multiple tumors and additional signs or symptoms, including noncancerous overgrowth (hyperplasia) of other cells in the gastrointestinal tract and patches of dark skin on various areas of the body. Some affected individuals have a skin condition called urticaria pigmentosa (also known as cutaneous mastocytosis), which is characterized by raised patches of brownish skin that sting or itch when touched.  https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor

Clinical features

Neurofibromas
MedGen UID:
58149
Concept ID:
C0162678
Neoplastic Process
Neurofibromatosis is a genetic disorder of the nervous system. It mainly affects how nerve cells form and grow. It causes tumors to grow on nerves. You can get neurofibromatosis from your parents, or it can happen because of a mutation (change) in your genes. Once you have it, you can pass it along to your children. Usually the tumors are benign, but sometimes they can become cancerous. There are three types of neurofibromatosis: . -Type 1 (NF1) causes skin changes and deformed bones. It usually starts in childhood. Sometimes the symptoms are present at birth. -Type 2 (NF2) causes hearing loss, ringing in the ears, and poor balance. Symptoms often start in the teen years. -Schwannomatosis causes intense pain. It is the rarest type. Doctors diagnose the different types based on the symptoms. Genetic testing is also used to diagnose NF1 and NF2. There is no cure. Treatment can help control symptoms. Depending on the type of disease and how serious it is, treatment may include surgery to remove tumors, radiation therapy, and medicines. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
MedGen UID:
116049
Concept ID:
C0238198
Neoplastic Process
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors found in the gastrointestinal tract that originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal, the pacemaker cells that regulate peristalsis in the digestive tract. Approximately 70% of GISTs develop in the stomach, 20% in the small intestine, and less than 10% in the esophagus, colon, and rectum. GISTs are typically more cellular than other gastrointestinal sarcomas. They occur predominantly in patients who are 40 to 70 years old but in rare cases may occur in younger persons (Miettinen et al., 1999, 1999). GISTs can also be seen in neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1; 162200) due to mutations in the NF1 gene, and are thus distinct from the GISTs described here. Sandberg and Bridge (2002) reviewed the cytogenetics and molecular genetics of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Coffey et al. (2007) reviewed the clinical features, pathogenesis, and molecular treatments of Menetrier disease (137280) and GIST, both of which are hyperproliferative disorders of the stomach caused by dysregulated receptor tyrosine kinases.
Large hands
MedGen UID:
98097
Concept ID:
C0426870
Finding
Urticaria
MedGen UID:
22587
Concept ID:
C0042109
Disease or Syndrome
Hives are red and sometimes itchy bumps on your skin. An allergic reaction to a drug or food usually causes them. Allergic reactions cause your body to release chemicals that can make your skin swell up in hives. People who have other allergies are more likely to get hives than other people. Other causes include infections and stress. Hives are very common. They usually go away on their own, but if you have a serious case, you might need medicine or a shot. In rare cases, hives can cause a dangerous swelling in your airways, making it hard to breathe - which is a medical emergency.
Constipation
MedGen UID:
1101
Concept ID:
C0009806
Sign or Symptom
Constipation means that a person has three or fewer bowel movements in a week. The stool can be hard and dry. Sometimes it is painful to pass. At one time or another, almost everyone gets constipated. In most cases, it lasts a short time and is not serious. . There are many things you can do to prevent constipation. They include - Eating more fruits, vegetables and grains, which are high in fiber. - Drinking plenty of water and other liquids. - Getting enough exercise. - Taking time to have a bowel movement when you need to. - Using laxatives only if your doctor says you should. - Asking your doctor if medicines you take may cause constipation. . It's not important that you have a bowel movement every day. If your bowel habits change, however, check with your doctor. . NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
If you have a swallowing disorder, you may have difficulty or pain when swallowing. Some people cannot swallow at all. Others may have trouble swallowing liquids, foods, or saliva. This makes it hard to eat. Often, it can be difficult to take in enough calories and fluids to nourish your body. Anyone can have a swallowing disorder, but it is more likely in the elderly. It often happens because of other conditions, including. - Nervous system disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and cerebral palsy. - Problems with your esophagus, including GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease). - Stroke. - Head or spinal cord injury. - Cancer of the head, neck, or esophagus. Medicines can help some people, while others may need surgery. Swallowing treatment with a speech-language pathologist can help. You may find it helpful to change your diet or hold your head or neck in a certain way when you eat. In very serious cases, people may need feeding tubes. NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders.
Intestinal obstruction
MedGen UID:
43933
Concept ID:
C0021843
Disease or Syndrome
An intestinal obstruction occurs when food or stool cannot move through the intestines. The obstruction can be complete or partial. There are many causes. The most common are adhesions, hernias, cancers, and certain medicines. . Symptoms include. -Severe abdominal pain or cramping . -Vomiting . -Bloating . -Loud bowel sounds . -Swelling of the abdomen . -Inability to pass gas . -Constipation. A complete intestinal obstruction is a medical emergency. It often requires surgery. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
MedGen UID:
116049
Concept ID:
C0238198
Neoplastic Process
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors found in the gastrointestinal tract that originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal, the pacemaker cells that regulate peristalsis in the digestive tract. Approximately 70% of GISTs develop in the stomach, 20% in the small intestine, and less than 10% in the esophagus, colon, and rectum. GISTs are typically more cellular than other gastrointestinal sarcomas. They occur predominantly in patients who are 40 to 70 years old but in rare cases may occur in younger persons (Miettinen et al., 1999, 1999). GISTs can also be seen in neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1; 162200) due to mutations in the NF1 gene, and are thus distinct from the GISTs described here. Sandberg and Bridge (2002) reviewed the cytogenetics and molecular genetics of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Coffey et al. (2007) reviewed the clinical features, pathogenesis, and molecular treatments of Menetrier disease (137280) and GIST, both of which are hyperproliferative disorders of the stomach caused by dysregulated receptor tyrosine kinases.
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
If you have a swallowing disorder, you may have difficulty or pain when swallowing. Some people cannot swallow at all. Others may have trouble swallowing liquids, foods, or saliva. This makes it hard to eat. Often, it can be difficult to take in enough calories and fluids to nourish your body. Anyone can have a swallowing disorder, but it is more likely in the elderly. It often happens because of other conditions, including. - Nervous system disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and cerebral palsy. - Problems with your esophagus, including GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease). - Stroke. - Head or spinal cord injury. - Cancer of the head, neck, or esophagus. Medicines can help some people, while others may need surgery. Swallowing treatment with a speech-language pathologist can help. You may find it helpful to change your diet or hold your head or neck in a certain way when you eat. In very serious cases, people may need feeding tubes. NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders.
Neurofibromas
MedGen UID:
58149
Concept ID:
C0162678
Neoplastic Process
Neurofibromatosis is a genetic disorder of the nervous system. It mainly affects how nerve cells form and grow. It causes tumors to grow on nerves. You can get neurofibromatosis from your parents, or it can happen because of a mutation (change) in your genes. Once you have it, you can pass it along to your children. Usually the tumors are benign, but sometimes they can become cancerous. There are three types of neurofibromatosis: . -Type 1 (NF1) causes skin changes and deformed bones. It usually starts in childhood. Sometimes the symptoms are present at birth. -Type 2 (NF2) causes hearing loss, ringing in the ears, and poor balance. Symptoms often start in the teen years. -Schwannomatosis causes intense pain. It is the rarest type. Doctors diagnose the different types based on the symptoms. Genetic testing is also used to diagnose NF1 and NF2. There is no cure. Treatment can help control symptoms. Depending on the type of disease and how serious it is, treatment may include surgery to remove tumors, radiation therapy, and medicines. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
Urticaria
MedGen UID:
22587
Concept ID:
C0042109
Disease or Syndrome
Hives are red and sometimes itchy bumps on your skin. An allergic reaction to a drug or food usually causes them. Allergic reactions cause your body to release chemicals that can make your skin swell up in hives. People who have other allergies are more likely to get hives than other people. Other causes include infections and stress. Hives are very common. They usually go away on their own, but if you have a serious case, you might need medicine or a shot. In rare cases, hives can cause a dangerous swelling in your airways, making it hard to breathe - which is a medical emergency.
Neurofibromas
MedGen UID:
58149
Concept ID:
C0162678
Neoplastic Process
Neurofibromatosis is a genetic disorder of the nervous system. It mainly affects how nerve cells form and grow. It causes tumors to grow on nerves. You can get neurofibromatosis from your parents, or it can happen because of a mutation (change) in your genes. Once you have it, you can pass it along to your children. Usually the tumors are benign, but sometimes they can become cancerous. There are three types of neurofibromatosis: . -Type 1 (NF1) causes skin changes and deformed bones. It usually starts in childhood. Sometimes the symptoms are present at birth. -Type 2 (NF2) causes hearing loss, ringing in the ears, and poor balance. Symptoms often start in the teen years. -Schwannomatosis causes intense pain. It is the rarest type. Doctors diagnose the different types based on the symptoms. Genetic testing is also used to diagnose NF1 and NF2. There is no cure. Treatment can help control symptoms. Depending on the type of disease and how serious it is, treatment may include surgery to remove tumors, radiation therapy, and medicines. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
Hyperpigmentation of the skin
MedGen UID:
57992
Concept ID:
C0162834
Pathologic Function
A darkening of the skin related to an increase in melanin production and deposition.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVGastrointestinal stromal tumor
Follow this link to review classifications for Gastrointestinal stromal tumor in Orphanet.

Conditions with this feature

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
MedGen UID:
116049
Concept ID:
C0238198
Neoplastic Process
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors found in the gastrointestinal tract that originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal, the pacemaker cells that regulate peristalsis in the digestive tract. Approximately 70% of GISTs develop in the stomach, 20% in the small intestine, and less than 10% in the esophagus, colon, and rectum. GISTs are typically more cellular than other gastrointestinal sarcomas. They occur predominantly in patients who are 40 to 70 years old but in rare cases may occur in younger persons (Miettinen et al., 1999, 1999). GISTs can also be seen in neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1; 162200) due to mutations in the NF1 gene, and are thus distinct from the GISTs described here. Sandberg and Bridge (2002) reviewed the cytogenetics and molecular genetics of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Coffey et al. (2007) reviewed the clinical features, pathogenesis, and molecular treatments of Menetrier disease (137280) and GIST, both of which are hyperproliferative disorders of the stomach caused by dysregulated receptor tyrosine kinases.
Paragangliomas 4
MedGen UID:
349380
Concept ID:
C1861848
Neoplastic Process
Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes are characterized by paragangliomas (tumors that arise from neuroendocrine tissues symmetrically distributed along the paravertebral axis from the base of the skull to the pelvis) and by pheochromocytomas (paragangliomas that are confined to the adrenal medulla). Sympathetic paragangliomas hypersecrete catecholamines; parasympathetic paragangliomas are most often nonsecretory. Extra-adrenal parasympathetic paragangliomas are located predominantly in the skull base, neck, and upper medistinum; approximately 95% of such tumors are nonsecretory. In contrast, sympathetic extra-adrenal paragangliomas are generally confined to the lower mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis, and are typically secretory. Pheochromocytomas, which arise from the adrenal medulla, typically hypersecrete catecholamines. Symptoms of PGL/PCC result either from mass effects or catecholamine hypersecretion (e.g., sustained or paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure, headache, episodic profuse sweating, forceful palpitations, pallor, and apprehension or anxiety). The risk for malignant transformation is greater for extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas than for pheochromocytomas or skull base and neck paragangliomas.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Hampel H, Bennett RL, Buchanan A, Pearlman R, Wiesner GL; Guideline Development Group, American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics Professional Practice and Guidelines Committee and National Society of Genetic Counselors Practice Guidelines Committee.
Genet Med 2015 Jan;17(1):70-87. Epub 2014 Nov 13 doi: 10.1038/gim.2014.147. PMID: 25394175
Duffy MJ, Lamerz R, Haglund C, Nicolini A, Kalousová M, Holubec L, Sturgeon C
Int J Cancer 2014 Jun 1;134(11):2513-22. Epub 2013 Aug 27 doi: 10.1002/ijc.28384. PMID: 23852704Free PMC Article
Wong NA, Deans ZC, Ramsden SC
J Clin Pathol 2012 Sep;65(9):786-90. Epub 2012 Jun 9 doi: 10.1136/jclinpath-2012-200851. PMID: 22685257

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Zhang P, Deng R, Liu K, Shuai XM, Bai J, Chang WL, Gao JB, Cai KL, Wang GB, Tao KX
J Surg Oncol 2016 Dec;114(8):977-981. Epub 2016 Sep 23 doi: 10.1002/jso.24431. PMID: 27664034
Martínez-Marín V, Maki RG
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2016 Sep;45(3):477-86. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2016.04.006. PMID: 27546844
Tarchouli M, Bounaim A, Essarghini M, Aitidir B, Lomdo M, Benmoussa M, Oukabli M, Ait-Ali A, Sair K
J Gastrointest Cancer 2016 Dec;47(4):489-493. doi: 10.1007/s12029-015-9784-2. PMID: 26596853
Wang CJ, Zhang ZZ, Xu J, Wang M, Zhao WY, Tu L, Zhuang C, Liu Q, Shen YY, Cao H, Zhang ZG
World J Gastroenterol 2015 Jul 21;21(27):8398-407. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i27.8398. PMID: 26217092Free PMC Article
Manxhuka-Kerliu S, Sahatciu-Meka V, Kerliu I, Juniku-Shkololli A, Kerliu L, Kastrati M, Kotorri V
J Med Case Rep 2014 Sep 28;8:321. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-8-321. PMID: 25264210Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Won EJ, Jeon J, Koh YI, Ryang DW
Korean J Parasitol 2015 Apr;53(2):223-6. Epub 2015 Apr 22 doi: 10.3347/kjp.2015.53.2.223. PMID: 25925183Free PMC Article
Manxhuka-Kerliu S, Sahatciu-Meka V, Kerliu I, Juniku-Shkololli A, Kerliu L, Kastrati M, Kotorri V
J Med Case Rep 2014 Sep 28;8:321. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-8-321. PMID: 25264210Free PMC Article
Kobayashi H, Sugihara K
Jpn J Clin Oncol 2014 Oct;44(10):982-5. Epub 2014 Aug 21 doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyu120. PMID: 25145379
Suzuki K, Yasuda T, Nagao K, Hori T, Watanabe K, Kanamori M, Kimura T
J Med Case Rep 2014 Jul 18;8:256. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-8-256. PMID: 25037940Free PMC Article
Yi JH, Sim J, Park BB, Lee YY, Jung WS, Jang HJ, Ha TK, Paik SS
Jpn J Clin Oncol 2013 Dec;43(12):1269-72. Epub 2013 Oct 29 doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyt158. PMID: 24168806

Therapy

Fukuda S, Fujiwara Y, Wakasa T, Kitani K, Tsujie M, Yukawa M, Ohta Y, Inoue M
J Med Case Rep 2017 Feb 7;11(1):33. doi: 10.1186/s13256-017-1215-5. PMID: 28166823Free PMC Article
Won EJ, Jeon J, Koh YI, Ryang DW
Korean J Parasitol 2015 Apr;53(2):223-6. Epub 2015 Apr 22 doi: 10.3347/kjp.2015.53.2.223. PMID: 25925183Free PMC Article
Bongiovanni A, Ricci M, Riva N, Calpona S, Oboldi D, Pieri F, Cavaliere D, Mercatali L, Liverani C, La Manna F, De Vita A, Foca F, Gunelli E, Amadori D, Ibrahim T
Future Oncol 2014 Dec;10(15):2423-7. doi: 10.2217/fon.14.159. PMID: 25525851
Kobayashi H, Sugihara K
Jpn J Clin Oncol 2014 Oct;44(10):982-5. Epub 2014 Aug 21 doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyu120. PMID: 25145379
Kubota D, Orita H, Yoshida A, Gotoh M, Kanda T, Tsuda H, Hasegawa T, Katai H, Shimada Y, Kaneko K, Kawai A, Kondo T
Jpn J Clin Oncol 2011 Oct;41(10):1194-202. Epub 2011 Sep 8 doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyr121. PMID: 21903705

Prognosis

Fukuda S, Fujiwara Y, Wakasa T, Kitani K, Tsujie M, Yukawa M, Ohta Y, Inoue M
J Med Case Rep 2017 Feb 7;11(1):33. doi: 10.1186/s13256-017-1215-5. PMID: 28166823Free PMC Article
Zhang P, Deng R, Liu K, Shuai XM, Bai J, Chang WL, Gao JB, Cai KL, Wang GB, Tao KX
J Surg Oncol 2016 Dec;114(8):977-981. Epub 2016 Sep 23 doi: 10.1002/jso.24431. PMID: 27664034
Wang CJ, Zhang ZZ, Xu J, Wang M, Zhao WY, Tu L, Zhuang C, Liu Q, Shen YY, Cao H, Zhang ZG
World J Gastroenterol 2015 Jul 21;21(27):8398-407. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i27.8398. PMID: 26217092Free PMC Article
Yi JH, Sim J, Park BB, Lee YY, Jung WS, Jang HJ, Ha TK, Paik SS
Jpn J Clin Oncol 2013 Dec;43(12):1269-72. Epub 2013 Oct 29 doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyt158. PMID: 24168806
Kubota D, Orita H, Yoshida A, Gotoh M, Kanda T, Tsuda H, Hasegawa T, Katai H, Shimada Y, Kaneko K, Kawai A, Kondo T
Jpn J Clin Oncol 2011 Oct;41(10):1194-202. Epub 2011 Sep 8 doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyr121. PMID: 21903705

Clinical prediction guides

Zhang P, Deng R, Liu K, Shuai XM, Bai J, Chang WL, Gao JB, Cai KL, Wang GB, Tao KX
J Surg Oncol 2016 Dec;114(8):977-981. Epub 2016 Sep 23 doi: 10.1002/jso.24431. PMID: 27664034
Liu Q, Wang Y, Kong L, Kan Y
Cell Biochem Biophys 2015 Dec;73(3):743-7. doi: 10.1007/s12013-015-0678-5. PMID: 27259319
Li B, Huang Y, Chao B, Zhao Q, Hao J, Qin C, Xu H
Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2015;8(6):6566-70. Epub 2015 Jun 1 PMID: 26261537Free PMC Article
Wang CJ, Zhang ZZ, Xu J, Wang M, Zhao WY, Tu L, Zhuang C, Liu Q, Shen YY, Cao H, Zhang ZG
World J Gastroenterol 2015 Jul 21;21(27):8398-407. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i27.8398. PMID: 26217092Free PMC Article
Kubota D, Orita H, Yoshida A, Gotoh M, Kanda T, Tsuda H, Hasegawa T, Katai H, Shimada Y, Kaneko K, Kawai A, Kondo T
Jpn J Clin Oncol 2011 Oct;41(10):1194-202. Epub 2011 Sep 8 doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyr121. PMID: 21903705

Recent systematic reviews

Ben Ami E, Demetri GD
Expert Opin Drug Saf 2016;15(4):571-8. Epub 2016 Feb 27 doi: 10.1517/14740338.2016.1152258. PMID: 26865352
Pyo JS, Kang G, Sohn JH
Int J Biol Markers 2016 May 28;31(2):e204-10. doi: 10.5301/jbm.5000183. PMID: 26616229
Özer-Stillman I, Strand L, Chang J, Mohamed AF, Tranbarger-Freier KE
Clin Cancer Res 2015 Jan 15;21(2):295-302. Epub 2014 Dec 4 doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-1779. PMID: 25477532
Ohtani H, Maeda K, Noda E, Nagahara H, Shibutani M, Ohira M, Muguruma K, Tanaka H, Kubo N, Toyokawa T, Sakurai K, Yamashita Y, Yamamoto A, Hirakawa K
Anticancer Res 2013 Nov;33(11):5031-41. PMID: 24222147
Kubota D, Orita H, Yoshida A, Gotoh M, Kanda T, Tsuda H, Hasegawa T, Katai H, Shimada Y, Kaneko K, Kawai A, Kondo T
Jpn J Clin Oncol 2011 Oct;41(10):1194-202. Epub 2011 Sep 8 doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyr121. PMID: 21903705

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