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Hyperreflexia(HRX)

MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Synonym: HRX
SNOMED CT: Hyperreflexia (86854008); Exaggeration of the deep reflexes (86854008); Increased tendon reflexes (86854008)
 
HPO: HP:0001347
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0007774
OMIM®: 145290

Definition

Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome
MedGen UID:
4886
Concept ID:
C0017495
Disease or Syndrome
Genetic prion disease generally manifests with cognitive difficulties, ataxia, and myoclonus (abrupt jerking movements of muscle groups and/or entire limbs). The order of appearance and/or predominance of these features and other associated neurologic and psychiatric findings vary. The three major phenotypes of genetic prion disease are genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (gCJD), fatal familial insomnia (FFI), and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome. Although these phenotypes display overlapping clinical and pathologic features, recognition of these phenotypes can be useful when providing affected individuals and their families with information about the expected clinical course. The age at onset typically ranges from 50 to 60 years. The disease course ranges from a few months in gCJD and FFI to a few (up to 4, and in rare cases up to 10) years in GSS syndrome.
Pigmentary pallidal degeneration
MedGen UID:
6708
Concept ID:
C0018523
Disease or Syndrome
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). The phenotypic spectrum of PKAN includes classic PKAN and atypical PKAN. Classic PKAN is characterized by early-childhood onset of progressive dystonia, dysarthria, rigidity, and choreoathetosis. Pigmentary retinal degeneration is common. Atypical PKAN is characterized by later onset (age >10 years), prominent speech defects, psychiatric disturbances, and more gradual progression of disease.
Neutral 1 amino acid transport defect
MedGen UID:
6723
Concept ID:
C0018609
Disease or Syndrome
Hartnup disorder (HND) is characterized by transient manifestations of pellagra, cerebellar ataxia, and psychosis. It is caused by impaired transport of neutral amino acids across epithelial cells in renal proximal tubules and intestinal mucosa (summary by Kleta et al., 2004).
Huntington disease
MedGen UID:
5654
Concept ID:
C0020179
Disease or Syndrome
Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive disorder of motor, cognitive, and psychiatric disturbances. The mean age of onset is 35 to 44 years, and the median survival time is 15 to 18 years after onset.
Leigh syndrome
MedGen UID:
44095
Concept ID:
C0023264
Disease or Syndrome
Leigh syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder resulting from defective mitochondrial energy generation. It most commonly presents as a progressive and severe neurodegenerative disorder with onset within the first months or years of life, and may result in early death. Affected individuals usually show global developmental delay or developmental regression, hypotonia, ataxia, dystonia, and ophthalmologic abnormalities, such as nystagmus or optic atrophy. The neurologic features are associated with the classic findings of T2-weighted hyperintensities in the basal ganglia and/or brainstem on brain imaging. Leigh syndrome can also have detrimental multisystemic affects on the cardiac, hepatic, gastrointestinal, and renal organs. Biochemical studies in patients with Leigh syndrome tend to show increased lactate and abnormalities of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (summary by Lake et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Leigh Syndrome Leigh syndrome may be a clinical presentation of a primary deficiency caused by genes in any of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes: complex I deficiency (see 252010), complex II deficiency (see 252011), complex III deficiency (see 124000), complex IV deficiency (cytochrome c oxidase; see 220110), and complex V deficiency (see 604273) (summary by Lake et al., 2015). Mutations in mitochondrial genes have also been identified in patients with Leigh syndrome: see MTTV (590105), MTTK (590060), MTTW (590095), and MTTL1 (590050). Leigh syndrome may also be caused by mutations in components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (e.g., DLD, 238331 and PDHA1, 300502). Deficiency of coenzyme Q10 (607426) can present as Leigh syndrome. Some forms of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency can present as Leigh syndrome (see, e.g., 617664).
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
MedGen UID:
9721
Concept ID:
C0023374
Disease or Syndrome
HPRT1 disorders, caused by deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt), are typically associated with clinical evidence for overproduction of uric acid (hyperuricemia, nephrolithiasis, and/or gouty arthritis) and varying degrees of neurologic and/or behavioral problems. Historically, three phenotypes were identified in the spectrum of HPRT1 disorders: Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) at the most severe end with motor dysfunction resembling severe cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, and self-injurious behavior; HPRT1-related neurologic dysfunction (HND) in the intermediate range with similar but fewer severe neurologic findings than LND and no self-injurious behavior; and HPRT1-related hyperuricemia (HRH) at the mild end without overt neurologic deficits. It is now recognized that these neurobehavioral phenotypes cluster along a continuum from severe to mild.
Metachromatic leukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
6071
Concept ID:
C0023522
Disease or Syndrome
Arylsulfatase A deficiency (also known as metachromatic leukodystrophy or MLD) is characterized by three clinical subtypes: late-infantile MLD, juvenile MLD, and adult MLD. Age of onset within a family is usually similar. The disease course may be from several years in the late-infantile-onset form to decades in the juvenile- and adult-onset forms. Late-infantile MLD. Onset is before age 30 months. Typical presenting findings include weakness, hypotonia, clumsiness, frequent falls, toe walking, and dysarthria. As the disease progresses, language, cognitive, and gross and fine motor skills regress. Later signs include spasticity, pain, seizures, and compromised vision and hearing. In the final stages, children have tonic spasms, decerebrate posturing, and general unawareness of their surroundings. Juvenile MLD. Onset is between age 30 months and 16 years. Initial manifestations include decline in school performance and emergence of behavioral problems, followed by gait disturbances. Progression is similar to but slower than in the late-infantile form. Adult MLD. Onset occurs after age 16 years, sometimes not until the fourth or fifth decade. Initial signs can include problems in school or job performance, personality changes, emotional lability, or psychosis; in others, neurologic symptoms (weakness and loss of coordination progressing to spasticity and incontinence) or seizures initially predominate. Peripheral neuropathy is common. Disease course is variable – with periods of stability interspersed with periods of decline – and may extend over two to three decades. The final stage is similar to earlier-onset forms.
Deficiency of alpha-mannosidase
MedGen UID:
7467
Concept ID:
C0024748
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-mannosidosis encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from mild to severe. Three major clinical subtypes have been suggested: A mild form recognized after age ten years with absence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 1). A moderate form recognized before age ten years with presence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 2). A severe form manifested as prenatal loss or early death from progressive central nervous system involvement or infection (type 3). Individuals with a milder phenotype have mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, impaired hearing, characteristic coarse features, clinical or radiographic skeletal abnormalities, immunodeficiency, and primary central nervous system disease – mainly cerebellar involvement causing ataxia. Periods of psychiatric symptoms are common. Associated medical problems can include corneal opacities, hepatosplenomegaly, aseptic destructive arthritis, and metabolic myopathy. Alpha-mannosidosis is insidiously progressive; some individuals may live into the sixth decade.
Phenylketonuria
MedGen UID:
19244
Concept ID:
C0031485
Disease or Syndrome
Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency results in intolerance to the dietary intake of the essential amino acid phenylalanine and produces a spectrum of disorders. The risk of adverse outcome varies based on the degree of PAH deficiency. Without effective therapy, most individuals with severe PAH deficiency, known as classic PKU, develop profound and irreversible intellectual disability. Affected individuals on an unrestricted diet who have phenylalanine levels above normal but below 1,200 µmol/L (20 mg/dL) are at much lower risk for impaired cognitive development in the absence of treatment.
Sandhoff disease
MedGen UID:
11313
Concept ID:
C0036161
Disease or Syndrome
Sandhoff disease comprises a phenotypic continuum encompassing acute infantile, subacute juvenile, and late-onset disease. Although classification into these phenotypes is somewhat arbitrary, it is helpful in understanding the variation observed in the timing of disease onset, presenting manifestations, rate of progression, and life span. Acute infantile Sandhoff disease (onset age <6 months). Infants are generally normal at birth followed by progressive weakness and slowing of developmental progress, then developmental regression and severe neurologic impairment. Seizures are common. Death usually occurs between ages two and three years. Subacute juvenile Sandhoff disease (onset age 2-5 years). After attaining normal developmental milestones, developmental progress slows, followed by developmental regression and neurologic impairment (abnormal gait, dysarthria, and cognitive decline). Death (usually from aspiration) typically occurs in the early to late teens. Late-onset Sandhoff disease (onset older teen years or young adulthood). Nearly normal psychomotor development is followed by a range of neurologic findings (e.g., weakness, spasticity, dysarthria, and deficits in cerebellar function) and psychiatric findings (e.g., deficits in executive function and memory). Life expectancy is not necessarily decreased.
Stiff-man syndrome
MedGen UID:
39017
Concept ID:
C0085292
Disease or Syndrome
The stiff-person syndrome (SPS) is most often an adult-onset sporadic acquired disorder characterized by progressive muscle stiffness with superimposed painful muscle spasms accompanied by electromyographic evidence of continuous motor activity at rest. SPS has been associated with autoimmune disorders, diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis, and hypopituitarism with adrenal insufficiency (George et al., 1984). Approximately 60% of patients with SPS have antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD2, or GAD65; 138275), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), suggesting an immune-mediated pathogenesis (Folli et al., 1993). Approximately 10% of patients develop SPS as a paraneoplastic neurologic disorder associated with antibodies to amphiphysin (AMPH; 600418), an intracellular protein associated with neuronal synaptic vesicle endocytosis (Burns, 2005). See also congenital stiff-man syndrome, or hereditary hyperexplexia (149400), which is caused by mutations in subunits of the glycine receptor gene (GLRA1, 138491; GLRB, 138492). Meinck and Thompson (2002) provided a detailed review of stiff-person syndrome. They also discussed 2 possibly related conditions, progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity (PERM), a more severe disorder with other neurologic features, and stiff-limb or stiff-leg syndrome, a focal disorder.
Angelman syndrome
MedGen UID:
58144
Concept ID:
C0162635
Disease or Syndrome
Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe developmental delay or intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, gait ataxia and/or tremulousness of the limbs, and unique behavior with an apparent happy demeanor that includes frequent laughing, smiling, and excitability. Microcephaly and seizures are also common. Developmental delays are first noted at around age six months; however, the unique clinical features of AS do not become manifest until after age one year.
Sotos syndrome
MedGen UID:
61232
Concept ID:
C0175695
Disease or Syndrome
Sotos syndrome is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance (broad and prominent forehead with a dolichocephalic head shape, sparse frontotemporal hair, downslanting palpebral fissures, malar flushing, long and narrow face, long chin); learning disability (early developmental delay, mild-to-severe intellectual impairment); and overgrowth (height and/or head circumference =2 SD above the mean). These three clinical features are considered the cardinal features of Sotos syndrome. Major features of Sotos syndrome include behavioral problems (most notably autistic spectrum disorder), advanced bone age, cardiac anomalies, cranial MRI/CT abnormalities, joint hyperlaxity with or without pes planus, maternal preeclampsia, neonatal complications, renal anomalies, scoliosis, and seizures.
Williams syndrome
MedGen UID:
59799
Concept ID:
C0175702
Disease or Syndrome
Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by cardiovascular disease (elastin arteriopathy, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis, hypertension), distinctive facies, connective tissue abnormalities, intellectual disability (usually mild), a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, growth abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroidism, and early puberty). Feeding difficulties often lead to poor weight gain in infancy. Hypotonia and hyperextensible joints can result in delayed attainment of motor milestones.
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
66320
Concept ID:
C0220722
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive subtype of cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome caused by mutation(s) in the ERCC6 gene, encoding DNA excision repair protein ERCC-6.
Abortive cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
66358
Concept ID:
C0221061
Disease or Syndrome
'Behr syndrome' is a clinical term that refers to the constellation of early-onset optic atrophy accompanied by neurologic features, including ataxia, pyramidal signs, spasticity, and mental retardation (Behr, 1909; Thomas et al., 1984). Patients with mutations in genes other than OPA1 can present with clinical features reminiscent of Behr syndrome. Mutations in one of these genes, OPA3 (606580), result in type III 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (MGCA3; 258501). Lerman-Sagie (1995) noted that the abnormal urinary pattern in MGCA3 may not be picked up by routine organic acid analysis, suggesting that early reports of Behr syndrome with normal metabolic features may actually have been 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III.
Mucolipidosis type IV
MedGen UID:
68663
Concept ID:
C0238286
Disease or Syndrome
Mucolipidosis IV (MLIV) is an ultra-rare lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe psychomotor delay, progressive visual impairment, and achlorhydria. Individuals with MLIV typically present by the end of the first year of life with delayed developmental milestones (due to a developmental brain abnormality) and impaired vision (resulting from a combination of corneal clouding and retinal degeneration). By adolescence, all individuals with MLIV have severe visual impairment. A neurodegenerative component of MLIV has become more widely appreciated, with the majority of individuals demonstrating progressive spastic quadriparesis and loss of psychomotor skills starting in the second decade of life. About 5% of individuals have atypical MLIV, manifesting with less severe psychomotor impairment, but still exhibiting progressive retinal degeneration and achlorhydria.
Xeroderma pigmentosum group B
MedGen UID:
78643
Concept ID:
C0268136
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Acute sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure) with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, severe keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids, ocular surface neoplasms); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma) within the first decade of life. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cognitive impairment, and ataxia). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Gaucher disease type II
MedGen UID:
78652
Concept ID:
C0268250
Disease or Syndrome
Gaucher disease (GD) encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from a perinatal lethal disorder to an asymptomatic type. The identification of three major clinical types (1, 2, and 3) and two other subtypes (perinatal-lethal and cardiovascular) is useful in determining prognosis and management. GD type 1 is characterized by the presence of clinical or radiographic evidence of bone disease (osteopenia, focal lytic or sclerotic lesions, and osteonecrosis), hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia, lung disease, and the absence of primary central nervous system disease. GD types 2 and 3 are characterized by the presence of primary neurologic disease; in the past, they were distinguished by age of onset and rate of disease progression, but these distinctions are not absolute. Disease with onset before age two years, limited psychomotor development, and a rapidly progressive course with death by age two to four years is classified as GD type 2. Individuals with GD type 3 may have onset before age two years, but often have a more slowly progressive course, with survival into the third or fourth decade. The perinatal-lethal form is associated with ichthyosiform or collodion skin abnormalities or with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The cardiovascular form is characterized by calcification of the aortic and mitral valves, mild splenomegaly, corneal opacities, and supranuclear ophthalmoplegia. Cardiopulmonary complications have been described with all the clinical subtypes, although varying in frequency and severity.
Sphingolipid activator protein 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
120624
Concept ID:
C0268262
Disease or Syndrome
Metachromatic leukodystrophy gets its name from the way cells with an accumulation of sulfatides appear when viewed under a microscope. The sulfatides form granules that are described as metachromatic, which means they pick up color differently than surrounding cellular material when stained for examination.\n\nThe adult form of metachromatic leukodystrophy affects approximately 15 to 20 percent of individuals with the disorder. In this form, the first symptoms appear during the teenage years or later. Often behavioral problems such as alcohol use disorder, drug abuse, or difficulties at school or work are the first symptoms to appear. The affected individual may experience psychiatric symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. People with the adult form of metachromatic leukodystrophy may survive for 20 to 30 years after diagnosis. During this time there may be some periods of relative stability and other periods of more rapid decline.\n\nIn 20 to 30 percent of individuals with metachromatic leukodystrophy, onset occurs between the age of 4 and adolescence. In this juvenile form, the first signs of the disorder may be behavioral problems and increasing difficulty with schoolwork. Progression of the disorder is slower than in the late infantile form, and affected individuals may survive for about 20 years after diagnosis.\n\nThe most common form of metachromatic leukodystrophy, affecting about 50 to 60 percent of all individuals with this disorder, is called the late infantile form. This form of the disorder usually appears in the second year of life. Affected children lose any speech they have developed, become weak, and develop problems with walking (gait disturbance). As the disorder worsens, muscle tone generally first decreases, and then increases to the point of rigidity. Individuals with the late infantile form of metachromatic leukodystrophy typically do not survive past childhood.\n\nIn people with metachromatic leukodystrophy, white matter damage causes progressive deterioration of intellectual functions and motor skills, such as the ability to walk. Affected individuals also develop loss of sensation in the extremities (peripheral neuropathy), incontinence, seizures, paralysis, an inability to speak, blindness, and hearing loss. Eventually they lose awareness of their surroundings and become unresponsive. While neurological problems are the primary feature of metachromatic leukodystrophy, effects of sulfatide accumulation on other organs and tissues have been reported, most often involving the gallbladder.\n\nMetachromatic leukodystrophy is an inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of fats called sulfatides in cells. This accumulation especially affects cells in the nervous system that produce myelin, the substance that insulates and protects nerves. Nerve cells covered by myelin make up a tissue called white matter. Sulfatide accumulation in myelin-producing cells causes progressive destruction of white matter (leukodystrophy) throughout the nervous system, including in the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system) and the nerves connecting the brain and spinal cord to muscles and sensory cells that detect sensations such as touch, pain, heat, and sound (the peripheral nervous system).
GM1 gangliosidosis type 3
MedGen UID:
78655
Concept ID:
C0268273
Disease or Syndrome
GLB1-related disorders comprise two phenotypically distinct lysosomal storage disorders: GM1 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type IVB (MPS IVB). The phenotype of GM1 gangliosidosis constitutes a spectrum ranging from severe (infantile) to intermediate (late-infantile and juvenile) to mild (chronic/adult). Type I (infantile) GM1 gangliosidosis begins before age 12 months. Prenatal manifestations may include nonimmune hydrops fetalis, intrauterine growth restriction, and placental vacuolization; congenital dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spots) may be observed. Macular cherry-red spot is detected on eye exam. Progressive central nervous system dysfunction leads to spasticity and rapid regression; blindness, deafness, decerebrate rigidity, seizures, feeding difficulties, and oral secretions are observed. Life expectancy is two to three years. Type II can be subdivided into the late-infantile (onset age 1-3 years) and juvenile (onset age 3-10 years) phenotypes. Central nervous system dysfunction manifests as progressive cognitive, motor, and speech decline as measured by psychometric testing. There may be mild corneal clouding, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or cardiomyopathy; the typical course is characterized by progressive neurologic decline, progressive skeletal disease in some individuals (including kyphosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral heads), and progressive feeding difficulties leading to aspiration risk. Type III begins in late childhood to the third decade with generalized dystonia leading to unsteady gait and speech disturbance followed by extrapyramidal signs including akinetic-rigid parkinsonism. Cardiomyopathy develops in some and skeletal involvement occurs in most. Intellectual impairment is common late in the disease with prognosis directly related to the degree of neurologic impairment. MPS IVB is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with specific findings of axial and appendicular dysostosis multiplex, short stature (below 15th centile in adults), kyphoscoliosis, coxa/genu valga, joint laxity, platyspondyly, and odontoid hypoplasia. First signs and symptoms may be apparent at birth. Bony involvement is progressive, with more than 84% of adults requiring ambulation aids; life span does not appear to be limited. Corneal clouding is detected in some individuals and cardiac valvular disease may develop.
Tay-Sachs disease, variant AB
MedGen UID:
78657
Concept ID:
C0268275
Disease or Syndrome
Acute infantile GM2 activator deficiency is a neurodegenerative disorder in which infants, who are generally normal at birth, have progressive weakness and slowing of developmental progress between ages four and 12 months. An ensuing developmental plateau is followed by progressively rapid developmental regression. By the second year of life decerebrate posturing, difficulty in swallowing, and worsening seizures lead to an unresponsive vegetative state. Death usually occurs between ages two and three years.
gamma-Glutamyltransferase deficiency
MedGen UID:
82813
Concept ID:
C0268524
Disease or Syndrome
Level of glutathione in the urine above the upper limit of normal.
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome
MedGen UID:
82815
Concept ID:
C0268540
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is a disorder of the urea cycle and ornithine degradation pathway. Clinical manifestations and age of onset vary among individuals even in the same family. Neonatal onset (~8% of affected individuals). Manifestations of hyperammonemia usually begin 24-48 hours after feeding begins and can include lethargy, somnolence, refusal to feed, vomiting, tachypnea with respiratory alkalosis, and/or seizures. Infantile, childhood, and adult onset (~92%). Affected individuals may present with: Chronic neurocognitive deficits (including developmental delay, ataxia, spasticity, learning disabilities, cognitive deficits, and/or unexplained seizures); Acute encephalopathy secondary to hyperammonemic crisis precipitated by a variety of factors; and Chronic liver dysfunction (unexplained elevation of liver transaminases with or without mild coagulopathy, with or without mild hyperammonemia and protein intolerance). Neurologic findings and cognitive abilities can continue to deteriorate despite early metabolic control that prevents hyperammonemia.
Hyperglycinemia, transient neonatal
MedGen UID:
82818
Concept ID:
C0268560
Disease or Syndrome
3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
78691
Concept ID:
C0268600
Disease or Syndrome
3-Methylcrotonylglycinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine catabolism. The clinical phenotype is highly variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurologic involvement to asymptomatic adults. There is a characteristic organic aciduria with massive excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and 3-methylcrotonylglycine, usually in combination with a severe secondary carnitine deficiency. MCC activity in extracts of cultured fibroblasts of patients is usually less than 2% of control (summary by Baumgartner et al., 2001). Also see 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria II (MCC2D; 210210), caused by mutation in the beta subunit of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCCC2; 609014).
Hepatic methionine adenosyltransferase deficiency
MedGen UID:
75700
Concept ID:
C0268621
Disease or Syndrome
Methionine adenosyltransferase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism resulting in isolated hypermethioninemia. Most patients have no clinical abnormalities, although some with the autosomal recessive form have have neurologic abnormalities (Mudd et al., 2003; Kim et al., 2016).
Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy
MedGen UID:
82852
Concept ID:
C0270724
Disease or Syndrome
PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) comprises a continuum of three phenotypes with overlapping clinical and radiologic features: Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD). Atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy (atypical NAD). PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism. INAD usually begins between ages six months and three years with psychomotor regression or delay, hypotonia, and progressive spastic tetraparesis. Many affected children never learn to walk or lose the ability shortly after attaining it. Strabismus, nystagmus, and optic atrophy are common. Disease progression is rapid, resulting in severe spasticity, progressive cognitive decline, and visual impairment. Many affected children do not survive beyond their first decade. Atypical NAD shows more phenotypic variability than INAD. In general, onset is in early childhood but can be as late as the end of the second decade. The presenting signs may be gait instability, ataxia, or speech delay and autistic features, which are sometimes the only evidence of disease for a year or more. Strabismus, nystagmus, and optic atrophy are common. Neuropsychiatric disturbances including impulsivity, poor attention span, hyperactivity, and emotional lability are also common. The course is fairly stable during early childhood and resembles static encephalopathy but is followed by neurologic deterioration between ages seven and 12 years. PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism has a variable age of onset, but most individuals present in early adulthood with gait disturbance or neuropsychiatric changes. Affected individuals consistently develop dystonia and parkinsonism (which may be accompanied by rapid cognitive decline) in their late teens to early twenties. Dystonia is most common in the hands and feet but may be more generalized. The most common features of parkinsonism in these individuals are bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, and postural instability.
Leucine-induced hypoglycemia
MedGen UID:
82888
Concept ID:
C0271714
Disease or Syndrome
Glucocorticoid deficiency with achalasia
MedGen UID:
82889
Concept ID:
C0271742
Disease or Syndrome
Triple A syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by three specific features: achalasia, Addison disease, and alacrima. Achalasia is a disorder that affects the ability to move food through the esophagus, the tube that carries food from the throat to the stomach. It can lead to severe feeding difficulties and low blood glucose (hypoglycemia). Addison disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency, is caused by abnormal function of the small hormone-producing glands on top of each kidney (adrenal glands). The main features of Addison disease include fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss, low blood pressure, and darkening of the skin. The third major feature of triple A syndrome is a reduced or absent ability to secrete tears (alacrima). Most people with triple A syndrome have all three of these features, although some have only two.\n\nMany of the features of triple A syndrome are caused by dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. This part of the nervous system controls involuntary body processes such as digestion, blood pressure, and body temperature. People with triple A syndrome often experience abnormal sweating, difficulty regulating blood pressure, unequal pupil size (anisocoria), and other signs and symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (dysautonomia).\n\nPeople with this condition may have other neurological abnormalities, such as developmental delay, intellectual disability, speech problems (dysarthria), and a small head size (microcephaly). In addition, affected individuals commonly experience muscle weakness, movement problems, and nerve abnormalities in their extremities (peripheral neuropathy). Some develop optic atrophy, which is the degeneration (atrophy) of the nerves that carry information from the eyes to the brain. Many of the neurological symptoms of triple A syndrome worsen over time.\n\nPeople with triple A syndrome frequently develop a thickening of the outer layer of skin (hyperkeratosis) on the palms of their hands and the soles of their feet. Other skin abnormalities may also be present in people with this condition.\n\nAlacrima is usually the first noticeable sign of triple A syndrome, as it becomes apparent early in life that affected children produce little or no tears while crying. They develop Addison disease and achalasia during childhood or adolescence, and most of the neurologic features of triple A syndrome begin during adulthood. The signs and symptoms of this condition vary among affected individuals, even among members of the same family.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase deficiency
MedGen UID:
137977
Concept ID:
C0342708
Disease or Syndrome
GABA-transaminase deficiency (GABATD) is characterized by neonatal or early infantile-onset encephalopathy, hypotonia, hypersomnolence, epilepsy, choreoathetosis, and accelerated linear growth. Electroencephalograms show burst-suppression, modified hypsarrhythmia, multifocal spikes, and generalized spike-wave. Severity varies, but most patients have profound developmental impairment and some patients die in infancy (summary by Koenig et al., 2017).
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 1
MedGen UID:
90994
Concept ID:
C0342727
Disease or Syndrome
3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency is an inherited condition that causes neurological problems. Beginning in infancy to early childhood, children with this condition often have delayed development of mental and motor skills (psychomotor delay), speech delay, involuntary muscle cramping (dystonia), and spasms and weakness of the arms and legs (spastic quadriparesis). Affected individuals can also have optic atrophy, which is the breakdown (atrophy) of nerve cells that carry visual information from the eyes to the brain.\n\nIn some cases, signs and symptoms of 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency begin in adulthood, often in a person's twenties or thirties. These individuals have damage to a type of brain tissue called white matter (leukoencephalopathy). This damage likely contributes to progressive problems with speech (dysarthria), difficulty coordinating movements (ataxia), stiffness (spasticity), optic atrophy, and a decline in intellectual function (dementia).\n\nAffected individuals who show symptoms of 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency in childhood often go on to develop leukoencephalopathy and other neurological problems in adulthood.\n\nAll people with 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency accumulate large amounts of a substance called 3-methylglutaconic acid in their body fluids. As a result, they have elevated levels of acid in their blood (metabolic acidosis) and excrete large amounts of acid in their urine (aciduria). 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency is one of a group of metabolic disorders that can be diagnosed by the presence of increased levels 3-methylglutaconic acid in urine (3-methylglutaconic aciduria). People with 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency also have high urine levels of another acid called 3-methylglutaric acid.
D-Glyceric aciduria
MedGen UID:
452447
Concept ID:
C0342765
Disease or Syndrome
D-glyceric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients have an encephalopathic presentation, with severe mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, and sometimes early death, whereas others have a mild phenotype with only mild speech delay or even normal development (summary by Sass et al., 2010).
PMM2-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
138111
Concept ID:
C0349653
Disease or Syndrome
PMM2-CDG, the most common of a group of disorders of abnormal glycosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides, is divided into three clinical stages: infantile multisystem, late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability, and adult stable disability. The clinical manifestations and course are highly variable, ranging from infants who die in the first year of life to mildly affected adults. Clinical findings tend to be similar in sibs. In the infantile multisystem presentation, infants show axial hypotonia, hyporeflexia, esotropia, and developmental delay. Feeding problems, vomiting, faltering growth, and developmental delay are frequently seen. Subcutaneous fat may be excessive over the buttocks and suprapubic region. Two distinct clinical courses are observed: (1) a nonfatal neurologic course with faltering growth, strabismus, developmental delay, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hepatopathy in infancy followed by neuropathy and retinitis pigmentosa in the first or second decade; and (2) a more severe neurologic-multivisceral course with approximately 20% mortality in the first year of life. The late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability stage, which begins between ages three and ten years, is characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, severely delayed language and motor development, inability to walk, and IQ of 40 to 70; other findings include seizures, stroke-like episodes or transient unilateral loss of function, coagulopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, joint contractures, and skeletal deformities. In the adult stable disability stage, intellectual ability is stable; peripheral neuropathy is variable, progressive retinitis pigmentosa and myopia are seen, thoracic and spinal deformities with osteoporosis worsen, and premature aging is observed; females may lack secondary sexual development and males may exhibit decreased testicular volume. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and coagulopathy may occur. The risk for deep venous thrombosis is increased.
Troyer syndrome
MedGen UID:
97950
Concept ID:
C0393559
Disease or Syndrome
Troyer syndrome is characterized by progressive spastic paraparesis, dysarthria, pseudobulbar palsy, distal amyotrophy, short stature, and subtle skeletal abnormalities. Most affected children exhibit delays in walking and speech and difficulty in managing oral secretions, followed by increased lower-limb spasticity and slow deterioration in both gait and speech. Mild cerebellar signs are common. The most severely affected individuals have choreoathetosis. Emotional lability / difficulty in controlling emotions and affective disorders, such as inappropriate euphoria and/or crying, are frequently described. Life expectancy is normal.
Hyper-IgM syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
96019
Concept ID:
C0398689
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked hyper IgM syndrome (HIGM1), a disorder of abnormal T- and B-cell function, is characterized by low serum concentrations of IgG, IgA, and IgE with normal or elevated serum concentrations of IgM. Mitogen proliferation may be normal, but NK- and T-cell cytotoxicity can be impaired. Antigen-specific responses are usually decreased or absent. Total numbers of B cells are normal but there is a marked reduction of class-switched memory B cells. Defective oxidative burst of both neutrophils and macrophages has been reported. The range of clinical findings varies, even within the same family. More than 50% of males with HIGM1 develop symptoms by age one year, and more than 90% are symptomatic by age four years. HIGM1 usually presents in infancy with recurrent upper- and lower-respiratory tract bacterial infections, opportunistic infections including Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and recurrent or protracted diarrhea that can be infectious or noninfectious and is associated with failure to thrive. Neutropenia is common; thrombocytopenia and anemia are less commonly seen. Autoimmune and/or inflammatory disorders (such as sclerosing cholangitis) as well as increased risk for neoplasms have been reported as medical complications of this disorder. Significant neurologic complications, often the result of a CNS infection, are seen in 5%-15% of affected males. Liver disease, a serious complication of HIGM1 once observed in more than 80% of affected males by age 20 years, may be decreasing with adequate screening and treatment of Cryptosporidium infection.
Deficiency of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase
MedGen UID:
154356
Concept ID:
C0574080
Disease or Syndrome
The creatine deficiency disorders (CDDs), inborn errors of creatine metabolism and transport, comprise three disorders: the creatine biosynthesis disorders guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency and L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency; and creatine transporter (CRTR) deficiency. Developmental delay and cognitive dysfunction or intellectual disability and speech-language disorder are common to all three CDDs. Onset of clinical manifestations of GAMT deficiency (reported in ~130 individuals) is between ages three months and two years; in addition to developmental delays, the majority of individuals have epilepsy and develop a behavior disorder (e.g., hyperactivity, autism, or self-injurious behavior), and about 30% have movement disorder. AGAT deficiency has been reported in 16 individuals; none have had epilepsy or movement disorders. Clinical findings of CRTR deficiency in affected males (reported in ~130 individuals) in addition to developmental delays include epilepsy (variable seizure types and may be intractable) and behavior disorders (e.g., attention deficit and/or hyperactivity, autistic features, impulsivity, social anxiety), hypotonia, and (less commonly) a movement disorder. Poor weight gain with constipation and prolonged QTc on EKG have been reported. While mild-to-moderate intellectual disability is commonly observed up to age four years, the majority of adult males with CRTR deficiency have been reported to have severe intellectual disability. Females heterozygous for CRTR deficiency are typically either asymptomatic or have mild intellectual disability, although a more severe phenotype resembling the male phenotype has been reported.
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type 3
MedGen UID:
108273
Concept ID:
C0574084
Disease or Syndrome
Costeff syndrome is characterized by optic atrophy and/or choreoathetoid movement disorder with onset before age ten years. Optic atrophy is associated with progressive decrease in visual acuity within the first years of life, sometimes associated with infantile-onset horizontal nystagmus. Most individuals have chorea, often severe enough to restrict ambulation. Some are confined to a wheelchair from an early age. Although most individuals develop spastic paraparesis, mild ataxia, and occasional mild cognitive deficit in their second decade, the course of the disease is relatively stable.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1
MedGen UID:
155703
Concept ID:
C0752120
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and eventual deterioration of bulbar functions. Early in the disease, affected individuals may have gait disturbance, slurred speech, difficulty with balance, brisk deep tendon reflexes, hypermetric saccades, nystagmus, and mild dysphagia. Later signs include slowing of saccadic velocity, development of up-gaze palsy, dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, and hypotonia. In advanced stages, muscle atrophy, decreased deep tendon reflexes, loss of proprioception, cognitive impairment (e.g., frontal executive dysfunction, impaired verbal memory), chorea, dystonia, and bulbar dysfunction are seen. Onset is typically in the third or fourth decade, although childhood onset and late-adult onset have been reported. Those with onset after age 60 years may manifest a pure cerebellar phenotype. Interval from onset to death varies from ten to 30 years; individuals with juvenile onset show more rapid progression and more severe disease. Anticipation is observed. An axonal sensory neuropathy detected by electrophysiologic testing is common; brain imaging typically shows cerebellar and brain stem atrophy.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 5
MedGen UID:
155705
Concept ID:
C0752123
Disease or Syndrome
For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), see SCA1 (164400).
Spinocerebellar ataxia 7
MedGen UID:
156006
Concept ID:
C0752125
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) comprises a phenotypic spectrum ranging from adolescent- or adult-onset progressive cerebellar ataxia and cone-rod retinal dystrophy to infantile or early-childhood onset with multiorgan failure, an accelerated course, and early death. Anticipation in this nucleotide repeat disorder may be so dramatic that within a family a child with infantile or early-childhood onset may be diagnosed with what is thought to be an unrelated neurodegenerative disorder years before a parent or grandparent with a CAG repeat expansion becomes symptomatic. In adolescent-onset SCA7, the initial manifestation is typically impaired vision, followed by cerebellar ataxia. In those with adult onset, progressive cerebellar ataxia usually precedes the onset of visual manifestations. While the rate of progression varies in these two age groups, the eventual result for almost all affected individuals is loss of vision, severe dysarthria and dysphagia, and a bedridden state with loss of motor control.
Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome
MedGen UID:
208645
Concept ID:
C0795889
Disease or Syndrome
Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X-linked disorder, is characterized in males by neurologic findings (hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy, developmental delay / intellectual disability ranging from mild to profound) and later-onset pyramidal signs, extrapyramidal findings (dystonia, choreoathetosis, paroxysmal movement disorder, hypokinesia, masked facies), and seizures, often with drug resistance. Additional findings can include dysthyroidism (manifest as poor weight gain, reduced muscle mass, and variable cold intolerance, sweating, elevated heart rate, and irritability) and pathognomonic thyroid test results. Most heterozygous females are not clinically affected but may have minor thyroid test abnormalities.
Gomez Lopez Hernandez syndrome
MedGen UID:
163201
Concept ID:
C0795959
Disease or Syndrome
Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome (GLHS), also known as cerebellotrigeminal dermal dysplasia, is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome classically characterized by the triad of rhombencephalosynapsis, trigeminal anesthesia, often giving rise to corneal opacities, and bilateral parietal or parietooccipital alopecia. However, trigeminal anesthesia is an inconsistent finding (summary by Sukhudyan et al., 2010).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 23
MedGen UID:
167094
Concept ID:
C0796019
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-23 (SPG23) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by childhood-onset spastic paraplegia resulting in gait difficulties and associated with pigmentary abnormalities, including premature graying of the hair and vitiligo-like or hyperpigmented skin lesions. Some patients may also have a peripheral neuropathy (summary by Lee et al., 2017).
Arts syndrome
MedGen UID:
163205
Concept ID:
C0796028
Disease or Syndrome
Arts syndrome, which is part of the spectrum of PRPS1-related disorders, is characterized by profound congenital sensorineural hearing impairment, early-onset hypotonia, delayed motor development, mild to moderate intellectual disability, ataxia, and increased risk of infection, all of which – with the exception of optic atrophy – present before age two years. Signs of peripheral neuropathy develop during early childhood. Twelve of 15 boys from the two Dutch families reported with Arts syndrome died before age six years of complications of infection. Carrier females can show late-onset (age >20 years) hearing impairment and other findings.
Deafness dystonia syndrome
MedGen UID:
162903
Concept ID:
C0796074
Disease or Syndrome
Males with deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy (DDON) syndrome have prelingual or postlingual sensorineural hearing impairment in early childhood, slowly progressive dystonia or ataxia in the teens, slowly progressive decreased visual acuity from optic atrophy beginning at approximately age 20 years, and dementia beginning at approximately age 40 years. Psychiatric symptoms such as personality change and paranoia may appear in childhood and progress. The hearing impairment appears to be consistent in age of onset and progression, whereas the neurologic, visual, and neuropsychiatric signs vary in degree of severity and rate of progression. Females may have mild hearing impairment and focal dystonia.
Renpenning syndrome
MedGen UID:
208670
Concept ID:
C0796135
Disease or Syndrome
Renpenning syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome with clinically recognizable features. Affected individuals have microcephaly, short stature, small testes, and dysmorphic facies, including tall narrow face, upslanting palpebral fissures, abnormal nasal configuration, cupped ears, and short philtrum. The nose may appear long or bulbous, with overhanging columella. Less consistent manifestations include ocular colobomas, cardiac malformations, cleft palate, and anal anomalies. Stevenson et al. (2005) proposed that the various X-linked mental retardation syndromes due to PQBP1 mutations be combined under the name of Renpenning syndrome.
Microcephaly-intellectual disability-phalangeal and neurological anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
490089
Concept ID:
C0796203
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome is characterized by microcephaly, severe intellectual deficit, phalangeal anomalies (cutaneous syndactyly of the fingers, toe brachyclinodactyly and nail hypoplasia) and neurological manifestations (epilepsy, spastic/dystonic paraplegia and brisk reflexes).
X-linked intellectual disability-psychosis-macroorchidism syndrome
MedGen UID:
163232
Concept ID:
C0796222
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of MECP2-related phenotypes in females ranges from classic Rett syndrome to variant Rett syndrome with a broader clinical phenotype (either milder or more severe than classic Rett syndrome) to mild learning disabilities; the spectrum in males ranges from severe neonatal encephalopathy to pyramidal signs, parkinsonism, and macroorchidism (PPM-X) syndrome to severe syndromic/nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Females: Classic Rett syndrome, a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting girls, is characterized by apparently normal psychomotor development during the first six to 18 months of life, followed by a short period of developmental stagnation, then rapid regression in language and motor skills, followed by long-term stability. During the phase of rapid regression, repetitive, stereotypic hand movements replace purposeful hand use. Additional findings include fits of screaming and inconsolable crying, autistic features, panic-like attacks, bruxism, episodic apnea and/or hyperpnea, gait ataxia and apraxia, tremors, seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Males: Severe neonatal-onset encephalopathy, the most common phenotype in affected males, is characterized by a relentless clinical course that follows a metabolic-degenerative type of pattern, abnormal tone, involuntary movements, severe seizures, and breathing abnormalities. Death often occurs before age two years.
Pettigrew syndrome
MedGen UID:
162924
Concept ID:
C0796254
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked Dandy-Walker malformation with intellectual disability, basal ganglia disease and seizures (XDIBS), or Pettigrew syndrome is a central nervous system malformation characterized by severe intellectual deficit, early hypotonia with progression to spasticity and contractures, choreoathetosis, seizures, dysmorphic face (long face with prominent forehead), and brain imaging abnormalities such as Dandy-Walker malformation, and iron deposition. (From Mondo:0010574)
Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
163239
Concept ID:
C0796274
Disease or Syndrome
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and a variety of cranial nerve palsies, usually involving the motor components of the seventh and ninth to twelfth (more rarely the third, fifth, and sixth) cranial nerves. Spinal motor nerves and, less commonly, upper motor neurons are sometimes affected, giving a picture resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; 105400). The onset of the disease is usually in the second decade, but earlier and later onset have been reported. Hearing loss tends to precede the onset of neurologic signs, mostly progressive muscle weakness causing respiratory compromise. However, patients with very early onset may present with bulbar palsy and may not develop hearing loss until later. The symptoms, severity, and disease duration are variable (summary by Green et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome See also BVVLS2 (614707), caused by mutation in the SLC52A2 gene (607882) on chromosome 8q.
6-Pyruvoyl-tetrahydrobiopterin synthase deficiency
MedGen UID:
209234
Concept ID:
C0878676
Disease or Syndrome
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)-deficient hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) comprises a genetically heterogeneous group of progressive neurologic disorders caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the genes encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis or regeneration of BH4. BH4 is a cofactor for phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; 612349), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; 191290) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1; 191060), the latter 2 of which are involved in neurotransmitter synthesis. The BH4-deficient HPAs are characterized phenotypically by hyperphenylalaninemia, depletion of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, and progressive cognitive and motor deficits (Dudesek et al., 2001). HPABH4A, caused by mutations in the PTS gene, represents the most common cause of BH4-deficient hyperphenylalaninemia (Dudesek et al., 2001). Other forms of BH4-deficient HPA include HPABH4B (233910), caused by mutation in the GCH1 gene (600225), HPABH4C (261630), caused by mutation in the QDPR gene (612676), and HPABH4D (264070), caused by mutation in the PCBD1 gene (126090). Niederwieser et al. (1982) noted that about 1 to 3% of patients with hyperphenylalaninemia have one of these BH4-deficient forms. These disorders are clinically and genetically distinct from classic phenylketonuria (PKU; 261600), caused by mutation in the PAH gene. Two additional disorders associated with BH4 deficiency and neurologic symptoms do not have overt hyperphenylalaninemia as a feature: dopa-responsive dystonia (612716), caused by mutation in the SPR gene (182125), and autosomal dominant dopa-responsive dystonia (DYT5; 128230), caused by mutation in the GCH1 gene. Patients with these disorders may develop hyperphenylalaninemia when stressed.
Deficiency of aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase
MedGen UID:
220945
Concept ID:
C1291564
Disease or Syndrome
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency (AADCD) is an autosomal recessive inborn error in neurotransmitter metabolism that leads to combined serotonin and catecholamine deficiency (Abeling et al., 2000). The disorder is clinically characterized by vegetative symptoms, oculogyric crises, dystonia, and severe neurologic dysfunction, usually beginning in infancy or childhood (summary by Brun et al., 2010).
Episodic ataxia type 1
MedGen UID:
318554
Concept ID:
C1719788
Disease or Syndrome
Episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) is a potassium channelopathy characterized by constant myokymia and dramatic episodes of spastic contractions of the skeletal muscles of the head, arms, and legs with loss of both motor coordination and balance. During attacks individuals may experience a number of variable symptoms including vertigo, blurred vision, diplopia, nausea, headache, diaphoresis, clumsiness, stiffening of the body, dysarthric speech, and difficulty in breathing, among others. EA1 may be associated with epilepsy. Other possible associations include delayed motor development, cognitive disability, choreoathetosis, and carpal spasm. Usually, onset is in childhood or early adolescence.
ALG3-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
322026
Concept ID:
C1832736
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzymatic defects in the synthesis and processing of asparagine (N)-linked glycans or oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. Type I CDGs comprise defects in the assembly of the dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) chain and its transfer to the nascent protein. These disorders can be identified by a characteristic abnormal isoelectric focusing profile of plasma transferrin (Leroy, 2006). CDG1D is a type I CDG that generally presents with severe neurologic involvement associated with dysmorphism and visual impairment. Liver involvement is sometimes present (summary by Marques-da-Silva et al., 2017). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Dystonia 9
MedGen UID:
371427
Concept ID:
C1832855
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS) is now known to be a continuum that includes the classic phenotype as well as paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia and epilepsy (previously known as dystonia 18 [DYT18]) and paroxysmal choreoathetosis with spasticity (previously known as dystonia 9 [DYT9]), atypical childhood absence epilepsy, myoclonic astatic epilepsy, and paroxysmal non-epileptic findings including intermittent ataxia, choreoathetosis, dystonia, and alternating hemiplegia. The classic phenotype is characterized by infantile-onset seizures, delayed neurologic development, acquired microcephaly, and complex movement disorders. Seizures in classic early-onset Glut1 DS begin before age six months. Several seizure types occur: generalized tonic or clonic, focal, myoclonic, atypical absence, atonic, and unclassified. In some infants, apneic episodes and abnormal episodic eye-head movements similar to opsoclonus may precede the onset of seizures. The frequency, severity, and type of seizures vary among affected individuals and are not related to disease severity. Cognitive impairment, ranging from learning disabilities to severe intellectual disability, is typical. The complex movement disorder, characterized by ataxia, dystonia, and chorea, may occur in any combination and may be continuous, paroxysmal, or continual with fluctuations in severity influenced by environmental factors such as fasting or with infectious stress. Symptoms often improve substantially when a ketogenic diet is started.
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 7
MedGen UID:
318833
Concept ID:
C1833296
Disease or Syndrome
CHMP2B frontotemporal dementia (CHMP2B-FTD) has been described in a single family from Denmark, in one individual with familial FTD from Belgium, and in one individual with FTD and no family history. It typically starts between ages 46 and 65 years with subtle personality changes and slowly progressive behavioral changes, dysexecutive syndrome, dyscalculia, and language disturbances. Disinhibition or loss of initiative is the most common presenting symptom. The disease progresses over a few years into profound dementia with extrapyramidal symptoms and mutism. Several individuals have developed an asymmetric akinetic rigid syndrome with arm and gait dystonia and pyramidal signs that may be related to treatment with neuroleptic drugs. Symptoms and disease course are highly variable. Disease duration may be as short as three years or longer than 20 years.
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
324389
Concept ID:
C1835916
Disease or Syndrome
Most characteristically, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) manifests as an early-onset encephalopathy that usually, but not always, results in severe intellectual and physical disability. A subgroup of infants with AGS present at birth with abnormal neurologic findings, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia, a picture highly suggestive of congenital infection. Otherwise, most affected infants present at variable times after the first few weeks of life, frequently after a period of apparently normal development. Typically, they demonstrate the subacute onset of a severe encephalopathy characterized by extreme irritability, intermittent sterile pyrexias, loss of skills, and slowing of head growth. Over time, as many as 40% develop chilblain skin lesions on the fingers, toes, and ears. It is becoming apparent that atypical, sometimes milder, cases of AGS exist, and thus the true extent of the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the AGS-related genes is not yet known.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 28
MedGen UID:
332174
Concept ID:
C1836295
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-29 (SPG28) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by early-onset, slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity resulting in walking difficulties. Some patients also have distal sensory impairment (summary by Tesson et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see 270800.
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 7
MedGen UID:
324520
Concept ID:
C1836474
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of progressive gait difficulties, eye movement abnormalities, and dysarthria in the first or second decade of life (summary by Dy et al., 2015).
Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency type 1
MedGen UID:
373113
Concept ID:
C1836544
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NAGA) deficiency is a very rare lysosomal storage disorder. It is clinically heterogeneous with 3 main phenotypes: type I is an infantile-onset neuroaxonal dystrophy; type II, also known as Kanzaki disease (609242), is an adult-onset disorder characterized by angiokeratoma corporis diffusum and mild intellectual impairment; and type III is an intermediate disorder with mild to moderate neurologic manifestations (Desnick and Schindler, 2001).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 26
MedGen UID:
373138
Concept ID:
C1836632
Disease or Syndrome
SPG26 is an autosomal recessive form of complicated spastic paraplegia characterized by onset in the first 2 decades of life of gait abnormalities due to lower limb spasticity and muscle weakness. Some patients have upper limb involvement. Additional features include intellectual disability, peripheral neuropathy, dysarthria, cerebellar signs, extrapyramidal signs, and cortical atrophy. The disorder is slowly progressive (summary by Boukhris et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive SPG, see SPG5A (270800).
Hepatoencephalopathy due to combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 1
MedGen UID:
322999
Concept ID:
C1836797
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder with variable manifestations resulting from a defect in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Onset occurs at or soon after birth, and features can include growth retardation, microcephaly, hypertonicity, axial hypotonia, encephalopathy, cardiomyopathy, and liver dysfunction. Death usually occurs in the first weeks or years of life (summary by Smits et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Combined Oxidative Phosphorylation Deficiency See also COXPD2 (610498), caused by mutation in the MRPS16 gene (609204) on 10q22; COXPD3 (610505), caused by mutation in the TSFM gene (604723) on 12q14; COXPD4 (610678), caused by mutation in the TUFM gene (602389) on 16p11; COXPD5 (611719), caused by mutation in the MRPS22 gene (605810) on 3q23; COXPD6 (300816), caused by mutation in the AIFM1 gene (300169) on Xq26; COXPD7 (613559), caused by mutation in the MTRFR gene (613541) on 12q24; COXPD8 (614096), caused by mutation in the AARS2 gene (612035) on 6p21; COXPD9 (614582), caused by mutation in the MRPL3 gene (607118) on 3q22; COXPD10 (614702), caused by mutation in the MTO1 gene (614667) on 6q13; COXPD11 (614922), caused by mutation in the RMND1 gene (614917) on 6q25; COXPD12 (614924), caused by mutation in the EARS2 gene (612799) on 16p13; COXPD13 (614932), caused by mutation in the PNPT1 gene (610316) on 2p16; COXPD14 (614946), caused by mutation in the FARS2 gene (611592) on 6p25; COXPD15 (614947), caused by mutation in the MTFMT gene (611766) on 15q; COXPD16 (615395), caused by mutation in the MRPL44 gene (611849) on 2q36; COXPD17 (615440), caused by mutation in the ELAC2 gene (605367) on 17p11; COXPD18 (615578), caused by mutation in the SFXN4 gene (615564) on 10q26; COXPD19 (615595), caused by mutation in the LYRM4 gene (613311) on 6p25; COXPD20 (615917), caused by mutation in the VARS2 gene (612802) on 6p21; COXPD21 (615918), caused by mutation in the TARS2 gene (612805) on 1q21; COXPD22 (616045), caused by mutation in the ATP5A1 gene (164360) on 18q12; COXPD23 (616198), caused by mutation in the GTPBP3 (608536) gene on 19p13; COXPD24 (616239), caused by mutation in the NARS2 gene (612803) on 11q14; COXPD25 (616430), caused by mutation in the MARS2 gene (609728) on 2q33; COXPD26 (616539), caused by mutation in the TRMT5 gene (611023) on 14q23; COXPD27 (616672), caused by mutation in the CARS2 gene (612800) on 13q34; COXPD28 (616794), caused by mutation in the SLC25A26 gene (611037) on 3p14; COXPD29 (616811), caused by mutation in the TXN2 gene (609063) on 22q12; COXPD30 (616974), caused by mutation in the TRMT10C gene (615423) on 3q12; and COXPD31 (617228), caused by mutation in the MIPEP gene (602241) on 13q12; COXPD32 (617664), caused by mutation in the MRPS34 gene (611994) on 16q13; COXPD33 (617713), caused by mutation in the C1QBP gene (601269) on 17p13; and COXPD34 (617872), caused by mutation in the MRPS7 gene (611974) on 17q25; COXPD35 (617873), caused by mutation in the TRIT1 gene (617840) on 1p34; COXPD36 (617950), caused by mutation in the MRPS2 gene (611971) on 9q34; COXPD37 (618329), caused by mutation in the MICOS13 gene (616658) on 19p13; COXPD38 (618378), caused by mutation in the MRPS14 gene (611978) on 1q23; COXPD39 (618397), caused by mutation in the GFM2 gene (606544) on 5q13; COXPD40 (618835), caused by mutation in the QRSL1 gene (617209) on 6q21; COXPD41 (618838), caused by mutation in the GATB gene (603645) on 4q31; COXPD42 (618839), caused by mutation in the GATC gene (617210) on 12q24; COXPD43 (618851), caused by mutation in the TIMM22 gene (607251) on 17p13; COXPD44 (618855), caused by mutation in the FASTKD2 gene (612322) on 2q33; COXPD45 (618951), caused by mutation in the MRPL12 gene (602375) on 17q25; COXPD46 (618952), caused by mutation in the MRPS23 gene (611985) on 17q22; COXPD47 (618958), caused by mutation in the MRPS28 gene (611990) on 8q21; COXPD48 (619012), caused by mutation in the NSUN3 gene (617491) on 3q11; COXPD49 (619024), caused by mutation in the MIEF2 gene (615498) on 17p11; COXPD50 (619025), caused by mutation in the MRPS25 gene (611987) on 3p25; COXPD51 (619057), caused by mutation in the PTCD3 gene (614918) on 2p11; COXPD52 (619386), caused by mutation in the NFS1 gene (603485) on 20q11; COXPD53 (619423), caused by mutation in the C2ORF69 gene (619219) on 2q33; and COXPD54 (619737), caused by mutation in the PRORP gene (609947) on 14q13.; COXPD55 (619743), caused by mutation in the POLRMT gene (601778) on 19p13; COXPD56 (620139), caused by mutation in the TAMM41 gene (614948) on 3p25; COXPD57 (620167), caused by mutation in the CRLS1 gene (608188) on 20p12; COXPD58 (620451), caused by mutation in the TEFM gene (616422) on 17q11; and COXPD59 (620646), caused by mutation in the MRPL39 gene (611845) on 21q21.
Hereditary cryohydrocytosis with reduced stomatin
MedGen UID:
332390
Concept ID:
C1837206
Disease or Syndrome
Stomatin-deficient cryohydrocytosis with neurologic defects is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, seizures, cataracts, and pseudohyperkalemia resulting from defects in the red blood cell membrane. The disorder combines the neurologic features of Glut1 deficiency syndrome-1 (GLUT1DS1; 606777), resulting from impaired glucose transport at the blood-brain barrier, and hemolytic anemia/pseudohyperkalemia with stomatocytosis, resulting from a cation leak in erythrocytes (summary by Bawazir et al., 2012). For a discussion of clinical and genetic heterogeneity of red cell stomatocyte disorders, see 194380.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 6
MedGen UID:
324965
Concept ID:
C1838192
Disease or Syndrome
A form of hereditary spastic paraplegia which usually presents in late adolescence or early adulthood as a pure phenotype of lower limb spasticity with hyperreflexia and extensor plantar responses, as well as mild bladder disturbances and pes cavus. Rarely, it can present as a complex phenotype with additional manifestations including epilepsy, variable peripheral neuropathy and/or memory impairment. Caused by mutations in the NIPA1 gene (15q11.2) encoding the magnesium transporter NIPA1.
CARASIL syndrome
MedGen UID:
325051
Concept ID:
C1838577
Disease or Syndrome
HTRA1 disorder is a phenotypic spectrum in which some individuals have few to no symptoms and others manifest with the more severe CARASIL (cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) phenotype. Those who have a heterozygous HTRA1 pathogenic variant may have mild neurologic findings (sometimes identified only on neuroimaging) or mild-to-moderate neurologic signs and symptoms of CARASIL. In this chapter, the term "classic CARASIL" refers to the more severe phenotype associated with biallelic pathogenic variants, and "HTRA1 cerebral small vessel disease" (HTRA1-CSVD) refers to the milder phenotype associated with a heterozygous HTRA1 pathogenic variant. Classic CARASIL is characterized by early-onset changes in the deep white matter of the brain observed on MRI, and associated neurologic findings. The most frequent initial symptom is gait disturbance from spasticity beginning between ages 20 and 40 years. Forty-four percent of affected individuals have stroke-like episodes before age 40 years. Mood changes (apathy and irritability), pseudobulbar palsy, and cognitive dysfunction begin between ages 20 and 50 years. The disease progresses slowly following the onset of neurologic symptoms. Scalp alopecia and acute mid- to lower-back pain (lumbago) before age 30 years are characteristic. The most frequent initial symptom in individuals with HTRA1-CSVD is slowly progressive gait disturbance after age 40 years, which may be followed by the development of mood changes and cognitive dysfunction. A majority of affected individuals have a stroke-like episode after age 40 years. Spondylosis and alopecia are seen in a minority of individuals with HTRA1-CSVD.
Warburg micro syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
333142
Concept ID:
C1838625
Disease or Syndrome
RAB18 deficiency is the molecular deficit underlying both Warburg micro syndrome (characterized by eye, nervous system, and endocrine abnormalities) and Martsolf syndrome (characterized by similar – but milder – findings). To date Warburg micro syndrome comprises >96% of reported individuals with genetically defined RAB18 deficiency. The hallmark ophthalmologic findings are bilateral congenital cataracts, usually accompanied by microphthalmia, microcornea (diameter <10), and small atonic pupils. Poor vision despite early cataract surgery likely results from progressive optic atrophy and cortical visual impairment. Individuals with Warburg micro syndrome have severe to profound intellectual disability (ID); those with Martsolf syndrome have mild to moderate ID. Some individuals with RAB18 deficiency also have epilepsy. In Warburg micro syndrome, a progressive ascending spastic paraplegia typically begins with spastic diplegia and contractures during the first year, followed by upper-limb involvement leading to spastic quadriplegia after about age five years, often eventually causing breathing difficulties. In Martsolf syndrome infantile hypotonia is followed primarily by slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity. Hypogonadism – when present – manifests in both syndromes, in males as micropenis and/or cryptorchidism and in females as hypoplastic labia minora, clitoral hypoplasia, and small introitus.
Mitochondrial complex I deficiency
MedGen UID:
374101
Concept ID:
C1838979
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated complex I deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism due to mutations in nuclear or mitochondrial genes encoding subunits or assembly factors of the human mitochondrial complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase) and is characterized by a wide range of manifestations including marked and often fatal lactic acidosis, cardiomyopathy, leukoencephalopathy, pure myopathy and hepatopathy with tubulopathy. Among the numerous clinical phenotypes observed are Leigh syndrome, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and MELAS syndrome (see these terms).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 2
MedGen UID:
374177
Concept ID:
C1839264
Disease or Syndrome
PLP1 disorders of central nervous system myelin formation include a range of phenotypes from Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) to spastic paraplegia 2 (SPG2). PMD typically manifests in infancy or early childhood with nystagmus, hypotonia, and cognitive impairment; the findings progress to severe spasticity and ataxia. Life span is shortened. SPG2 manifests as spastic paraparesis with or without CNS involvement and usually normal life span. Intrafamilial variation of phenotypes can be observed, but the signs are usually fairly consistent within families. Heterozygous females may manifest mild-to-moderate signs of the disease.
Infantile-onset autosomal recessive nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
334220
Concept ID:
C1842676
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia disease with characteristics of nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia, with onset in infancy, manifesting with delayed motor and speech development, gait ataxia, dysmetria, hypotonia, increased deep tendon reflexes and dysarthria. Additional variable manifestations include moderate nystagmus on lateral gaze, mild spasticity, intention tremor, short stature and pes planus. Brain imaging reveals cerebellar vermis atrophy.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 3
MedGen UID:
334225
Concept ID:
C1842687
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by an abnormally small cerebellum and brainstem. Clinical features vary, but usually include severe developmental delay, dysmorphic features, seizures, and early death (summary by Durmaz et al., 2009). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
ALG2-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
334618
Concept ID:
C1842836
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ii (CDG1I) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neurologic involvement, including a convulsive syndrome of unknown origin, axial hypotonia, and mental and motor regression (summary by Papazoglu et al., 2021). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1A
MedGen UID:
335969
Concept ID:
C1843504
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) refers to a group of severe neurodegenerative disorders affecting growth and function of the brainstem and cerebellum, resulting in little or no development. Different types were classified based on the clinical picture and the spectrum of pathologic changes. PCH type 1 is characterized by central and peripheral motor dysfunction associated with anterior horn cell degeneration resembling infantile spinal muscular atrophy (SMA; see SMA1, 253300); death usually occurs early. Genetic Heterogeneity of Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia Also see PCH1B (614678), caused by mutation in the EXOSC3 gene (606489); PCH1C (616081), caused by mutation in the EXOSC8 gene (606019); PCH1D (618065), caused by mutation in the EXOSC9 gene (606180); PCH1E (619303), caused by mutation in the SLC25A46 gene (610826); PCH1F (619304), caused by mutation in the EXOSC1 gene (606493); PCH2A (277470), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene (608755); PCH2B (612389), caused by mutation in the TSEN2 gene (608753); PCH2C (612390), caused by mutation in the TSEN34 gene (608754); PCH2D (613811), caused by mutation in the SEPSECS gene (613009); PCH3 (608027), caused by mutation in the PCLO gene (604918); PCH4 (225753), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene; PCH5 (610204), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene; PCH6 (611523), caused by mutation in the RARS2 gene (611524); PCH7 (614969), caused by mutation in the TOE1 gene (613931); PCH8 (614961), caused by mutation in the CHMP1A gene (164010); PCH9 (615809), caused by mutation in the AMPD2 gene (102771); PCH10 (615803), caused by mutation in the CLP1 gene (608757); PCH11 (617695), caused by mutation in the TBC1D23 gene (617687); PCH12 (618266), caused by mutation in the COASY gene (609855); PCH13 (618606), caused by mutation in the VPS51 gene (615738); PCH14 (619301), caused by mutation in the PPIL1 gene (601301); PCH15 (619302), caused by mutation in the CDC40 gene (605585); PCH16 (619527), caused by mutation in the MINPP1 gene (605391); and PCH17 (619909), caused by mutation in the PRDM13 gene (616741) on chromosome 6q16.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 24
MedGen UID:
334784
Concept ID:
C1843569
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare pure form of spastic paraplegia with characteristics of onset in infancy of lower limb spasticity associated with gait disturbances, scissor gait, tiptoe walking, clonus and increased deep tendon reflexes. Mild upper limb involvement may occasionally also be associated.
Spastic paraplegia, ataxia, and intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
336010
Concept ID:
C1843661
Disease or Syndrome
Migraine without aura, susceptibility to, 4
MedGen UID:
336040
Concept ID:
C1843773
Finding
An inherited susceptibility or predisposition to developing migraines without aura.
X-linked sideroblastic anemia with ataxia
MedGen UID:
335078
Concept ID:
C1845028
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia is a rare condition characterized by a blood disorder called sideroblastic anemia and movement problems known as ataxia. This condition occurs only in males.\n\nSideroblastic anemia results when developing red blood cells called erythroblasts do not make enough hemoglobin, which is the protein that carries oxygen in the blood. People with X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia have mature red blood cells that are smaller than normal (microcytic) and appear pale (hypochromic) because of the shortage of hemoglobin. This disorder also leads to an abnormal accumulation of iron in red blood cells. The iron-loaded erythroblasts, which are present in bone marrow, are called ring sideroblasts. These abnormal cells give the condition its name. Unlike other forms of sideroblastic anemia, X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia does not cause a potentially dangerous buildup of iron in the body. The anemia is typically mild and usually does not cause any symptoms.\n\nX-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia causes problems with balance and coordination that appear early in life. The ataxia primarily affects the trunk, making it difficult to sit, stand, and walk unassisted. In addition to ataxia, people with this condition often have trouble coordinating movements that involve judging distance or scale (dysmetria) and find it difficult to make rapid, alternating movements (dysdiadochokinesis). Mild speech difficulties (dysarthria), tremor, and abnormal eye movements have also been reported in some affected individuals.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Claes-Jensen type
MedGen UID:
335139
Concept ID:
C1845243
Disease or Syndrome
Claes-Jensen type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSCJ) is characterized by impaired intellectual development with substantial clinical heterogeneity in affected males. However, males are usually reported to have short stature, microcephaly, hyperreflexia, and aggressive behavior. In rare cases, female carriers exhibit mildly impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties (summary by Guerra et al., 2020).
Intellectual disability, X-linked 63
MedGen UID:
337002
Concept ID:
C1845672
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ACSL4 gene.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 16
MedGen UID:
375796
Concept ID:
C1846046
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegias (SPGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of neurologic disorders characterized by progressive weakness and spasticity of the legs. Complicated SPGs are accompanied by additional neurologic symptoms such as cerebellar ataxia, sensory loss, mental retardation, nystagmus, and optic atrophy (summary by Steinmuller et al., 1997). A locus for spastic paraplegia-16 has been mapped to Xq11.2-q23 (Steinmuller et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of X-linked spastic paraplegia, see 303350.
X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia
MedGen UID:
375832
Concept ID:
C1846171
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked lissencephaly-2 (LISX2) is a developmental disorder characterized by structural brain anomalies, early-onset intractable seizures, severe psychomotor retardation, and ambiguous genitalia. Males are severely affected and often die within the first days or months of life, whereas females may be unaffected or have a milder phenotype (Bonneau et al., 2002). LISX2 is part of a phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by mutation in the ARX gene comprising a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders ranging from hydranencephaly and lissencephaly to Proud syndrome (300004) to infantile spasms without brain malformations (DEE1; 308350) to syndromic (309510) and nonsyndromic (300419) mental retardation (Kato et al., 2004; Wallerstein et al., 2008). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432).
MEHMO syndrome
MedGen UID:
375855
Concept ID:
C1846278
Disease or Syndrome
MEHMO syndrome is a rare intellectual disability disorder that exhibits phenotypic heterogeneity and is variably characterized by mental retardation, epileptic seizures, hypogonadism with hypogenitalism, microcephaly, and obesity. Life expectancy ranges from less than 1 year to adulthood, and the condition is associated with significant morbidity and mortality (summary by Gregory et al., 2019).
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 19/22
MedGen UID:
339504
Concept ID:
C1846367
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-19 (SCA19) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia with a variable age of onset (age 2 years to late adulthood). Other neurologic manifestations include developmental delay and cognitive impairment; movement disorders including myoclonus, dystonia, rigidity, and bradykinesia; and seizures. For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia-saccadic intrusion syndrome
MedGen UID:
335442
Concept ID:
C1846492
Disease or Syndrome
VPS13D movement disorder is a hyperkinetic movement disorder (dystonia, chorea, and/or ataxia) of variable age of onset that can be associated with developmental delay. Onset ranges from birth to adulthood. Individuals can present in childhood with motor delays and gait instability. Cognitive impairment ranging from mild intellectual disability to developmental delay has been reported, and several individuals have normal cognitive function. Individuals have also presented as young adults with gait difficulties caused by spastic ataxia or ataxia. In addition to gait ataxia, affected individuals had limb ataxia, dysarthria, and eye movement abnormalities (macro-saccadic oscillations, nystagmus, and saccadic pursuit). Additional features reported in some individuals include peripheral neuropathy and/or seizures. The disorder progresses to spastic ataxia or generalized dystonia, which can lead to loss of independent ambulation.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 7
MedGen UID:
339552
Concept ID:
C1846564
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia 7 (SPG7) is characterized by insidiously progressive bilateral leg weakness and spasticity. Most affected individuals have decreased vibration sense and cerebellar signs. Onset is mostly in adulthood, although symptoms may start as early as age 11 years and as late as age 72 years. Additional features including ataxia (gait and limbs), spastic dysarthria, dysphagia, pale optic disks, ataxia, nystagmus, strabismus, ptosis, hearing loss, motor and sensory neuropathy, amyotrophy, scoliosis, pes cavus, and urinary sphincter disturbances may be observed.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 19
MedGen UID:
335494
Concept ID:
C1846685
Disease or Syndrome
A pure form of hereditary spastic paraplegia with characteristics of a slowly progressive and relatively benign spastic paraplegia presenting in adulthood with spastic gait, lower limb hyperreflexia, extensor plantar responses, bladder dysfunction (urinary urgency and/or incontinence), and mild sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy.
Bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria
MedGen UID:
376107
Concept ID:
C1847352
Disease or Syndrome
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-14A (CDCBM14A) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, motor delay, poor speech development, and early-onset seizures, often focal or atypical absence. Additional features may include strabismus, nystagmus, exo- or esotropia, axial hypotonia, and spasticity. Brain imaging shows bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria, a frontal-predominant cobblestone malformation of the cortex, scalloping of the cortical/white matter junction, enlarged ventricles, and hypoplasia of the pons, brainstem, and cerebellum. The disorder can be classified as a malformation of cortical development (summary by Parrini et al., 2009; Luo et al., 2011; Zulfiqar et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039).
Kufor-Rakeb syndrome
MedGen UID:
338281
Concept ID:
C1847640
Disease or Syndrome
Kufor-Rakeb syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive form of juvenile-onset atypical Parkinson disease (PARK9) associated with supranuclear gaze palsy, spasticity, and dementia. Some patients have neuroradiologic evidence of iron deposition in the basal ganglia, indicating that the pathogenesis of PARK9 can be considered among the syndromes of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA; see 234200) (summary by Bruggemann et al., 2010). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease (PD), see 168600. Biallelic mutation in the ATP13A2 gene also causes autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-78 (SPG78; 617225), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder with overlapping features. Patients with SPG78 have later onset and prominent spasticity, but rarely parkinsonism. Loss of ATP13A2 function results in a multidimensional spectrum of neurologic features reflecting various regions of the brain and nervous system, including cortical, pyramidal, extrapyramidal, brainstem, cerebellar, and peripheral (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017).
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 15/16
MedGen UID:
338301
Concept ID:
C1847725
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 15 (SCA15) is characterized by slowly progressive gait and limb ataxia, often in combination with ataxic dysarthria, titubation, upper limb postural tremor, mild hyperreflexia, gaze-evoked nystagmus, and impaired vestibuloocular reflex gain. Onset is between ages seven and 72 years, usually with gait ataxia but sometimes with tremor. Affected individuals remain ambulatory for ten to 54 years after symptom onset. Mild dysphagia usually after two or more decades of symptoms has been observed in members of multiple affected families and movement-induced oscillopsia has been described in one member of an affected family.
Huntington disease-like 2
MedGen UID:
341120
Concept ID:
C1847987
Disease or Syndrome
Huntington disease-like 2 (HDL2) typically presents in midlife with a relentless progressive triad of movement, emotional, and cognitive abnormalities which lead to death within ten to 20 years. HDL2 cannot be differentiated from Huntington disease clinically. Neurologic abnormalities include chorea, hypokinesia (rigidity, bradykinesia), dysarthria, and hyperreflexia in the later stages of the disease. There is a strong correlation between the duration of the disease and the progression of the motor and cognitive disorder.
Graves disease, susceptibility to, 1
MedGen UID:
341307
Concept ID:
C1848795
Finding
Graves disease (GRD) is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies to the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR; 603372) result in constitutive activation of the receptor and increased levels of thyroid hormone. Wilkin (1990) reviewed endocrine disorders of hormone excess and hormone deficiency resulting from receptor autoimmunity. Genetic Heterogeneity of Graves Disease Susceptibility to Graves disease-1 (GRD1) has been mapped to chromosome 14q31. Other susceptibility loci for Graves disease include GRD2 (603388) on chromosome 20q13, GRDX1 (300351) on Xp11, and GRDX2 (see 300351) on Xq21.33-q22. Graves disease has also been mapped to several loci that confer susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid diseases, including Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT; 140300): AITD1 (608173) on 6p11; AITD2 (608174) on 5q31-q33; AITD3 (608175) on 8q24; AITD4 (608176) on 10q, and AITD5 (601941) on 18q21.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 5A
MedGen UID:
376521
Concept ID:
C1849115
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-5A (SPG5A) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with a wide phenotypic spectrum. Some patients have pure spastic paraplegia affecting only gait, whereas others may have a complicated phenotype with additional manifestations, including optic atrophy or cerebellar ataxia (summary by Arnoldi et al., 2012). The hereditary spastic paraplegias (SPG) are a group of clinically and genetically diverse disorders characterized by progressive, usually severe, lower extremity spasticity; see reviews of Fink et al. (1996) and Fink (1997). Inheritance is most often autosomal dominant (see 182600), but X-linked (see 303350) and autosomal recessive forms also occur. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Spastic Paraplegia Autosomal recessive forms of SPG include SPG7 (607259), caused by mutation in the paraplegin gene (602783) on chromosome 16q24; SPG9B (616586), caused by mutation in the ALDH18A1 gene (138250) on 10q24; SPG11 (604360), caused by mutation in the spatacsin gene (610844) on 15q21; SPG15 (270700), caused by mutation in the ZFYVE26 gene (612012) on 14q24; SPG18 (611225), caused by mutation in the ERLIN2 gene (611605) on 8p11; SPG20 (275900), caused by mutation in the spartin gene (607111) on 13q12; SPG21 (248900), caused by mutation in the maspardin gene (608181) on 15q21; SPG26 (609195), caused by mutation in the B4GALNT1 gene (601873) on 12q13; SPG28 (609340), caused by mutation in the DDHD1 gene (614603) on 14q22; SPG30 (610357), caused by mutation in the KIF1A gene (601255) on 2q37; SPG35 (612319), caused by mutation in the FA2H gene (611026) on 16q23; SPG39 (612020), caused by mutation in the PNPLA6 gene (603197) on 19p13; SPG43 (615043), caused by mutation in the C19ORF12 gene (614297) on 19q12; SPG44 (613206), caused by mutation in the GJC2 gene (608803) on 1q42; SPG45 (613162), caused by mutation in the NT5C2 gene (600417) on 10q24; SPG46 (614409), caused by mutation in the GBA2 gene (609471) on 9p13; SPG48 (613647), caused by mutation in the KIAA0415 gene (613653) on 7p22; SPG50 (612936), caused by mutation in the AP4M1 gene (602296) on 7q22; SPG51 (613744), caused by mutation in the AP4E1 gene (607244) on 15q21; SPG52 (614067), caused by mutation in the AP4S1 gene (607243) on 14q12; SPG53 (614898), caused by mutation in the VPS37A gene (609927) on 8p22; SPG54 (615033), caused by mutation in the DDHD2 gene (615003) on 8p11; SPG55 (615035), caused by mutation in the MTRFR gene on 12q24; SPG56 (615030), caused by mutation in the CYP2U1 gene (610670) on 4q25; SPG57 (615658), caused by mutation in the TFG gene (602498) on 3q12; SPG61 (615685), caused by mutation in the ARL6IP1 gene (607669) on 1p12; SPG62 (615681), caused by mutation in the ERLIN1 gene on 10q24; SPG63 (615686), caused by mutation in the AMPD2 gene (102771) on 1p13; SPG64 (615683), caused by mutation in the ENTPD1 gene (601752) on 10q24; SPG72 (615625), caused by mutation in the REEP2 gene (609347) on 5q31; SPG74 (616451), caused by mutation in the IBA57 gene (615316) on 1q42; SPG75 (616680), caused by mutation in the MAG gene (159460) on 19q13; SPG76 (616907), caused by mutation in the CAPN1 gene (114220) on 11q13; SPG77 (617046), caused by mutation in the FARS2 gene (611592) on 6p25; SPG78 (617225), caused by mutation in the ATP13A2 gene (610513) on 1p36; SPG79 (615491), caused by mutation in the UCHL1 gene (191342) on 4p13; SPG81 (618768), caused by mutation in the SELENOI gene (607915) on 2p23; SPG82 (618770), caused by mutation in the PCYT2 gene (602679) on 17q25; SPG83 (619027), caused by mutation in the HPDL gene (618994) on 1p34; SPG84 (619621), caused by mutation in the PI4KA gene (600286) on 22q11; SPG85 (619686), caused by mutation in the RNF170 gene (614649) on 8p11; SPG86 (619735), caused by mutation in the ABHD16A gene (142620) on 6p21; SPG87 (619966), caused by mutation in the TMEM63C gene (619953) on 14q24; SPG89 (620379), caused by mutation in the AMFR gene (603243) on 16q13; and SPG90B (620417), caused by mutation in the SPTSSA gene (613540) on 14q13. Additional autosomal recessive forms of SPG have been mapped to chromosomes 3q (SPG14; 605229), 13q14 (SPG24; 607584), 6q (SPG25; 608220), and 10q22 (SPG27; 609041). A disorder that was formerly designated SPG49 has been reclassified as hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy-9 with developmental delay (HSAN9; 615031).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 15
MedGen UID:
341387
Concept ID:
C1849128
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia 15 (SPG15), typically an early-onset complex hereditary spastic paraplegia, is characterized by progressive spasticity that begins in the lower extremities and is associated with several manifestations resulting from central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction. While onset of spasticity is typically in mid- to late childhood or adolescence (i.e., between ages 5 and 18 years), other manifestations, such as developmental delay or learning disability, may be present earlier, often preceding motor involvement. Individuals with adult onset have also been reported.
Charlevoix-Saguenay spastic ataxia
MedGen UID:
338620
Concept ID:
C1849140
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is clinically characterized by a progressive cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, and spasticity. Disease onset of classic ARSACS is often in early childhood, leading to delayed walking because of gait unsteadiness in very young toddlers, while an increasing number of individuals with disease onset in teenage or early-adult years are now being described. Typically the ataxia is followed by lower-limb spasticity and later by peripheral neuropathy – although pronounced peripheral neuropathy has been observed as a first sign of ARSACS. Oculomotor disturbances, dysarthria, and upper-limb ataxia develop with slower progression than the other findings. Brain imaging demonstrates atrophy of the superior vermis and the cerebellar hemisphere with additional findings on MRI, such as linear hypointensities in the pons and hyperintense rims around the thalami. Many affected individuals (though not all) have yellow streaks of hypermyelinated fibers radiating from the edges of the optic disc noted on ophthalmologic exam, and thickened retinal fibers can be demonstrated by optical coherence tomography. Mild intellectual disability, hearing loss, and urinary urgency and incontinence have been reported in some individuals.
PEHO syndrome
MedGen UID:
342404
Concept ID:
C1850055
Disease or Syndrome
PEHO is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by extreme cerebellar atrophy due to almost total loss of granule neurons. Affected individuals present in early infancy with hypotonia, profoundly delayed psychomotor development, optic atrophy, progressive atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem, and dysmyelination. Most patients also develop infantile seizures that are often associated with hypsarrhythmia on EEG, and many have peripheral edema (summary by Anttonen et al., 2017).
PEHO-like syndrome
MedGen UID:
337956
Concept ID:
C1850056
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic neurological disease characterized by progressive encephalopathy, early-onset seizures with a hypsarrhythmic pattern, facial and limb edema, severe hypotonia, early arrest of psychomotor development and craniofacial dysmorphism (evolving microcephaly, narrow forehead, short nose, prominent auricles, open mouth, micrognathia), in the absence of neuro-ophthalmic or neuroradiologic findings. Poor visual responsiveness, growth failure and tapering fingers are also associated. There is evidence the disease is caused by homozygous mutation in the CCDC88A gene on chromosome 2p16.
Parkinsonian-pyramidal syndrome
MedGen UID:
337969
Concept ID:
C1850100
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.\n\nOften the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.\n\nParkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory.\n\nGenerally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.
Giant axonal neuropathy 1
MedGen UID:
376775
Concept ID:
C1850386
Disease or Syndrome
GAN-related neurodegeneration comprises a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe (sometimes called classic giant axonal neuropathy) to milder pure early-onset peripheral motor and sensory neuropathies. The classic giant axonal neuropathy phenotype typically manifests as an infantile-onset neurodegenerative disorder, starting as a severe peripheral motor and sensory neuropathy and evolving into central nervous system impairment (intellectual disability, seizures, cerebellar signs, and pyramidal tract signs). Most affected individuals become wheelchair dependent in the second decade of life and eventually bedridden with severe polyneuropathy, ataxia, and dementia. Death usually occurs in the third decade. At the milder end of the spectrum are predominantly motor and sensory neuropathies (with little to no CNS involvement) that overlap with the axonal form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies.
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy with spastic paraplegia
MedGen UID:
342492
Concept ID:
C1850395
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome is characterized by the association of an axonal sensory and autonomic neuropathy with spastic paraplegia.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 34
MedGen UID:
338703
Concept ID:
C1851481
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-34 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia. The age at onset is usually during the young adult years, and most patients remain ambulatory until late in life. One family with SCA34 also had onset of erythema and hyperkeratosis in early childhood (Cadieux-Dion et al., 2014), whereas other families have additional neurologic signs, including ocular movement disturbances and pyramidal tract signs (Ozaki et al., 2015). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
Dystonia 5
MedGen UID:
342121
Concept ID:
C1851920
Disease or Syndrome
GTP cyclohydrolase 1-deficient dopa-responsive dystonia (GTPCH1-deficient DRD) is characterized by childhood-onset dystonia and a dramatic and sustained response to low doses of oral administration of levodopa. This disorder typically presents with gait disturbance caused by foot dystonia, later development of parkinsonism, and diurnal fluctuation of symptoms (aggravation of symptoms toward the evening and alleviation of symptoms in the morning after sleep). Initial symptoms are often gait difficulties attributable to flexion-inversion (equinovarus posture) of the foot. Occasionally, initial symptoms are arm dystonia, postural tremor of the hand, or slowness of movements. Brisk deep-tendon reflexes in the legs, ankle clonus, and/or the striatal toe (dystonic extension of the big toe) are present in many affected individuals. In general, gradual progression to generalized dystonia is observed. Intellectual, cerebellar, sensory, and autonomic disturbances generally do not occur.
Early-onset generalized limb-onset dystonia
MedGen UID:
338823
Concept ID:
C1851945
Disease or Syndrome
DYT1 early-onset isolated dystonia typically presents in childhood or adolescence and only on occasion in adulthood. Dystonic muscle contractions causing posturing or irregular tremor of a leg or arm are the most common presenting findings. Dystonia is usually first apparent with specific actions such as writing or walking. Over time, the contractions frequently (but not invariably) become evident with less specific actions and spread to other body regions. No other neurologic abnormalities are present. Disease severity varies considerably even within the same family. Isolated writer's cramp may be the only sign.
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
342798
Concept ID:
C1853100
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome-4 (COFS4) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features, arthrogryposis, and neurologic abnormalities. Cellular studies show a defect in both transcription-coupled and global genome nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER and GG-NER) (summary by Jaspers et al., 2007 and Kashiyama et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome, see 214150.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 31
MedGen UID:
377858
Concept ID:
C1853247
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-31 (SPG31) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized primarily by spasticity of the lower limbs, resulting in gait abnormalities and muscle weakness. There is a bimodal age at onset with a peak in the second and fourth decades of life. Most affected individuals have a 'pure' form of the disorder with gait difficulties and hyperreflexia of the lower limbs. However, there is phenotypic heterogeneity, and some patients have a 'complex' form of the disorder with additional signs and symptoms, such as peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, postural tremor, or urinary symptoms. The disorder is slowly progressive, and there is intrafamilial variability and incomplete penetrance (summary by Goizet et al., 2011 and Toft et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia, see SPG3A (182600).
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 23
MedGen UID:
339942
Concept ID:
C1853250
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-23 (SCA23) is an adult-onset autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by slowly progressive gait and limb ataxia, with variable additional features, including peripheral neuropathy and dysarthria (Bakalkin et al., 2010). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 33
MedGen UID:
339943
Concept ID:
C1853251
Disease or Syndrome
Any hereditary spastic paraplegia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ZFYVE27 gene.
Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis
MedGen UID:
342870
Concept ID:
C1853396
Disease or Syndrome
ALS2-related disorder involves retrograde degeneration of the upper motor neurons of the pyramidal tracts and comprises a clinical continuum of the following three phenotypes: Infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia (IAHSP), characterized by onset of spasticity with increased reflexes and sustained clonus of the lower limbs within the first two years of life, progressive weakness and spasticity of the upper limbs by age seven to eight years, and wheelchair dependence in the second decade with progression toward severe spastic tetraparesis and a pseudobulbar syndrome caused by progressive cranial nerve involvement. Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS), characterized by upper motor neuron findings of pseudobulbar palsy and spastic quadriplegia without dementia or cerebellar, extrapyramidal, or sensory signs. Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS or ALS2), characterized by onset between ages three and 20 years. All affected individuals show a spastic pseudobulbar syndrome (spasticity of speech and swallowing) together with spastic paraplegia. Some individuals are bedridden by age 12 to 50 years.
Neuroferritinopathy
MedGen UID:
381211
Concept ID:
C1853578
Disease or Syndrome
Neuroferritinopathy is an adult-onset progressive movement disorder characterized by chorea or dystonia and speech and swallowing deficits. The movement disorder typically affects one or two limbs and progresses to become more generalized within 20 years of disease onset. When present, asymmetry in the movement abnormalities remains throughout the course of the disorder. Most individuals develop a characteristic orofacial action-specific dystonia related to speech that leads to dysarthrophonia. Frontalis overactivity and orolingual dyskinesia are common. Cognitive deficits and behavioral issues become major problems with time.
Autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson disease 6
MedGen UID:
342982
Concept ID:
C1853833
Disease or Syndrome
PINK1 type of young-onset Parkinson disease is characterized by early onset (mean age 33 years) of tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity that are often indistinguishable from other causes of Parkinson disease. Lower-limb dystonia may be a presenting sign. Postural instability, hyperreflexia, abnormal behavior, and psychiatric manifestations have been described. The disease is usually slowly progressive. Individuals have a marked and sustained response to oral administration of levodopa (L-dopa), frequently associated with L-dopa-induced fluctuations and dyskinesias.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14
MedGen UID:
343106
Concept ID:
C1854369
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is characterized by slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and nystagmus. Axial myoclonus, cognitive impairment, tremor, and sensory loss may also be observed. Parkinsonian features including rigidity and tremor have been described in some families. Findings seen in other ataxia disorders (e.g., dysphagia, dysphonia) may also occur in SCA14. The average age of onset is in the 30s, with a range from childhood to the seventh decade. Life span is not shortened.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 13
MedGen UID:
344289
Concept ID:
C1854467
Disease or Syndrome
A rare hereditary spastic paraplegia with characteristics of progressive spastic paraplegia with pyramidal signs in the lower limbs, decreased vibration sense, and increased reflexes in the upper limbs. Caused by heterozygous mutation in the HSPD1 on chromosome 2q33.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 13
MedGen UID:
344297
Concept ID:
C1854488
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 13 (SCA13) is a phenotypic spectrum that includes both non-progressive infantile-onset ataxia and progressive childhood-onset and adult-onset cerebellar ataxia. Three phenotypes are seen: Cerebellar hypoplasia with non-progressive infantile-onset limb, truncal, and gait ataxia with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and occasionally seizures and/or psychiatric manifestations. Cognition and motor skills improve over time. Childhood-onset slowly progressive cerebellar atrophy with slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia and dysarthria, delayed motor milestones, and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Adult-onset progressive cerebellar atrophy with progressive ataxia and spasticity.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 14
MedGen UID:
343157
Concept ID:
C1854568
Disease or Syndrome
A rare complex hereditary spastic paraplegia with characteristics of adulthood onset of slowly progressive spastic paraplegia of lower limbs presenting with spastic gait, hyperreflexia and mild lower limb hypertonicity associated with mild intellectual disability, visual agnosia, short and long-term memory deficiency and mild distal motor neuropathy. Bilateral pes cavus and extensor plantar responses are also associated.
Sulfite oxidase deficiency due to molybdenum cofactor deficiency type C
MedGen UID:
340761
Concept ID:
C1854990
Disease or Syndrome
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) represents a spectrum, with some individuals experiencing significant signs and symptoms in the neonatal period and early infancy (termed early-onset or severe MoCD) and others developing signs and symptoms in childhood or adulthood (termed late-onset or mild MoCD). Individuals with early-onset MoCD typically present in the first days of life with severe encephalopathy, including refractory seizures, opisthotonos, axial and appendicular hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and apnea. Head imaging may demonstrate loss of gray and white matter differentiation, gyral swelling, sulci injury (typically assessed by evaluating the depth of focal lesional injury within the sulci), diffusely elevated T2-weighted signal, and panlobar diffusion restriction throughout the forebrain and midbrain with relative sparring of the brain stem. Prognosis for early-onset MoCD is poor, with about 75% succumbing in infancy to secondary complications of their neurologic disability (i.e., pneumonia). Late-onset MoCD is typically characterized by milder symptoms, such as acute neurologic decompensation in the setting of infection. Episodes vary in nature but commonly consist of altered mental status, dystonia, choreoathetosis, ataxia, nystagmus, and fluctuating hypotonia and hypertonia. These features may improve after resolution of the inciting infection or progress in a gradual or stochastic manner over the lifetime. Brain imaging may be normal or may demonstrate T2-weighted hyperintense or cystic lesions in the globus pallidus, thinning of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar atrophy.
Mast syndrome
MedGen UID:
343325
Concept ID:
C1855346
Disease or Syndrome
Mast syndrome (MASTS) is an autosomal recessive complicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia in which progressive spastic paraparesis is associated in more advanced cases with cognitive decline, dementia, and other neurologic abnormalities. Symptom onset usually occurs in adulthood, and the disorder is progressive with variable severity. Brain imaging shows thinning of the corpus callosum. The disorder occurs with high frequency in the Old Order Amish (summary by Simpson et al., 2003). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 deficiency
MedGen UID:
343386
Concept ID:
C1855565
Disease or Syndrome
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of neurological problems. Signs and symptoms of this condition usually first appear shortly after birth, and they can vary widely among affected individuals. The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, vomiting, severe breathing problems, and an abnormal heartbeat. People with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency usually have neurological problems as well. Most have delayed development of mental abilities and motor skills such as sitting and walking. Other neurological problems can include intellectual disability, seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), poor coordination, and difficulty walking. Some affected individuals have abnormal brain structures, such as underdevelopment of the tissue connecting the left and right halves of the brain (corpus callosum), wasting away (atrophy) of the exterior part of the brain known as the cerebral cortex, or patches of damaged tissue (lesions) on some parts of the brain. Because of the severe health effects, many individuals with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency do not survive past childhood, although some may live into adolescence or adulthood.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 29
MedGen UID:
346682
Concept ID:
C1857855
Disease or Syndrome
A complex form of hereditary spastic paraplegia characterised by a spastic paraplegia presenting in adolescence, associated with the additional manifestations of sensorial hearing impairment due to auditory neuropathy and persistent vomiting due to a hiatal or paraoesophageal hernia. The phenotype has been mapped to a locus on chromosome 1p31.1-p21.1.
NDE1-related microhydranencephaly
MedGen UID:
341899
Concept ID:
C1857977
Disease or Syndrome
Microhydranencephaly (MHAC) is a severe neurodevelopmental defect characterized by extreme microcephaly, profound motor and mental retardation, spasticity, and incomplete cerebral formation. Radiologic studies show gross dilation of the ventricles resulting from the absence of cerebral hemispheres or severe delay in their development, as well as hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, cerebellum, and brainstem (summary by Guven et al., 2012).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 12
MedGen UID:
347618
Concept ID:
C1858106
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-12 is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by lower limb spasticity and hyperreflexia, resulting in walking difficulties. Some patients may have urinary symptoms and distal sensory impairment. The age at onset is variable and can range from childhood to adulthood (summary by Montenegro et al., 2012). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia, see SPG3A (182600).
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 11
MedGen UID:
346799
Concept ID:
C1858351
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 11 (SCA11) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and abnormal eye signs (jerky pursuit, horizontal and vertical nystagmus). Pyramidal features are seen on occasion. Peripheral neuropathy and dystonia are rare. Six families have been reported to date, one each from the UK, Pakistan, France, Germany, Denmark, and China. Age of onset ranged from early childhood to the mid-40s. Life span is thought to be normal.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 12
MedGen UID:
347653
Concept ID:
C1858501
Disease or Syndrome
Rare disease with manifestations of action tremor associated with relatively mild cerebellar ataxia. Associated pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs and dementia have been reported. Prevalence is unknown. Approximately 40 families have been reported. The pathogenesis seems to be related to a toxic effect at the RNA level as it is caused by a CAG expansion at the 5'' end of the PPP2R2B gene on chromosome 5q31-5q32.
Microcephaly 2, primary, autosomal recessive, with or without cortical malformations
MedGen UID:
346929
Concept ID:
C1858535
Disease or Syndrome
In WDR62 primary microcephaly (WDR62-MCPH), microcephaly (occipitofrontal circumference [OFC] = -2 SD) is usually present at birth, but in some instances becomes evident later in the first year of life. Growth is otherwise normal. Except for brain malformations in most affected individuals, no other congenital malformations are observed. Central nervous system involvement can include delayed motor development, mild-to-severe intellectual disability (ID), behavior problems, epilepsy, spasticity, and ataxia.
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 2
MedGen UID:
349134
Concept ID:
C1859298
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-2 is an neurologic disorder characterized by onset of impaired motor development and ataxic gait in early childhood. Additional features often include loss of fine motor skills, dysarthria, nystagmus, cerebellar signs, and delayed cognitive development with intellectual disability. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy. Overall, the disorder is non- or slowly progressive, with survival into adulthood (summary by Jobling et al., 2015).
3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase 2 deficiency
MedGen UID:
347898
Concept ID:
C1859499
Disease or Syndrome
3-Methylcrotonylglycinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine catabolism. The clinical phenotype is highly variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurologic involvement to asymptomatic adults. There is a characteristic organic aciduria with massive excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and 3-methylcrotonylglycine, usually in combination with a severe secondary carnitine deficiency. MCC activity in extracts of cultured fibroblasts of patients is usually less than 2% of control (summary by Baumgartner et al., 2001). Also see 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria I (MCC1D; 210200), caused by mutation in the alpha subunit of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCCC1; 609010).
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 2, juvenile
MedGen UID:
349246
Concept ID:
C1859807
Disease or Syndrome
ALS2-related disorder involves retrograde degeneration of the upper motor neurons of the pyramidal tracts and comprises a clinical continuum of the following three phenotypes: Infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia (IAHSP), characterized by onset of spasticity with increased reflexes and sustained clonus of the lower limbs within the first two years of life, progressive weakness and spasticity of the upper limbs by age seven to eight years, and wheelchair dependence in the second decade with progression toward severe spastic tetraparesis and a pseudobulbar syndrome caused by progressive cranial nerve involvement. Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS), characterized by upper motor neuron findings of pseudobulbar palsy and spastic quadriplegia without dementia or cerebellar, extrapyramidal, or sensory signs. Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS or ALS2), characterized by onset between ages three and 20 years. All affected individuals show a spastic pseudobulbar syndrome (spasticity of speech and swallowing) together with spastic paraplegia. Some individuals are bedridden by age 12 to 50 years.
Spastic ataxia 7
MedGen UID:
354750
Concept ID:
C1862441
Disease or Syndrome
A rare hereditary ataxia with characteristics of an apparently non-progressive or slowly progressive symmetrical ataxia of gait, pyramidal signs in the limbs, spasticity and hyperreflexia (especially in the lower limbs) together with dysarthria and impaired pupillary reaction to light, presenting as a fixed miosis. Nystagmus may also be present.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 1
MedGen UID:
400169
Concept ID:
C1862939
Disease or Syndrome
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the death of motor neurons in the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord, resulting in fatal paralysis. ALS usually begins with asymmetric involvement of the muscles in middle adult life. Approximately 10% of ALS cases are familial (Siddique and Deng, 1996). ALS is sometimes referred to as 'Lou Gehrig disease' after the famous American baseball player who was diagnosed with the disorder. Rowland and Shneider (2001) and Kunst (2004) provided extensive reviews of ALS. Some forms of ALS occur with frontotemporal dementia (FTD); see 105500. Ranganathan et al. (2020) provided a detailed review of the genes involved in different forms of ALS with FTD, noting that common disease pathways involve disturbances in RNA processing, autophagy, the ubiquitin proteasome system, the unfolded protein response, and intracellular trafficking. The current understanding of ALS and FTD is that some forms of these disorders represent a spectrum of disease with converging mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Familial ALS is distinct from a form of ALS with dementia reported in cases on Guam (105500) (Espinosa et al., 1962; Husquinet and Franck, 1980), in which the histology is different and dementia and parkinsonism complicate the clinical picture. Genetic Heterogeneity of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ALS is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, with several causative genes and mapped loci. ALS6 (608030) is caused by mutation in the FUS gene (137070) on chromosome 16p11; ALS8 (608627) is caused by mutation in the VAPB gene (605704) on chromosome 13; ALS9 (611895) is caused by mutation in the ANG gene (105850) on chromosome 14q11; ALS10 (612069) is caused by mutation in the TARDBP gene (605078) on 1p36; ALS11 (612577) is caused by mutation in the FIG4 gene (609390) on chromosome 6q21; ALS12 (613435) is caused by mutation in the OPTN gene (602432) on chromosome 10p13; ALS15 (300857) is caused by mutation in the UBQLN2 gene (300264) on chromosome Xp11; ALS18 (614808) is caused by mutation in the PFN1 gene (176610) on chromosome 17p13; ALS19 (615515) is caused by mutation in the ERBB4 gene (600543) on chromosome 2q34; ALS20 (615426) is caused by mutation in the HNRNPA1 gene (164017) on chromosome 12q13; ALS21 (606070) is caused by mutation in the MATR3 gene (164015) on chromosome 5q31; ALS22 (616208) is caused by mutation in the TUBA4A gene (191110) on chromosome 2q35; ALS23 (617839) is caused by mutation in the ANXA11 gene (602572) on chromosome 10q23; ALS26 (619133) is caused by mutation in the TIA1 gene (603518) on chromosome 2p13; ALS27 (620285) is caused by mutation in the SPTLC1 gene (605712) on chromosome 9q22; and ALS28 (620452) is caused by mutation in the LRP12 gene (618299) on chromosome 8q22. Loci associated with ALS have been found on chromosomes 18q21 (ALS3; 606640) and 20p13 (ALS7; 608031). Intermediate-length polyglutamine repeat expansions in the ATXN2 gene (601517) contribute to susceptibility to ALS (ALS13; 183090). Susceptibility to ALS24 (617892) is conferred by mutation in the NEK1 gene (604588) on chromosome 4q33, and susceptibility to ALS25 (617921) is conferred by mutation in the KIF5A gene (602821) on chromosome 12q13. Susceptibility to ALS has been associated with mutations in other genes, including deletions or insertions in the gene encoding the heavy neurofilament subunit (NEFH; 162230); deletions in the gene encoding peripherin (PRPH; 170710); and mutations in the dynactin gene (DCTN1; 601143). Some forms of ALS show juvenile onset. See juvenile-onset ALS2 (205100), caused by mutation in the alsin (606352) gene on 2q33; ALS4 (602433), caused by mutation in the senataxin gene (SETX; 608465) on 9q34; ALS5 (602099), caused by mutation in the SPG11 gene (610844) on 15q21; and ALS16 (614373), caused by mutation in the SIGMAR1 gene (601978) on 9p13.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 8
MedGen UID:
400359
Concept ID:
C1863704
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 8 (SPG8) is a slowly progressive pure spastic paraplegia of the lower limbs (i.e., pyramidal signs including hyperreflexia, spasticity, and occasionally clonus without other neurologic findings). Some affected individuals have urinary urgency that usually becomes apparent at the same time as the spasticity. Onset is between ages ten and 59 years. Affected individuals often become wheelchair dependent. While intra- and interfamilial phenotypic variability is high, SPG8 is typically more severe than other types of hereditary spastic paraplegia.
Hypomyelination and Congenital Cataract
MedGen UID:
501134
Concept ID:
C1864663
Congenital Abnormality
Hypomyelination and congenital cataract (HCC) is usually characterized by bilateral congenital cataracts and normal psychomotor or only mildly delayed development in the first year of life, followed by slowly progressive neurologic impairment manifest as ataxia, spasticity (brisk tendon reflexes and bilateral extensor plantar responses), and mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment. Dysarthria and truncal hypotonia are observed. Cerebellar signs (truncal titubation and intention tremor) and peripheral neuropathy (muscle weakness and wasting of the legs) are present in the majority of affected individuals. Seizures can occur. Cataracts may be absent in some individuals.
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine
MedGen UID:
355447
Concept ID:
C1865343
Disease or Syndrome
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine (OPLL) is a common degenerative spinal disorder that causes severe neurologic dysfunction in middle-aged and elderly populations. This ectopic ossification results in compression of the spinal cord and nerve root by the ossified ligament. Histologic studies of OPLL suggest that OPLL develops through a process of endochondral ossification (summary by Nakajima et al., 2016).
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 4
MedGen UID:
355983
Concept ID:
C1865409
Disease or Syndrome
Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-4 (ALS4) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by distal muscle weakness and atrophy, normal sensation, and pyramidal signs, with onset of symptoms before the age of 25 years, a slow rate of progression, and a normal life span (summary by Chen et al., 2004). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, see ALS1 (105400).
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 5
MedGen UID:
356388
Concept ID:
C1865864
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-5 (ALS5) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of upper and lower motor neuron signs before age 25. Affected individuals have progressive spasticity of limb and facial muscles associated with distal amyotrophy. The disorder is slowly progressive, with cases of prolonged survival of more than 3 decades (summary by Orlacchio et al., 2010). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), see ALS1 (105400).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 4
MedGen UID:
401097
Concept ID:
C1866855
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia 4 (SPG4; also known as SPAST-HSP) is characterized by insidiously progressive bilateral lower-limb gait spasticity. More than 50% of affected individuals have some weakness in the legs and impaired vibration sense at the ankles. Sphincter disturbances are very common. Onset is insidious, mostly in young adulthood, although symptoms may start as early as age one year and as late as age 76 years. Intrafamilial variation is considerable.
Adult-onset autosomal dominant demyelinating leukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
356995
Concept ID:
C1868512
Disease or Syndrome
LMNB1-related autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is a slowly progressive disorder of central nervous system white matter characterized by onset of autonomic dysfunction in the fourth to fifth decade, followed by pyramidal and cerebellar abnormalities resulting in spasticity, ataxia, and tremor. Autonomic dysfunction can include bladder dysfunction, constipation, postural hypotension, erectile dysfunction, and (less often) impaired sweating. Pyramidal signs are often more prominent in the lower extremities (e.g., spastic weakness, hypertonia, clonus, brisk deep tendon reflexes, and bilateral Babinski signs). Cerebellar signs typically appear at the same time as the pyramidal signs and include gait ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, intention tremor, dysmetria, and nystagmus. Many individuals have sensory deficits starting in the lower limbs. Pseudobulbar palsy with dysarthria, dysphagia, and forced crying and laughing may appear in the seventh or eighth decade. Although cognitive function is usually preserved or only mildly impaired early in the disease course, dementia and psychiatric manifestations can occur as late manifestations. Affected individuals may survive for decades after onset.
Autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson disease 2
MedGen UID:
401500
Concept ID:
C1868675
Disease or Syndrome
Parkin type of early-onset Parkinson disease (PARK-Parkin) is characterized by the cardinal signs of Parkinson disease (PD): bradykinesia, resting tremor, and rigidity. The median age at onset is 31 years (range: 3-81 years). The disease is slowly progressive: disease duration of more than 50 years has been reported. Clinical findings vary; hyperreflexia is common. Lower-limb dystonia may be a presenting sign and cognitive decline appears to be no more frequent than in the general population. Dyskinesia as a result of treatment with levodopa frequently occurs.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10
MedGen UID:
369786
Concept ID:
C1963674
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10) is characterized by slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia that usually starts as poor balance and unsteady gait, followed by upper-limb ataxia, scanning dysarthria, and dysphagia. Abnormal tracking eye movements are common. Recurrent seizures after the onset of gait ataxia have been reported with variable frequencies among different families. Some individuals have cognitive dysfunction, behavioral disturbances, mood disorders, mild pyramidal signs, and peripheral neuropathy. Age of onset ranges from 12 to 48 years.
Severe neonatal-onset encephalopathy with microcephaly
MedGen UID:
409616
Concept ID:
C1968556
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of MECP2-related phenotypes in females ranges from classic Rett syndrome to variant Rett syndrome with a broader clinical phenotype (either milder or more severe than classic Rett syndrome) to mild learning disabilities; the spectrum in males ranges from severe neonatal encephalopathy to pyramidal signs, parkinsonism, and macroorchidism (PPM-X) syndrome to severe syndromic/nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Females: Classic Rett syndrome, a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting girls, is characterized by apparently normal psychomotor development during the first six to 18 months of life, followed by a short period of developmental stagnation, then rapid regression in language and motor skills, followed by long-term stability. During the phase of rapid regression, repetitive, stereotypic hand movements replace purposeful hand use. Additional findings include fits of screaming and inconsolable crying, autistic features, panic-like attacks, bruxism, episodic apnea and/or hyperpnea, gait ataxia and apraxia, tremors, seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Males: Severe neonatal-onset encephalopathy, the most common phenotype in affected males, is characterized by a relentless clinical course that follows a metabolic-degenerative type of pattern, abnormal tone, involuntary movements, severe seizures, and breathing abnormalities. Death often occurs before age two years.
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis 5
MedGen UID:
409627
Concept ID:
C1968603
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis-5 is a form of infantile malignant osteopetrosis, characterized by defective osteoclast function resulting in decreased bone resorption and generalized osteosclerosis. Defective resorption causes development of densely sclerotic fragile bones and progressive obliteration of the marrow spaces and cranial foramina. Marrow obliteration is associated with extramedullary hematopoiesis and hepatosplenomegaly, and results in anemia and thrombocytopenia, whereas nerve entrapment accounts for progressive blindness and hearing loss. Other major manifestations include failure to thrive, pathologic fractures, and increased infection rate. Most affected children succumb to severe bone marrow failure and overwhelming infection in the first few years of life (Quarello et al., 2004).
Primary lateral sclerosis, adult, 1
MedGen UID:
369357
Concept ID:
C1968845
Disease or Syndrome
Although primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is similar to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; 105400), they are considered to be clinically distinct progressive paralytic neurodegenerative disorders. Following a period of diagnostic confusion, the clinical distinction between ALS and PLS became clear and diagnostic criteria were established (Pringle et al., 1992). PLS is characterized by degeneration of the upper motor neurons and the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts, whereas ALS is a more severe disorder characterized by degeneration of both the upper and lower motor neurons. See 606353 for autosomal recessive juvenile-onset PLS, which is caused by mutations in the ALS2 gene (606352).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 6
MedGen UID:
370596
Concept ID:
C1969084
Congenital Abnormality
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by an abnormally small cerebellum and brainstem and associated with severe developmental delay (Edvardson et al., 2007). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Spastic ataxia 3
MedGen UID:
370715
Concept ID:
C1969645
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic autosomal recessive spastic ataxia disease with characteristics of cerebellar ataxia, spasticity, cerebellar (and in some cases cerebral) atrophy, dystonia and leucoencephalopathy. Caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous complex genomic rearrangements involving the MARS2 gene on chromosome 2q33.
Spastic ataxia 2
MedGen UID:
370750
Concept ID:
C1969796
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia-2 (SPAX2) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset in the first 2 decades of cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and variable spasticity of the lower limbs. Cognition is not affected (summary by Dor et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of spastic ataxia, see SPAX1 (108600).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 32
MedGen UID:
409967
Concept ID:
C1970009
Disease or Syndrome
A rare complex type of hereditary spastic paraplegia with characteristics of slowly progressive spastic paraplegia (with walking difficulties appearing at onset at 6-7 years of age) associated with mild intellectual disability. Brain imaging reveals thin corpus callosum, cortical and cerebellar atrophy, and pontine dysraphia. The SPG32 phenotype has been mapped to a locus on chromosome 14q12-q21.
Spastic ataxia 1
MedGen UID:
409988
Concept ID:
C1970107
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary spastic ataxia comprises a heterogeneous group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders characterized by lower-limb spasticity and generalized ataxia with dysarthria, impaired ocular movements, and gait disturbance. Spastic ataxia-1 (SPAX1) is an autosomal dominant form of the disorder with onset between the ages of 10 and 20 years. Other clinical features are supranuclear gaze palsy, hyperreflexia, hypertonicity, dystonia, pes cavus, mild ptosis, and decreased vibration sense in the lower limbs. Symptom severity is variable, but neither life span nor cognition is affected (summary by Meijer et al., 2002 and Bourassa et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Spastic Ataxia See also SPAX2 (611302), caused by mutation in the KIF1C gene (603060) on chromosome 17p13; SPAX3 (611390), caused by rearrangements of the MARS2 gene (609728) on chromosome 2q33; SPAX4 (613672), caused by mutation in the MTPAP gene (613669) on chromosome 10p11; SPAX5 (614487), caused by mutation in the AFG3L2 gene (604581) on chromosome 18p11; SPAX6 (270550), caused by mutation in the SACS gene (604490) on chromosome 13q12; SPAX7 (108650); SPAX8 (617560), caused by mutation in the NKX6-2 gene (605955) on chromosome 8q21; SPAX9 (618438), caused by mutation in the CHP1 gene (606988) on chromosome 15q15; and SPAX10 (620666), caused by mutation in the COQ4 gene (612898) on chromosome 9q34.
Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement-high lactate syndrome
MedGen UID:
370845
Concept ID:
C1970180
Disease or Syndrome
Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) is characterized by slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia and spasticity with dorsal column dysfunction (decreased position and vibration sense) in most individuals. The neurologic dysfunction involves the legs more than the arms. The tendon reflexes are retained. Deterioration of motor skills usually starts in childhood or adolescence, but occasionally not until adulthood. Dysarthria develops over time. Occasional findings include epilepsy; learning problems; cognitive decline; and reduced consciousness, neurologic deterioration, and fever following minor head trauma. Individuals with neonatal or early-infantile onset have a severe disease course often associated with early death. Those with childhood onset have slow progression with wheelchair dependence in the teens or twenties. Adult onset is associated with slow progression and mild impairment.
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 5
MedGen UID:
370849
Concept ID:
C1970199
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the NSUN2 gene.
Krabbe disease due to saposin A deficiency
MedGen UID:
392873
Concept ID:
C2673266
Disease or Syndrome
PHARC syndrome
MedGen UID:
436373
Concept ID:
C2675204
Disease or Syndrome
Fiskerstrand type peripheral neuropathy is a slowly-progressive Refsum-like disorder associating signs of peripheral neuropathy with late-onset hearing loss, cataract and pigmentary retinopathy that become evident during the third decade of life.
Leukoencephalopathy-ataxia-hypodontia-hypomyelination syndrome
MedGen UID:
390993
Concept ID:
C2676243
Disease or Syndrome
POLR3-related leukodystrophy, a hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with specific features on brain MRI, is characterized by varying combinations of four major clinical findings: Neurologic dysfunction, typically predominated by motor dysfunction (progressive cerebellar dysfunction, and to a lesser extent extrapyramidal [i.e., dystonia], pyramidal [i.e., spasticity] and cognitive dysfunctions). Abnormal dentition (delayed dentition, hypodontia, oligodontia, and abnormally placed or shaped teeth). Endocrine abnormalities such as short stature (in ~50% of individuals) with or without growth hormone deficiency, and more commonly, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism manifesting as delayed, arrested, or absent puberty. Ocular abnormality in the form of myopia, typically progressing over several years and becoming severe. POLR3-related leukodystrophy and 4H leukodystrophy are the two recognized terms for five previously described overlapping clinical phenotypes (initially described as distinct entities before their molecular basis was known). These include: Hypomyelination, hypodontia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (4H syndrome); Ataxia, delayed dentition, and hypomyelination (ADDH); Tremor-ataxia with central hypomyelination (TACH); Leukodystrophy with oligodontia (LO); Hypomyelination with cerebellar atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (HCAHC). Age of onset is typically in early childhood but later-onset cases have also been reported. An infant with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (neonatal progeroid syndrome) was recently reported to have pathogenic variants in POLR3A on exome sequencing. Confirmation of this as a very severe form of POLR3-related leukodystrophy awaits replication in other individuals with a clinical diagnosis of Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 38
MedGen UID:
436764
Concept ID:
C2676732
Disease or Syndrome
A complex hereditary spastic paraplegia with characteristics of mild to severe lower limbs spasticity, hyperreflexia, extensor plantar responses, pes cavus and significant wasting and weakness of the small hand muscles. Impaired vibration sensation, temporal lobe epilepsy and cognitive dysfunction were also reported.
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 4
MedGen UID:
383026
Concept ID:
C2677109
Disease or Syndrome
Any leukodystrophy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the HSPD1 gene.
Dystonia 16
MedGen UID:
436979
Concept ID:
C2677567
Disease or Syndrome
Dystonia 16 is one of many forms of dystonia, which is a group of conditions characterized by involuntary movements, twisting (torsion) and tensing of various muscles, and unusual positioning of affected body parts. Dystonia 16 can appear at any age from infancy through adulthood, although it most often begins in childhood.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of dystonia 16 vary among people with the condition. In many affected individuals, the disorder first affects muscles in one or both arms or legs. Tensing (contraction) of the muscles often sets the affected limb in an abnormal position, which may be painful and can lead to difficulty performing tasks, such as walking. In others, muscles in the neck are affected first, causing the head to be pulled backward and positioned with the chin in the air (retrocollis).\n\nIn dystonia 16, muscles of the jaw, lips, and tongue are also commonly affected (oromandibular dystonia), causing difficulty opening and closing the mouth and problems with swallowing and speech. Speech can also be affected by involuntary tensing of the muscles that control the vocal cords (laryngeal dystonia), resulting in a quiet, breathy voice or an inability to speak clearly. Dystonia 16 gradually gets worse, eventually involving muscles in most parts of the body.\n\nSome people with dystonia 16 develop a pattern of movement abnormalities known as parkinsonism. These abnormalities include unusually slow movement (bradykinesia), muscle rigidity, tremors, and an inability to hold the body upright and balanced (postural instability). In dystonia 16, parkinsonism is relatively mild if it develops at all.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of dystonia 16 usually do not get better when treated with drugs that are typically used for movement disorders.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 39
MedGen UID:
383142
Concept ID:
C2677586
Disease or Syndrome
PNPLA6 disorders span a phenotypic continuum characterized by variable combinations of cerebellar ataxia; upper motor neuron involvement manifesting as spasticity and/or brisk reflexes; chorioretinal dystrophy associated with variable degrees of reduced visual function; and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (delayed puberty and lack of secondary sex characteristics). The hypogonadotropic hypogonadism occurs either in isolation or as part of anterior hypopituitarism (growth hormone, thyroid hormone, or gonadotropin deficiencies). Common but less frequent features are peripheral neuropathy (usually of axonal type manifesting as reduced distal reflexes, diminished vibratory sensation, and/or distal muscle wasting); hair anomalies (long eyelashes, bushy eyebrows, or scalp alopecia); short stature; and impaired cognitive functioning (learning disabilities in children; deficits in attention, visuospatial abilities, and recall in adults). Some of these features can occur in distinct clusters on the phenotypic continuum: Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, chorioretinal dystrophy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism); Gordon Holmes syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and – to a variable degree – brisk reflexes); Oliver-McFarlane syndrome (trichomegaly, chorioretinal dystrophy, short stature, intellectual disability, and hypopituitarism); Laurence-Moon syndrome; and spastic paraplegia type 39 (SPG39) (upper motor neuron involvement, peripheral neuropathy, and sometimes reduced cognitive functioning and/or cerebellar ataxia).
Autosomal recessive ataxia due to ubiquinone deficiency
MedGen UID:
436985
Concept ID:
C2677589
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
RFT1-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
383145
Concept ID:
C2677590
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzymatic defects in the synthesis and processing of asparagine (N)-linked glycans or oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. Type I CDGs comprise defects in the assembly of the dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) chain and its transfer to the nascent protein. These disorders can be identified by a characteristic abnormal isoelectric focusing profile of plasma transferrin (Leroy, 2006). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 34
MedGen UID:
437069
Concept ID:
C2677897
Disease or Syndrome
A pure form of hereditary spastic paraplegia with late childhood to early adulthood-onset of slowly progressive spastic paraplegia with spastic gait and lower limb hyperreflexia, brisk tendon reflexes and ankle clonus. Lower limb pain and reduced lower limb vibratory sense is also reported in some older adult patients.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Najm type
MedGen UID:
437070
Concept ID:
C2677903
Disease or Syndrome
CASK disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes in both females and males. Two main types of clinical presentation are seen: Microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH), generally associated with pathogenic loss-of-function variants in CASK. X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) with or without nystagmus, generally associated with hypomorphic CASK pathogenic variants. MICPCH is typically seen in females with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, progressive microcephaly with or without ophthalmologic anomalies, and sensorineural hearing loss. Most are able to sit independently; 20%-25% attain the ability to walk; language is nearly absent in most. Neurologic features may include axial hypotonia, hypertonia/spasticity of the extremities, and dystonia or other movement disorders. Nearly 40% have seizures by age ten years. Behaviors may include sleep disturbances, hand stereotypies, and self biting. MICPCH in males may occur with or without severe epileptic encephalopathy in addition to severe-to-profound developmental delay. When seizures are present they occur early and may be intractable. In individuals and families with milder (i.e., hypomorphic) pathogenic variants, the clinical phenotype is usually that of XLID with or without nystagmus and additional clinical features. Males have mild-to-severe intellectual disability, with or without nystagmus and other ocular features. Females typically have normal intelligence with some displaying mild-to-severe intellectual disability with or without ocular features.
Intellectual disability, X-linked syndromic, Turner type
MedGen UID:
394425
Concept ID:
C2678046
Disease or Syndrome
Turner-type X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXST) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some affected families show X-linked recessive inheritance, with only males being affected and carrier females having no abnormal findings. In other affected families, males are severely affected, and female mutation carriers show milder cognitive abnormalities or dysmorphic features. In addition, there are female patients with de novo mutations who show the full phenotype, despite skewed X-chromosome inactivation. Affected individuals show global developmental delay from infancy, with variably impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, often with delayed walking. Dysmorphic features are common and can include macrocephaly, microcephaly, deep-set eyes, hypotelorism, small palpebral fissures, dysplastic, large, or low-set ears, long face, bitemporal narrowing, high-arched palate, thin upper lip, and scoliosis or mild distal skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly or tapered fingers. Males tend to have cryptorchidism. Other features, such as hypotonia, seizures, and delayed bone age, are more variable (summary by Moortgat et al., 2018).
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability 94
MedGen UID:
437111
Concept ID:
C2678051
Disease or Syndrome
A syndromic X-linked intellectual disability characterized by moderate intellectual disability with variable occurrence of asthenic body habitus, dysmorphic features, autistic features, macrocephaly, seizures, myoclonic jerks, and hyporeflexia that has material basis in mutation in the GRIA3 gene on chromosome Xq25.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 43
MedGen UID:
760531
Concept ID:
C2680446
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-43 (SPG43) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by childhood onset of progressive spasticity affecting the lower and upper limbs (summary by Meilleur et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see 270800.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 18
MedGen UID:
442343
Concept ID:
C2749936
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-18B (SPG18B) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset in early childhood of progressive spastic paraplegia resulting in motor disability. Most affected individuals have severe psychomotor retardation. Some may develop significant joint contractures (summary by Alazami et al., 2011 and Yildirim et al., 2011).
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis, susceptibility to, 2
MedGen UID:
413851
Concept ID:
C2750473
Finding
Any thyrotoxic periodic paralysis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the KCNJ18 gene.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 44
MedGen UID:
413042
Concept ID:
C2750784
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare, complex form of hereditary spastic paraplegia characterised by a late-onset, slowly progressive spastic paraplegia associated with mild ataxia and dysarthria, upper extremity involvement (i.e. loss of finger dexterity, dysmetria), and mild cognitive impairment, without the presence of nystagmus. A hypomyelinating leucodystrophy and thin corpus callosum is observed in all cases and psychomotor development is normal or near normal. Caused by mutations in the GJC2 gene (1q41-q42) encoding the gap junction gamma-2 protein.
Familial amyloid neuropathy
MedGen UID:
414031
Concept ID:
C2751492
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis is characterized by a slowly progressive peripheral sensorimotor and/or autonomic neuropathy as well as non-neuropathic changes of cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, vitreous opacities, and CNS amyloidosis. The disease usually begins in the third to fifth decade in persons from endemic foci in Portugal and Japan; onset is later in persons from other areas. Typically, sensory neuropathy starts in the lower extremities with paresthesias and hypesthesias of the feet, followed within a few years by motor neuropathy. In some persons, particularly those with early-onset disease, autonomic neuropathy is the first manifestation of the condition; findings can include: orthostatic hypotension, constipation alternating with diarrhea, attacks of nausea and vomiting, delayed gastric emptying, sexual impotence, anhidrosis, and urinary retention or incontinence. Cardiac amyloidosis is mainly characterized by progressive cardiomyopathy. Individuals with leptomeningeal amyloidosis may have the following CNS findings: dementia, psychosis, visual impairment, headache, seizures, motor paresis, ataxia, myelopathy, hydrocephalus, or intracranial hemorrhage.
Autosomal recessive Parkinson disease 14
MedGen UID:
414488
Concept ID:
C2751842
Disease or Syndrome
Generally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.\n\nParkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory.\n\nOften the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.\n\nParkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 50
MedGen UID:
442869
Concept ID:
C2752008
Disease or Syndrome
AP-4-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as AP-4 deficiency syndrome, is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a progressive, complex spastic paraplegia with onset typically in infancy or early childhood. Early-onset hypotonia evolves into progressive lower-extremity spasticity. The majority of children become nonambulatory and usually wheelchair bound. Over time spasticity progresses to involve the upper extremities, resulting in a spastic tetraplegia. Associated complications include dysphagia, contractures, foot deformities, dysregulation of bladder and bowel function, and a pseudobulbar affect. About 50% of affected individuals have seizures. Postnatal microcephaly (usually in the -2SD to -3SD range) is common. All have developmental delay. Speech development is significantly impaired and many affected individuals remain nonverbal. Intellectual disability in older children is usually moderate to severe.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 46
MedGen UID:
473687
Concept ID:
C2828721
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-46 (SPG46) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset in childhood of slowly progressive spastic paraplegia and cerebellar signs. Some patients have cognitive impairment, cataracts, and cerebral, cerebellar, and corpus callosum atrophy on brain imaging (summary by Boukhris et al., 2010 and Martin et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
DPAGT1-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
419694
Concept ID:
C2931004
Disease or Syndrome
Like all CDGs, which are caused by a shortage of precursor monosaccharide phosphate or deficiencies in the glycosyltransferases required for lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor (LLO) synthesis, CDG Ij is caused by a defect in the formation of DPAGT1, the first dolichyl-linked intermediate of the protein N-glycosylation pathway. For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
ALG9 congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443955
Concept ID:
C2931006
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) that represent defects of dolichol-linked oligosaccharide assembly are classified as CDG type I. For a general description and a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 17
MedGen UID:
419034
Concept ID:
C2931276
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of BSCL2-related neurologic disorders includes Silver syndrome and variants of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 2, distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) type V, and spastic paraplegia 17. Features of these disorders include onset of symptoms ranging from the first to the seventh decade, slow disease progression, upper motor neuron involvement (gait disturbance with pyramidal signs ranging from mild to severe spasticity with hyperreflexia in the lower limbs and variable extensor plantar responses), lower motor neuron involvement (amyotrophy of the peroneal muscles and small muscles of the hand), and pes cavus and other foot deformities. Disease severity is variable among and within families.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 3A
MedGen UID:
419393
Concept ID:
C2931355
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia 3A (SPG3A; also known as ATL1-HSP) is characterized by progressive bilateral and mostly symmetric spasticity and weakness of the legs. Compared to other forms of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), in which diminished vibration sense (caused by degeneration of the corticospinal tracts and dorsal columns) and urinary bladder hyperactivity are present in all affected individuals, these findings occur in a minority of individuals with SPG3A. The average age of onset is four years. More than 80% of reported individuals manifest spastic gait before the end of the first decade of life. Most persons with early-onset ATL1-HSP have a "pure" ("uncomplicated") HSP; however, complicated HSP with axonal motor neuropathy and/or distal amyotrophy with lower motor neuron involvement (Silver syndrome phenotype) has been observed. The rate of progression in ATL1-HSP is slow, and wheelchair dependency or need for a walking aid (cane, walker, or wheelchair) is relatively rare.
Infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paralysis
MedGen UID:
419413
Concept ID:
C2931441
Disease or Syndrome
ALS2-related disorder involves retrograde degeneration of the upper motor neurons of the pyramidal tracts and comprises a clinical continuum of the following three phenotypes: Infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia (IAHSP), characterized by onset of spasticity with increased reflexes and sustained clonus of the lower limbs within the first two years of life, progressive weakness and spasticity of the upper limbs by age seven to eight years, and wheelchair dependence in the second decade with progression toward severe spastic tetraparesis and a pseudobulbar syndrome caused by progressive cranial nerve involvement. Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS), characterized by upper motor neuron findings of pseudobulbar palsy and spastic quadriplegia without dementia or cerebellar, extrapyramidal, or sensory signs. Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS or ALS2), characterized by onset between ages three and 20 years. All affected individuals show a spastic pseudobulbar syndrome (spasticity of speech and swallowing) together with spastic paraplegia. Some individuals are bedridden by age 12 to 50 years.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 36
MedGen UID:
422457
Concept ID:
C2936879
Disease or Syndrome
A complex form of hereditary spastic paraplegia, with onset in childhood or adulthood of progressive spastic paraplegia (with spastic gait, spasticity, lower limb weakness, pes cavus and urinary urgency) associated with the additional manifestation of peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy. The SPG36 phenotype has been mapped to a locus on chromosome 12q23-q24.
Chromosome 14q11-q22 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462057
Concept ID:
C3150707
Disease or Syndrome
14q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by developmental delay, hypotonia and facial dysmorphism.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 5
MedGen UID:
462081
Concept ID:
C3150731
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-5 (DEE5) is a neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay and the onset of tonic seizures or infantile spasms in the first months of life. The seizures tend to be refractory to treatment, and EEG shows hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Affected individuals have severely impaired psychomotor development with lack of visual attention, poor head control, feeding difficulties, microcephaly, and spastic quadriplegia. Brain imaging may show cerebral atrophy and hypomyelination (summary by Saitsu et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, see 308350.
Infantile cerebral and cerebellar atrophy with postnatal progressive microcephaly
MedGen UID:
462271
Concept ID:
C3150921
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile cerebral and cerebellar atrophy with postnatal progressive microcephaly is a rare, central nervous system malformation syndrome characterized by progressive microcephaly with profound motor delay and intellectual disability, associated with hypertonia, spasticity, clonus, and seizures, with brain imaging revealing severe cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, and poor myelination.
Neuropathy, hereditary sensory, type 1D
MedGen UID:
462322
Concept ID:
C3150972
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia 3A (SPG3A; also known as ATL1-HSP) is characterized by progressive bilateral and mostly symmetric spasticity and weakness of the legs. Compared to other forms of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), in which diminished vibration sense (caused by degeneration of the corticospinal tracts and dorsal columns) and urinary bladder hyperactivity are present in all affected individuals, these findings occur in a minority of individuals with SPG3A. The average age of onset is four years. More than 80% of reported individuals manifest spastic gait before the end of the first decade of life. Most persons with early-onset ATL1-HSP have a "pure" ("uncomplicated") HSP; however, complicated HSP with axonal motor neuropathy and/or distal amyotrophy with lower motor neuron involvement (Silver syndrome phenotype) has been observed. The rate of progression in ATL1-HSP is slow, and wheelchair dependency or need for a walking aid (cane, walker, or wheelchair) is relatively rare.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 12
MedGen UID:
462338
Concept ID:
C3150988
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-12 (DEE12) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first year of life. Affected infants may have normal or mildly delayed development before the onset of seizures, but thereafter show severe developmental regression and stagnation. Seizure types vary: focal seizures, infantile spasms, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures may occur, even within the same patient. EEG may show hypsarrhythmia, consistent with West syndrome, or a pattern consistent with 'malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy' (MMPSI). Patients have little or no developmental progress: there is absent speech, hypotonia, poor motor skills, peripheral spasticity, and impaired visual fixation (summary by Kurian et al., 2010 and Poduri et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, see 308350.
Porencephaly-microcephaly-bilateral congenital cataract syndrome
MedGen UID:
462350
Concept ID:
C3151000
Disease or Syndrome
HDBSCC is an autosomal recessive disorder with a distinctive phenotype comprising hemorrhagic destruction of the brain, subependymal calcification, and congenital cataracts. Affected individuals have a catastrophic neurologic clinical course resulting in death in infancy (summary by Akawi et al., 2013).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 51
MedGen UID:
462406
Concept ID:
C3151056
Disease or Syndrome
AP-4-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as AP-4 deficiency syndrome, is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a progressive, complex spastic paraplegia with onset typically in infancy or early childhood. Early-onset hypotonia evolves into progressive lower-extremity spasticity. The majority of children become nonambulatory and usually wheelchair bound. Over time spasticity progresses to involve the upper extremities, resulting in a spastic tetraplegia. Associated complications include dysphagia, contractures, foot deformities, dysregulation of bladder and bowel function, and a pseudobulbar affect. About 50% of affected individuals have seizures. Postnatal microcephaly (usually in the -2SD to -3SD range) is common. All have developmental delay. Speech development is significantly impaired and many affected individuals remain nonverbal. Intellectual disability in older children is usually moderate to severe.
Lissencephaly 4
MedGen UID:
462811
Concept ID:
C3151461
Disease or Syndrome
Lissencephaly-4 (LIS4) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by lissencephaly, severe brain atrophy, extreme microcephaly (head circumference of more than 10 standard deviations (SD) below the mean), and profound mental retardation. It has also been referred to as 'microlissencephaly' (summary by Bakircioglu et al., 2011 and Alkuraya et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432).
Ogden syndrome
MedGen UID:
477078
Concept ID:
C3275447
Disease or Syndrome
Ogden syndrome (OGDNS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by postnatal growth failure, severely delayed psychomotor development, variable dysmorphic features, and hypotonia. Many patients also have cardiac malformations or arrhythmias (summary by Popp et al., 2015).
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
477139
Concept ID:
C3275508
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome-2 (MCAHS2) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, neonatal hypotonia, early-onset myoclonic seizures, and variable congenital anomalies involving the central nervous, cardiac, and urinary systems. Some affected individuals die in infancy (summary by Johnston et al., 2012). The phenotype shows clinical variability with regard to severity and extraneurologic features. However, most patients present in infancy with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with developmental arrest and subsequent severe neurologic disability; these features are consistent with a form of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) (summary by Belet et al., 2014, Kato et al., 2014). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of nomenclature and genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 47
MedGen UID:
481368
Concept ID:
C3279738
Disease or Syndrome
AP-4-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as AP-4 deficiency syndrome, is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a progressive, complex spastic paraplegia with onset typically in infancy or early childhood. Early-onset hypotonia evolves into progressive lower-extremity spasticity. The majority of children become nonambulatory and usually wheelchair bound. Over time spasticity progresses to involve the upper extremities, resulting in a spastic tetraplegia. Associated complications include dysphagia, contractures, foot deformities, dysregulation of bladder and bowel function, and a pseudobulbar affect. About 50% of affected individuals have seizures. Postnatal microcephaly (usually in the -2SD to -3SD range) is common. All have developmental delay. Speech development is significantly impaired and many affected individuals remain nonverbal. Intellectual disability in older children is usually moderate to severe.
Spastic paraplegia 52, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
481373
Concept ID:
C3279743
Disease or Syndrome
AP-4-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as AP-4 deficiency syndrome, is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a progressive, complex spastic paraplegia with onset typically in infancy or early childhood. Early-onset hypotonia evolves into progressive lower-extremity spasticity. The majority of children become nonambulatory and usually wheelchair bound. Over time spasticity progresses to involve the upper extremities, resulting in a spastic tetraplegia. Associated complications include dysphagia, contractures, foot deformities, dysregulation of bladder and bowel function, and a pseudobulbar affect. About 50% of affected individuals have seizures. Postnatal microcephaly (usually in the -2SD to -3SD range) is common. All have developmental delay. Speech development is significantly impaired and many affected individuals remain nonverbal. Intellectual disability in older children is usually moderate to severe.
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
481405
Concept ID:
C3279775
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, lack of psychomotor development, seizures, dysmorphic features, and variable congenital anomalies involving the cardiac, urinary, and gastrointestinal systems. Most affected individuals die before 3 years of age (summary by Maydan et al., 2011). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis; see GPIBD1 (610293). Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia-Seizures Syndrome MCAHS2 (300868) is caused by mutation in the PIGA gene (311770) on chromosome Xp22, MCAHS3 (615398) is caused by mutation in the PIGT gene (610272) on chromosome 20q13, and MCAHS4 (618548) is caused by mutation in the PIGQ gene (605754) on chromosome 16p13. Knaus et al. (2018) provided a review of the main clinical features of the different types of MCAHS, noting that patients with mutations in the PIGN, PIGA, and PIGT genes have distinct patterns of facial anomalies that can be detected by computer-assisted comparison. Some individuals with MCAHS may have variable increases in alkaline phosphatase (AP) as well as variable decreases in GPI-linked proteins that can be detected by flow cytometry. However, there was no clear correlation between AP levels or GPI-linked protein abnormalities and degree of neurologic involvement, mutation class, or gene involved. Knaus et al. (2018) concluded that a distinction between MCAHS and HPMRS1 (239300), which is also caused by mutation in genes involved in GPI biosynthesis, may be artificial and even inaccurate, and that all these disorders should be considered and classified together under the more encompassing term of 'GPI biosynthesis defects' (GPIBD).
Keppen-Lubinsky syndrome
MedGen UID:
481430
Concept ID:
C3279800
Disease or Syndrome
Keppen-Lubinsky syndrome (KPLBS) is a rare disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, generalized lipodystrophy giving an aged appearance, and distinctive dysmorphic features, including microcephaly, prominent eyes, narrow nasal bridge, and open mouth (summary by Masotti et al., 2015).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 8
MedGen UID:
481912
Concept ID:
C3280282
Disease or Syndrome
GRIN1-related neurodevelopmental disorder (GRIN1-NDD) is characterized by mild-to-profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID) in all affected individuals. Other common manifestations are epilepsy, muscular hypotonia, movement disorders, spasticity, feeding difficulties, and behavior problems. A subset of individuals show a malformation of cortical development consisting of extensive and diffuse bilateral polymicrogyria. To date, 72 individuals with GRIN1-NDD have been reported.
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 4
MedGen UID:
482001
Concept ID:
C3280371
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN) is characterized initially by gait changes followed by progressive spastic paresis, progressive dystonia (which may be limited to the hands and feet or more generalized), neuropsychiatric abnormalities (emotional lability, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, compulsions, hallucinations, perseveration, inattention, and hyperactivity), and cognitive decline. Additional early findings can include dysphagia, dysarthria, optic atrophy, axonal neuropathy, parkinsonism, and bowel/bladder incontinence. Survival is usually well into adulthood. End-stage disease is characterized by severe dementia, spasticity, dystonia, and parkinsonism.
Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency
MedGen UID:
482058
Concept ID:
C3280428
Disease or Syndrome
AMACR deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive peroxisomal disorder characterized by adult onset of variable neurodegenerative symptoms affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems. Features may include seizures, visual failure, sensorimotor neuropathy, spasticity, migraine, and white matter hyperintensities on brain imaging. Serum pristanic acid and C27 bile acid intermediates are increased (summary by Smith et al., 2010).
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 16
MedGen UID:
482217
Concept ID:
C3280587
Disease or Syndrome
Any amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SIGMAR1 gene.
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 8 with or without oligodontia and-or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
MedGen UID:
482274
Concept ID:
C3280644
Disease or Syndrome
POLR3-related leukodystrophy, a hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with specific features on brain MRI, is characterized by varying combinations of four major clinical findings: Neurologic dysfunction, typically predominated by motor dysfunction (progressive cerebellar dysfunction, and to a lesser extent extrapyramidal [i.e., dystonia], pyramidal [i.e., spasticity] and cognitive dysfunctions). Abnormal dentition (delayed dentition, hypodontia, oligodontia, and abnormally placed or shaped teeth). Endocrine abnormalities such as short stature (in ~50% of individuals) with or without growth hormone deficiency, and more commonly, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism manifesting as delayed, arrested, or absent puberty. Ocular abnormality in the form of myopia, typically progressing over several years and becoming severe. POLR3-related leukodystrophy and 4H leukodystrophy are the two recognized terms for five previously described overlapping clinical phenotypes (initially described as distinct entities before their molecular basis was known). These include: Hypomyelination, hypodontia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (4H syndrome); Ataxia, delayed dentition, and hypomyelination (ADDH); Tremor-ataxia with central hypomyelination (TACH); Leukodystrophy with oligodontia (LO); Hypomyelination with cerebellar atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (HCAHC). Age of onset is typically in early childhood but later-onset cases have also been reported. An infant with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (neonatal progeroid syndrome) was recently reported to have pathogenic variants in POLR3A on exome sequencing. Confirmation of this as a very severe form of POLR3-related leukodystrophy awaits replication in other individuals with a clinical diagnosis of Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome.
Microcephaly-cerebellar hypoplasia-cardiac conduction defect syndrome
MedGen UID:
482322
Concept ID:
C3280692
Disease or Syndrome
The Zaki-Gleeson syndrome is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by profound mental retardation, severe microcephaly, poor growth, cerebellar hypoplasia, and second-degree cardiac conduction defects (Zaki et al., 2011).
Neonatal-onset encephalopathy with rigidity and seizures
MedGen UID:
482659
Concept ID:
C3281029
Disease or Syndrome
Lethal neonatal rigidity and multifocal seizure syndrome (RMFSL) is a severe autosomal recessive epileptic encephalopathy characterized by onset of rigidity and intractable seizures at or soon after birth. Affected infants achieve no developmental milestones and die within the first months or years of life (summary by Saitsu et al., 2014).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 1
MedGen UID:
483052
Concept ID:
C3463992
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-1 (DEE1) is a severe form of epilepsy characterized by frequent tonic seizures or spasms beginning in infancy with a specific EEG finding of suppression-burst patterns, characterized by high-voltage bursts alternating with almost flat suppression phases. Approximately 75% of DEE1 patients progress to tonic spasms with clustering, arrest of psychomotor development, and hypsarrhythmia on EEG (Kato et al., 2007). DEE1 is part of a phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by mutation in the ARX gene comprising a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders ranging from lissencephaly (LISX2; 300215) to Proud syndrome (300004) to infantile spasms without brain malformations (DEE) to syndromic (309510) and nonsyndromic (300419) mental retardation. Although males with ARX mutations are often more severely affected, female mutation carriers may also be affected (Kato et al., 2004; Wallerstein et al., 2008). Reviews Deprez et al. (2009) reviewed the genetics of epilepsy syndromes starting in the first year of life and included a diagnostic algorithm. Genetic Heterogeneity of Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy Also see DEE2 (300672), caused by mutation in the CDKL5 gene (300203); DEE3 (609304), caused by mutation in the SLC25A22 gene (609302); DEE4 (612164), caused by mutation in the STXBP1 gene (602926); DEE5 (613477), caused by mutation in the SPTAN1 gene (182810); DEE6A (607208), also known as Dravet syndrome, caused by mutation in the SCN1A gene (182389); DEE6B (619317), also caused by mutation in the SCN1A gene; DEE7 (613720), caused by mutation in the KCNQ2 gene (602235); DEE8 (300607), caused by mutation in the ARHGEF9 gene (300429); DEE9 (300088), caused by mutation in the PCDH19 gene (300460); DEE10 (613402), caused by mutation in the PNKP gene (605610); DEE11 (613721), caused by mutation in the SCN2A gene (182390); DEE12 (613722), caused by mutation in the PLCB1 gene (607120); DEE13 (614558), caused by mutation in the SCN8A gene (600702); DEE14 (614959), caused by mutation in the KCNT1 gene (608167); DEE15 (615006), caused by mutation in the ST3GAL3 gene (606494); DEE16 (615338), caused by mutation in the TBC1D24 gene (613577); DEE17 (615473), caused by mutation in the GNAO1 gene (139311); DEE18 (615476), caused by mutation in the SZT2 gene (615463); DEE19 (615744), caused by mutation in the GABRA1 gene (137160); DEE20 (300868), caused by mutation in the PIGA gene (311770); DEE21 (615833), caused by mutation in the NECAP1 gene (611623); DEE22 (300896), caused by mutation in the SLC35A2 gene (314375); DEE23 (615859), caused by mutation in the DOCK7 gene (615730); DEE24 (615871), caused by mutation in the HCN1 gene (602780); DEE25 (615905), caused by mutation in the SLC13A5 gene (608305); DEE26 (616056), caused by mutation in the KCNB1 gene (600397); DEE27 (616139), caused by mutation in the GRIN2B gene (138252); DEE28 (616211), caused by mutation in the WWOX gene (605131); DEE29 (616339), caused by mutation in the AARS gene (601065); DEE30 (616341), caused by mutation in the SIK1 gene (605705); DEE31A (616346) and DEE31B (620352), caused by mutation in the DNM1 gene (602377); DEE32 (616366), caused by mutation in the KCNA2 gene (176262); DEE33 (616409), caused by mutation in the EEF1A2 gene (602959); DEE34 (616645), caused by mutation in the SLC12A5 gene (606726); DEE35 (616647), caused by mutation in the ITPA gene (147520); DEE36 (300884), caused by mutation in the ALG13 gene (300776); DEE37 (616981), caused by mutation in the FRRS1L gene (604574); DEE38 (617020), caused by mutation in the ARV1 gene (611647); DEE39 (612949), caused by mutation in the SLC25A12 gene (603667); DEE40 (617065), caused by mutation in the GUF1 gene (617064); DEE41 (617105), caused by mutation in the SLC1A2 gene (600300); DEE42 (617106), caused by mutation in the CACNA1A gene (601011); DEE43 (617113), caused by mutation in the GABRB3 gene (137192); DEE44 (617132), caused by mutation in the UBA5 gene (610552); DEE45 (617153), caused by mutation in the GABRB1 gene (137190); DEE46 (617162), caused by mutation in the GRIN2D gene (602717); DEE47 (617166), caused by mutation in the FGF12 gene (601513); DEE48 (617276), caused by mutation in the AP3B2 gene (602166); DEE49 (617281), caused by mutation in the DENND5A gene (617278); DEE50 (616457) caused by mutation in the CAD gene (114010); DEE51 (617339), caused by mutation in the MDH2 gene (154100); DEE52 (617350), caused by mutation in the SCN1B gene (600235); DEE53 (617389), caused by mutation in the SYNJ1 gene (604297); DEE54 (617391), caused by mutation in the HNRNPU gene (602869); DEE55 (617599), caused by mutation in the PIGP gene (605938); DEE56 (617665), caused by mutation in the YWHAG gene (605356); DEE57 (617771), caused by mutation in the KCNT2 gene (610044); DEE58 (617830), caused by mutation in the NTRK2 gene (600456); DEE59 (617904), caused by mutation in the GABBR2 gene (607340); DEE60 (617929), caused by mutation in the CNPY3 gene (610774); DEE61 (617933), caused by mutation in the ADAM22 gene (603709); DEE62 (617938), caused by mutation in the SCN3A gene (182391); DEE63 (617976), caused by mutation in the CPLX1 gene (605032); DEE64 (618004), caused by mutation in the RHOBTB2 gene (607352); DEE65 (618008), caused by mutation in the CYFIP2 gene (606323); DEE66 (618067), caused by mutation in the PACS2 gene (610423); DEE67 (618141), caused by mutation in the CUX2 gene (610648); DEE68 (618201), caused by mutation in the TRAK1 gene (608112); DEE69 (618285), caused by mutation in the CACNA1E gene (601013); DEE70 (618298) caused by mutation in the PHACTR1 gene (608723); DEE71 (618328), caused by mutation in the GLS gene (138280); DEE72 (618374), caused by mutation in the NEUROD2 gene (601725); DEE73 (618379), caused by mutation in the RNF13 gene (609247); DEE74 (618396), caused by mutation in the GABRG2 gene (137164); DEE75 (618437), caused by mutation in the PARS2 gene (612036); DEE76 (618468), caused by mutation in the ACTL6B gene (612458); DEE77 (618548), caused by mutation in the PIGQ gene (605754); DEE78 (618557), caused by mutation in the GABRA2 gene (137140); DEE79 (618559), caused by mutation in the GABRA5 gene (137142); DEE80 (618580), caused by mutation in the PIGB gene (604122); DEE81 (618663), caused by mutation in the DMXL2 gene (612186); DEE82 (618721), caused by mutation in the GOT2 gene (138150); DEE83 (618744), caused by mutation in the UGP2 gene (191760); DEE84 (618792), caused by mutation in the UGDH gene (603370); DEE85 (301044), caused by mutation in the SMC1A gene (300040); DEE86 (618910), caused by mutation in the DALRD3 gene (618904); DEE87 (618916), caused by mutation in the CDK19 gene (614720); DEE88 (618959), caused by mutation in the MDH1 gene (152400); DEE89 (619124), caused by mutation in the GAD1 gene (605363); DEE90 (301058), caused by mutation in the FGF13 gene (300070); DEE91 (617711), caused by mutation in the PPP3CA gene (114105); DEE92 (617829), caused by mutation in the GABRB2 gene (600232); DEE93 (618012), caused by mutation in the ATP6V1A gene (607027); DEE94 (615369), caused by mutation in the CHD2 gene (602119); DEE95 (618143), caused by mutation in the PIGS gene (610271); DEE96 (619340), caused by mutation in the NSF gene (601633); DEE97 (619561), caused by mutation in the iCELF2 gene (602538); DEE98 (619605), caused by mutation in the ATP1A2 gene (182340); DEE99 (619606), caused by mutation in the ATP1A3 gene (182350); DEE100 (619777), caused by mutation in the FBXO28 gene (609100); DEE101 (619814), caused by mutation in the GRIN1 gene (138249); DEE102 (619881), caused by mutation in the SLC38A3 gene (604437); DEE103 (619913), caused by mutation in the KCNC2 gene (176256); DEE104 (619970), caused by mutation in the ATP6V0A1 gene (192130); DEE105 (619983), caused by mutation in the HID1 gene (605752); DEE106 (620028), caused by mutation in the UFSP2 gene (611482); DEE107 (620033), caused by mutation in the NAPB gene (
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 36
MedGen UID:
483339
Concept ID:
C3472711
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-36 (SCA36) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult-onset gait ataxia, eye movement abnormalities, tongue fasciculations, and variable upper motor neuron signs. Some affected individuals may develop hearing loss (summary by Garcia-Murias et al., 2012). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 35
MedGen UID:
501249
Concept ID:
C3496228
Disease or Syndrome
Fatty acid hydroxylase-associated neurodegeneration (FAHN) is characterized early in the disease course by central nervous system involvement including corticospinal tract involvement (spasticity), mixed movement disorder (ataxia/dystonia), and eye findings (optic atrophy, oculomotor abnormalities), and later in the disease course by progressive intellectual impairment and seizures. With disease progression, dystonia and spasticity compromise the ability to ambulate, leading to wheelchair dependence. Life expectancy is variable. FAHN is considered to be a subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 53
MedGen UID:
761340
Concept ID:
C3539494
Disease or Syndrome
SPG53 is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset in infancy of delayed motor development progressing to upper and lower limb spasticity with impaired walking. Affected individuals also show mild to moderate cognitive impairment (summary by Zivony-Elboum et al., 2012).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 54
MedGen UID:
761341
Concept ID:
C3539495
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-54 (SPG54) is a complicated form of spastic paraplegia, a neurodegenerative disorder affecting fibers of the corticospinal tract. Affected individuals have delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and early-onset spasticity of the lower limbs. Brain MRI shows a thin corpus callosum and periventricular white matter lesions. Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows an abnormal lipid peak (summary by Schuurs-Hoeijmakers et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see 270800.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 55
MedGen UID:
761342
Concept ID:
C3539506
Disease or Syndrome
A rare complex type of hereditary spastic paraplegia with characteristics of childhood onset of progressive spastic paraplegia associated with optic atrophy (with reduced visual acuity and central scotoma), ophthalmoplegia, reduced upper-extremity strength and dexterity, muscular atrophy in the lower extremities and sensorimotor neuropathy. Caused by mutations in the C12ORF65 gene (12q24.31) encoding probable peptide chain release factor C12ORF65, mitochondrial.
Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia
MedGen UID:
762040
Concept ID:
C3541340
Disease or Syndrome
Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia (PTCD) refers to a neurologic condition characterized by a distinct pattern of hindbrain malformations apparent on brain imaging. The abnormalities affect the pons, medulla, and cerebellum. In neuroradiologic studies, the ventral side of the pons is flattened, whereas there is vaulting ('capping') of the dorsal pontine border into the fourth ventricle. Affected individuals show a variety of neurologic deficits, most commonly sensorineural deafness, impaired cranial nerve function, and variable psychomotor retardation (summary by Barth et al., 2007).
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 1
MedGen UID:
762097
Concept ID:
C3541471
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive mitochondrial complex III deficiency is a severe multisystem disorder with onset at birth of lactic acidosis, hypotonia, hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, encephalopathy, and delayed psychomotor development. Visceral involvement, including hepatopathy and renal tubulopathy, may also occur. Many patients die in early childhood, but some may show longer survival (de Lonlay et al., 2001; De Meirleir et al., 2003). Genetic Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial Complex III Deficiency Mitochondrial complex III deficiency can be caused by mutation in several different nuclear-encoded genes. See MC3DN2 (615157), caused by mutation in the TTC19 gene (613814) on chromosome 17p12; MC3DN3 (615158), caused by mutation in the UQCRB gene (191330) on chromosome 8q; MC3DN4 (615159), caused by mutation in the UQCRQ gene (612080) on chromosome 5q31; MC3DN5 (615160), caused by mutation in the UQCRC2 gene (191329) on chromosome 16p12; MC3DN6 (615453), caused by mutation in the CYC1 gene (123980) on chromosome 8q24; MC3DN7 (615824), caused by mutation in the UQCC2 gene (614461) on chromosome 6p21; MC3DN8 (615838), caused by mutation in the LYRM7 gene (615831) on chromosome 5q23; MC3DN9 (616111), caused by mutation in the UQCC3 gene (616097) on chromosome 11q12; and MC3DN10 (618775), caused by mutation in the UQCRFS1 gene (191327) on chromosome 19q12. See also MTYCB (516020) for a discussion of a milder phenotype associated with isolated mitochondrial complex III deficiency and mutations in a mitochondrial-encoded gene.
Hyperekplexia 2
MedGen UID:
766205
Concept ID:
C3553291
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary hyperekplexia is a condition in which affected infants have increased muscle tone (hypertonia) and an exaggerated startle reaction to unexpected stimuli, especially loud noises. Following the startle reaction, infants experience a brief period in which they are very rigid and unable to move. During these rigid periods, some infants stop breathing, which, if prolonged, can be fatal. Infants with hereditary hyperekplexia have hypertonia at all times, except when they are sleeping.\n\nOther signs and symptoms of hereditary hyperekplexia can include muscle twitches when falling asleep (hypnagogic myoclonus) and movements of the arms or legs while asleep. Some infants, when tapped on the nose, extend their head forward and have spasms of the limb and neck muscles. Rarely, infants with hereditary hyperekplexia experience recurrent seizures (epilepsy).\n\nThe signs and symptoms of hereditary hyperekplexia typically fade by age 1. However, older individuals with hereditary hyperekplexia may still startle easily and have periods of rigidity, which can cause them to fall down. They may also continue to have hypnagogic myoclonus or movements during sleep. As they get older, individuals with this condition may have a low tolerance for crowded places and loud noises. People with hereditary hyperekplexia who have epilepsy have the seizure disorder throughout their lives.\n\nHereditary hyperekplexia may explain some cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), which is a major cause of unexplained death in babies younger than 1 year.
Encephalopathy-hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-renal tubular disease syndrome
MedGen UID:
766288
Concept ID:
C3553374
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1B
MedGen UID:
766363
Concept ID:
C3553449
Disease or Syndrome
EXOSC3 pontocerebellar hypoplasia (EXOSC3-PCH) is characterized by abnormalities in the posterior fossa and degeneration of the anterior horn cells. At birth, skeletal muscle weakness manifests as hypotonia (sometimes with congenital joint contractures) and poor feeding. In persons with prolonged survival, spasticity, dystonia, and seizures become evident. Within the first year of life respiratory insufficiency and swallowing difficulties are common. Intellectual disability is severe. Life expectancy ranges from a few weeks to adolescence. To date, 82 individuals (from 58 families) with EXOSC3-PCH have been described.
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 13
MedGen UID:
766730
Concept ID:
C3553816
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-13 (SCAR13) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development beginning in infancy. Affected individuals show mildly to profoundly impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech as well as gait and stance ataxia and hyperreflexia. Most individuals also have eye movement abnormalities. Brain MRI shows cerebellar atrophy and ventriculomegaly (Guergueltcheva et al., 2012).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 14
MedGen UID:
767109
Concept ID:
C3554195
Disease or Syndrome
KCNT1-related epilepsy is most often associated with two phenotypes: epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) and autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE). EIMFS is characterized by seizures, typically focal and asynchronous, beginning in the first six months of life with associated developmental plateau or regression. Autonomic manifestations (e.g., perioral cyanosis, flushing, apnea) are common. Seizures are intractable to multiple anticonvulsants and progress to become nearly continuous by age six to nine months. ADNFLE is characterized by clusters of nocturnal motor seizures that vary from simple arousals to hyperkinetic events with tonic or dystonic features. Individuals with KCNT1-related ADNFLE are more likely to develop seizures at a younger age, have cognitive comorbidity, and display psychiatric and behavioral problems than individuals with ADNFLE resulting from other causes. Less common seizure phenotypes in individuals with KCNT1-related epilepsy include West syndrome, Ohtahara syndrome, early myoclonic encephalopathy, leukodystrophy and/or leukoencephalopathy, focal epilepsy, and multifocal epilepsy. Additional neurologic features include hypotonia, microcephaly developing by age 12 months, strabismus, profound developmental delay, and additional movement disorders. Other systemic manifestations including pulmonary hemorrhage caused by prominent systemic-to-pulmonary collateral arteries or cardiac arrhythmia have been reported.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 8
MedGen UID:
767123
Concept ID:
C3554209
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 8 is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, abnormal movements, hypotonia, spasticity, and variable visual defects. Brain MRI shows pontocerebellar hypoplasia, decreased cerebral white matter, and a thin corpus callosum (summary by Mochida et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 7
MedGen UID:
767140
Concept ID:
C3554226
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 7 (PCH7) is a severe neurologic condition characterized by delayed psychomotor development, hypotonia, breathing abnormalities, and gonadal abnormalities (summary by Anderson et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 2
MedGen UID:
767519
Concept ID:
C3554605
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 2 is an autosomal recessive severe neurodegenerative disorder that usually presents in childhood, but may show later onset, even in adulthood. Affected individuals have motor disability, with ataxia, apraxia, dystonia, and dysarthria, associated with necrotic lesions throughout the brain. Most patients also have cognitive impairment and axonal neuropathy and become severely disabled later in life (summary by Ghezzi et al., 2011). The disorder may present clinically as spinocerebellar ataxia or Leigh syndrome, or with psychiatric disturbances (Morino et al., 2014; Atwal, 2014; Nogueira et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex III deficiency, see MC3DN1 (124000).
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 4
MedGen UID:
767521
Concept ID:
C3554607
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency can be fatal in childhood, although individuals with mild signs and symptoms can survive into adolescence or adulthood.\n\nMost people with mitochondrial complex III deficiency have a buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body (lactic acidosis). Some affected individuals also have buildup of molecules called ketones (ketoacidosis) or high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). Abnormally high levels of these chemicals in the body can be life-threatening.\n\nThe severity of mitochondrial complex III deficiency varies widely among affected individuals. People who are mildly affected tend to have muscle weakness (myopathy) and extreme tiredness (fatigue), particularly during exercise (exercise intolerance). More severely affected individuals have problems with multiple body systems, such as liver disease that can lead to liver failure, kidney abnormalities (tubulopathy), and brain dysfunction (encephalopathy). Encephalopathy can cause delayed development of mental and motor skills (psychomotor delay), movement problems, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and difficulty with communication. Some affected individuals have a form of heart disease called cardiomyopathy, which can lead to heart failure. \n\nMitochondrial complex III deficiency is a genetic condition that can affect several parts of the body, including the brain, kidneys, liver, heart, and the muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). Signs and symptoms of mitochondrial complex III deficiency usually begin in infancy but can appear later.
Actin accumulation myopathy
MedGen UID:
777997
Concept ID:
C3711389
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-2A (CMYP2A) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the skeletal muscle characterized by infantile- or childhood-onset myopathy with delayed motor milestones and nonprogressive muscle weakness. Of the patients with congenital myopathy caused by mutation in the ACTA1 gene, about 90% carry heterozygous mutations that are usually de novo and cause the severe infantile phenotype (CMYP2C; 620278). Some patients with de novo mutations have a more typical and milder disease course with delayed motor development and proximal muscle weakness, but are able to achieve independent ambulation. Less frequently, autosomal dominant transmission of the disorder within a family may occur when the ACTA1 mutation produces a phenotype compatible with adult life. Of note, intrafamilial variability has also been reported: a severely affected proband may be identified and then mildly affected or even asymptomatic relatives are found to carry the same mutation. The severity of the disease most likely depends on the detrimental effect of the mutation, although there are probably additional modifying factors (Ryan et al., 2001; Laing et al., 2009; Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001; Agrawal et al., 2004; Nowak et al., 2013; Sewry et al., 2019; Laitila and Wallgren-Pettersson, 2021). The most common histologic finding on muscle biopsy in patients with ACTA1 mutations is the presence of 'nemaline rods,' which represent abnormal thread- or rod-like structures ('nema' is Greek for 'thread'). However, skeletal muscle biopsy from patients with mutations in the ACTA1 gene can show a range of pathologic phenotypes. These include classic rods, intranuclear rods, clumped filaments, cores, or fiber-type disproportion, all of which are nonspecific pathologic findings and not pathognomonic of a specific congenital myopathy. Most patients have clinically severe disease, regardless of the histopathologic phenotype (Nowak et al., 2007; Sewry et al., 2019). ACTA1 mutations are the second most common cause of congenital myopathies classified histologically as 'nemaline myopathy' after mutations in the NEB gene (161650). ACTA1 mutations are overrepresented in the severe phenotype with early death (Laing et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM2 (256030).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 57
MedGen UID:
811490
Concept ID:
C3714897
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare, complex type of hereditary spastic paraplegia, with onset in infancy of pronounced leg spasticity (leading to the inability to walk independently), reduced visual acuity due to optic atrophy and distal wasting of the hands and feet due to an axonal demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy. Caused by mutations in the TFG gene (3q12.2) encoding protein TFG, which is thought to play a role in ER microtubular architecture and function.
Multiple system atrophy 1, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
811503
Concept ID:
C3714927
Finding
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a distinct clinicopathologic entity that manifests as a progressive adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder causing parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia, and autonomic, urogenital, and pyramidal dysfunction in various combinations. Two main subtypes are recognized: 'subtype C,' characterized predominantly by cerebellar ataxia, and 'subtype P,' characterized predominantly by parkinsonism. MSA is characterized pathologically by the degeneration of striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar structures and glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) that consist of abnormally phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (SNCA; 163890) or tau (MAPT; 157140) (Gilman et al., 1998; Gilman et al., 2008; Scholz et al., 2009). 'Subtype C' of MSA has been reported to be more prevalent than 'subtype P' in the Japanese population (65-67% vs 33-35%), whereas 'subtype P' has been reported to be more prevalent than 'subtype C' in Europe (63% vs 34%) and North America (60% vs 13%, with 27% of cases unclassified) (summary by The Multiple-System Atrophy Research Collaboration, 2013). MSA is similar clinically and pathologically to Parkinson disease (PD; 168600) and Lewy body dementia (127750). See also PARK1 (168601), which is specifically caused by mutation in the SNCA gene. Pure autonomic failure manifests as orthostatic hypotension and other autonomic abnormalities without other neurologic involvement. Although there is some phenotypic overlap, the relationship of pure autonomic failure to MSA is unclear (Vanderhaeghen et al., 1970; Schatz, 1996).
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 13
MedGen UID:
811566
Concept ID:
C3715049
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-13 (CLN13) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult onset of progressive cognitive decline and motor dysfunction leading to dementia and often early death. Some patients develop seizures. Neurons show abnormal accumulation of autofluorescent material (summary by Smith et al., 2013). Adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is sometimes referred to as Kufs disease (see 204300). In a review of the classification of CLN disease, Gardner and Mole (2021) noted that the CLN13 phenotype corresponds to 'Kufs type B', which is characterized by dementia and a variety of motor signs (Smith et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN), see CLN1 (256730).
X-linked parkinsonism-spasticity syndrome
MedGen UID:
813052
Concept ID:
C3806722
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic neurological disorder with characteristics of parkinsonian features (including resting or action tremor, cogwheel rigidity, hypomimia and bradykinesia) associated with variably penetrant spasticity, hyperactive deep tendon reflexes and Babinski sign. There is evidence this disease is caused by hemizygous mutation in the ATP6AP2 gene on chromosome Xp11.
Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy
MedGen UID:
813625
Concept ID:
C3807295
Disease or Syndrome
ADCADN is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by adult onset of progressive cerebellar ataxia, narcolepsy/cataplexy, sensorineural deafness, and dementia. More variable features include optic atrophy, sensory neuropathy, psychosis, and depression (summary by Winkelmann et al., 2012).
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 21
MedGen UID:
813851
Concept ID:
C3807521
Disease or Syndrome
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-21 (ALS21) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in muscle weakness and respiratory failure. Some patients may develop myopathic features or dementia (summary by Johnson et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, see ALS1 (105400).
Partial lipodystrophy, congenital cataracts, and neurodegeneration syndrome
MedGen UID:
813897
Concept ID:
C3807567
Disease or Syndrome
Lipodystrophies are rare disorders characterized by loss of body fat from various regions and predisposition to metabolic complications of insulin resistance and lipid abnormalities. FPLD7 is an autosomal dominant disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Additional features, including early-onset cataracts and later onset of spasticity of the lower limbs, have been noted in some patients (summary by Garg et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), see 151660.
Hypotonia, infantile, with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies 1
MedGen UID:
815784
Concept ID:
C3809454
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies (IHPRF) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with onset at birth or in early infancy. Affected individuals show very poor, if any, normal cognitive development. Some patients are never learn to sit or walk independently (summary by Al-Sayed et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Infantile Hypotonia with Psychomotor Retardation and Characteristic Facies See also IHPRF2 (616801), caused by mutation in the UNC80 gene (612636) on chromosome 2q34; and IHPRF3 (616900), caused by mutation in the TBCK gene (616899) on chromosome 4q24.
Early-onset progressive neurodegeneration-blindness-ataxia-spasticity syndrome
MedGen UID:
815995
Concept ID:
C3809665
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-79B (SPG79B) is an autosomal recessive progressive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of spastic paraplegia and optic atrophy in the first decade of life. Additional features are variable, but may include peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, and cognitive impairment (summary by Rydning et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Congenital microcephaly - severe encephalopathy - progressive cerebral atrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
816301
Concept ID:
C3809971
Disease or Syndrome
Asparagine synthetase deficiency (ASD) mainly presents as a triad of congenital microcephaly, severe developmental delay, and axial hypotonia followed by spastic quadriplegia. Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) asparagine level can help the clinician in differentiating this disorder from others. In most cases age of onset of apnea, excessive irritability, and seizures is soon after birth. Affected individuals typically do not acquire any developmental milestones. Spastic quadriplegia can lead to severe contractures of the limbs and neurogenic scoliosis. Feeding difficulties (gastroesophageal reflux disease, frequent vomiting, swallowing dysfunction, and gastroesophageal incoordination) are a significant problem in most affected individuals. A majority have cortical blindness. MRI findings are nonspecific but may include generalized atrophy and simplified gyral pattern.
Microcephaly-thin corpus callosum-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
816410
Concept ID:
C3810080
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, syndromic intellectual disability disease characterized by progressive postnatal microcephaly and global developmental delay, as well as moderate to profound intellectual disability, difficulty or inability to walk, pyramidal signs (including spasticity, hyperreflexia and extensor plantar response) and thin corpus callosum revealed by brain imaging. Ophthalmologic signs (including nystagmus, strabismus and abnormal retinal pigmentation), foot deformity and genital anomalies may also be associated.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 63
MedGen UID:
816625
Concept ID:
C3810295
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare and complex form of hereditary spastic paraplegia with characteristics of onset in infancy of spastic paraplegia (presenting with delayed walking and a scissors gait) associated with short stature and normal cognition. Periventricular deep white matter changes in the corpus callosum are noted on brain imaging. SPG63 is caused by a homozygous mutation in the AMPD2 gene (1p13.3) encoding AMP deaminase 2.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 35
MedGen UID:
854733
Concept ID:
C3888031
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-35 (SCA35) is an autosomal dominant adult-onset neurologic disorder characterized by difficulty walking due to cerebellar ataxia. The age at onset ranges from teenage years to late adulthood, and the disorder is slowly progressive. Additional features may include hand tremor, dysarthria, hyperreflexia, and saccadic eye movements (summary by Guo et al., 2014). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 41
MedGen UID:
854815
Concept ID:
C3888208
Disease or Syndrome
A pure form of hereditary spastic paraplegia with onset in adolescence or early adulthood of slowly progressive spastic paraplegia, proximal muscle weakness of the lower extremities and small hand muscles, hyperreflexia, spastic gait and mild urinary compromise.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 45
MedGen UID:
854816
Concept ID:
C3888209
Disease or Syndrome
A rare pure or complex form of hereditary spastic paraplegia with characteristics of onset in infancy of progressive lower limb spasticity, abnormal gait, increased deep tendon reflexes and extensor plantar responses that may be associated with intellectual disability. Additional signs such as contractures in the lower limbs, amyotrophy, clubfoot and optic atrophy, have also been reported. Caused by homozygous mutation in the NT5C2 gene on chromosome 10q24.
Diffuse cerebral and cerebellar atrophy - intractable seizures - progressive microcephaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
862676
Concept ID:
C4014239
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive microcephaly with seizures and cerebral and cerebellar atrophy is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder with onset in the first days or months of life. Patients are born with microcephaly and soon develop intractable seizures, resulting in profoundly delayed development and hypotonia (summary by Zhang et al., 2014).
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 42
MedGen UID:
862780
Concept ID:
C4014343
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic features, spasticity, and brain abnormalities (NEDDSBA) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed global development, with hypotonia, impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech. Most patients have spasticity with limb hypertonia and brisk tendon reflexes. Additional features include nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, structural brain abnormalities, and cortical visual impairment (summary by Bosch et al., 2015). Novarino et al. (2014) labeled the disorder 'spastic paraplegia-67' (SPG67). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 9
MedGen UID:
862791
Concept ID:
C4014354
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 9 (PCH9) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development, progressive microcephaly, spasticity, seizures, and brain abnormalities, including brain atrophy, thin corpus callosum, and delayed myelination (summary by Akizu et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Leukoencephalopathy, progressive, with ovarian failure
MedGen UID:
863025
Concept ID:
C4014588
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive leukoencephalopathy with ovarian failure is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of motor and cognitive skills, usually with onset in young adulthood. Some patients may have a history of delayed motor development or learning difficulties in early childhood. Neurologic decline is severe, usually resulting in gait difficulties, ataxia, spasticity, and cognitive decline and dementia. Most patients lose speech and become wheelchair-bound or bedridden. Brain MRI shows progressive white matter signal abnormalities in the deep white matter. Affected females develop premature ovarian failure (summary by Dallabona et al., 2014).
Severe neurodegenerative syndrome with lipodystrophy
MedGen UID:
863137
Concept ID:
C4014700
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of BSCL2-related neurologic disorders includes Silver syndrome and variants of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 2, distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) type V, and spastic paraplegia 17. Features of these disorders include onset of symptoms ranging from the first to the seventh decade, slow disease progression, upper motor neuron involvement (gait disturbance with pyramidal signs ranging from mild to severe spasticity with hyperreflexia in the lower limbs and variable extensor plantar responses), lower motor neuron involvement (amyotrophy of the peroneal muscles and small muscles of the hand), and pes cavus and other foot deformities. Disease severity is variable among and within families.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1C
MedGen UID:
863597
Concept ID:
C4015160
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1C is a severe autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severe muscle weakness and failure to thrive apparent in the first months of life. Affected infants showed delayed psychomotor development, often with visual and hearing impairment, and may die of respiratory failure. Brain imaging typically shows cerebellar hypoplasia, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and immature myelination (summary by Boczonadi et al., 2014). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 17
MedGen UID:
863738
Concept ID:
C4015301
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-17 (SCAR17) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of gait ataxia and cerebellar signs in early childhood. Patients also have variably impaired intellectual development (summary by Evers et al., 2016).
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 9
MedGen UID:
863760
Concept ID:
C4015323
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-9 is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of delayed psychomotor development, spasticity, and nystagmus in the first year of life. Additional neurologic features such as ataxia and abnormal movements may also occur. Brain imaging shows diffuse hypomyelination affecting all regions of the brain (summary by Wolf et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 18
MedGen UID:
863942
Concept ID:
C4015505
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-18 is a neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, severely impaired gait due to cerebellar ataxia, ocular movement abnormalities, and intellectual disability. Brain imaging shows progressive cerebellar atrophy (summary by Hills et al., 2013).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 28
MedGen UID:
863956
Concept ID:
C4015519
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-28 (DEE28) is an autosomal recessive severe neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory seizures in the first months of life. Affected individuals have severe axial hypotonia and profoundly impaired psychomotor development. More severely affected patients have acquired microcephaly, poor or absent visual contact, and retinal degeneration; early death may occur (summary by Mignot et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Lissencephaly 6 with microcephaly
MedGen UID:
863962
Concept ID:
C4015525
Congenital Abnormality
Lissencephaly-6 (LIS6) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe microcephaly and developmental delay. Brain imaging shows variable malformations of cortical development, including lissencephaly, pachygyria, and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (summary by Mishra-Gorur et al., 2014). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 24
MedGen UID:
864080
Concept ID:
C4015643
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-24 (COXPD24) is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder with wide phenotypic variability. Most patients present in infancy with delayed neurodevelopment, refractory seizures, hypotonia, and hearing impairment due to auditory neuropathy. Less common features may include cortical blindness, renal dysfunction, and/or liver involvement, suggestive of Alpers syndrome (MTDPS4A; 203700). Patients with the severe phenotype tend to have brain abnormalities on imaging, including cerebral atrophy and hyperintensities in the basal ganglia and brainstem, consistent with Leigh syndrome. Laboratory values may be normal or show increased lactate and evidence of mitochondrial respiratory chain defects, particularly in muscle. Some patients achieve little developmental milestones and may die in infancy or early childhood. However, some patients have a less severe phenotype manifest only by myopathy (summary by Sofou et al., 2015, Vanlander et al., 2015, and Mizuguchi et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Joubert syndrome 24
MedGen UID:
905319
Concept ID:
C4084841
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 13
MedGen UID:
896545
Concept ID:
C4225170
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-13 is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by infantile onset of delayed psychomotor development, axial hypotonia, and spasticity associated with delayed myelination and periventricular white matter abnormalities on brain imaging. More variable neurologic deficits, such as visual impairment, may also occur. Some patients may experience cardiac failure during acute illness (summary by Edvardson et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
Spasticity-ataxia-gait anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
905660
Concept ID:
C4225178
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset spasticity with hyperglycinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of slowly progressive spasticity that results in impaired gait in the first decade of life. Imaging of the central nervous system shows leukodystrophy and/or lesions in the upper spinal cord. More variable features include visual defects and mild learning disabilities. Serum glycine is increased, but CSF glycine is only mildly increased or normal; serum lactate is normal. The disorder represents a form of 'variant' nonketotic hyperglycinemia and is distinct from classic nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH, or GCE; 605899), which is characterized by significantly increased CSF glycine. Several forms of 'variant' NKH, including SPAHGC, appear to result from defects of mitochondrial lipoate biosynthesis (summary by Baker et al., 2014).
Autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson disease 23
MedGen UID:
896607
Concept ID:
C4225186
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinson disease-23 is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by young-adult onset of parkinsonism associated with progressive cognitive impairment leading to dementia and dysautonomia. Some individuals have additional motor abnormalities. Affected individuals become severely disabled within a few decades (summary by Lesage et al., 2016).
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 42
MedGen UID:
902592
Concept ID:
C4225205
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-42 (SCA42) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized predominantly by gait instability and additional cerebellar signs such as dysarthria, nystagmus, and saccadic pursuits. The age at onset and severity of the disorder is highly variable. The disorder is slowly progressive (Coutelier et al., 2015). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
SLC39A8-CDG
MedGen UID:
899837
Concept ID:
C4225234
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIn (CDG2N) is an autosomal recessive severe multisystem developmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development apparent from infancy, hypotonia, and variable additional features, such as short stature, seizures, visual impairment, and cerebellar atrophy. Serum transferrin analysis shows a CDG type II pattern (summary by Boycott et al., 2015 and Park et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDG type II, see CDG2A (212066).
Parkinson disease 22, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
907886
Concept ID:
C4225238
Disease or Syndrome
Any Parkinson disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CHCHD2 gene.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 75
MedGen UID:
896387
Concept ID:
C4225250
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-75 (SPG75) is an autosomal recessive, slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of spastic paraplegia and cognitive impairment in childhood (summary by Lossos et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive SPG, see SPG5A (270800).
Spastic tetraplegia-thin corpus callosum-progressive postnatal microcephaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
900192
Concept ID:
C4225254
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic tetraplegia, thin corpus callosum, and progressive microcephaly is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by onset of those features and severely impaired global development in early infancy. Most patients are unable to achieve independent walking or speech; some patients have seizures (summary by Srour et al., 2015 and Heimer et al., 2015).
Early-onset Lafora body disease
MedGen UID:
907932
Concept ID:
C4225258
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive myoclonic epilepsy-10 (EPM10) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of progressive myoclonus, ataxia, spasticity, dysarthria, and cognitive decline in the first decade of life. The severity is variable, but some patients may become mute and bedridden with psychosis (summary by Turnbull et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive myoclonic epilepsy, see EPM1A (254800).
Neuropathy, hereditary motor and sensory, type 6B
MedGen UID:
895482
Concept ID:
C4225302
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type VIB is an autosomal recessive complex progressive neurologic disorder characterized mainly by early-onset optic atrophy resulting in progressive visual loss and peripheral axonal sensorimotor neuropathy with highly variable age at onset and severity. Affected individuals may also have cerebellar or pontocerebellar atrophy on brain imaging, and they may show abnormal movements such as ataxia, dysmetria, and myoclonus (summary by Abrams et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HMSN6, see HMSN6A (601152).
Microcephaly 15, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
895496
Concept ID:
C4225310
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and brain imaging abnormalities (NEDMISBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a spectrum of neurologic abnormalities apparent from early infancy. Affected individuals have impaired intellectual development with poor speech, progressive microcephaly, and appendicular spasticity. Brain imaging usually shows abnormalities, including enlarged ventricles, white matter defects, and atrophy or hypoplasia of brain tissue. Some patients have a more severe phenotype with seizures, lack of developmental milestones, and early death (summary by Harel et al., 2018).
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal recessive 2
MedGen UID:
901897
Concept ID:
C4225312
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions-2 (PEOB2) is a mitochondrial disorder characterized by adult onset of progressive external ophthalmoplegia, exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, and signs and symptoms of spinocerebellar ataxia, such as impaired gait and dysarthria. Some patients may have respiratory insufficiency. Laboratory studies are consistent with a defect in mtDNA replication (summary by Reyes et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive PEO, see PEOB1 (258450).
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 4
MedGen UID:
902979
Concept ID:
C4225325
Disease or Syndrome
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-4 is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult or late adult onset of cognitive impairment, behavioral abnormalities, and speech apraxia and/or upper and lower motor neuron signs. The phenotype is highly variable (summary by Freischmidt et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FTDALS, see FTDALS1 (105550).
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 3
MedGen UID:
897127
Concept ID:
C4225326
Disease or Syndrome
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-3 is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult or late adult onset of cognitive impairment, behavioral abnormalities, and speech apraxia and/or upper and lower motor neuron signs. Some patients may also develop Paget disease of bone. The phenotype is highly variable, even within families (summary by Rea et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FTDALS, see FTDALS1 (105550).
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 10
MedGen UID:
904191
Concept ID:
C4225332
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-10 is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by postnatal progressive microcephaly, severely delayed psychomotor development, and hypomyelination on brain imaging (summary by Nakayama et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
899010
Concept ID:
C4225348
Disease or Syndrome
Infants with ISCA2-related mitochondrial disorder (IRMD) typically attain normal development in the first months of life. At age three to seven months, affected individuals usually present with a triad of neurodevelopmental regression, nystagmus with optic atrophy, and diffuse white matter disease. As the disease progresses, global psychomotor regression continues at a variable pace and seizures may develop. Affected children become vegetative within one to two years. During their vegetative state, which may persist for years, affected individuals are prone to recurrent chest infections that may require ventilator support. Most affected individuals die during early childhood.
Glutamate pyruvate transaminase 2 deficiency
MedGen UID:
906606
Concept ID:
C4225388
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spastic paraplegia and microcephaly (NEDSPM) is an autosomal recessive neurologic syndrome characterized by delayed psychomotor development with delayed walking, moderately to severely impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech. More severely affected individuals show poor overall growth with progressive microcephaly, axial hypotonia, oromotor dysfunction with drooling, joint contractures, and spastic paraplegia resulting in walking difficulties. Some patients may develop seizures; nonspecific dysmorphic features have also been reported (summary by Hengel et al., 2018 and Ouyang et al., 2019).
Sialidosis type 2
MedGen UID:
924303
Concept ID:
C4282398
Disease or Syndrome
Sialidosis is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the progressive lysosomal storage of sialylated glycopeptides and oligosaccharides caused by a deficiency of the enzyme neuraminidase. Common to the sialidoses is the accumulation and/or excretion of sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid) covalently linked ('bound') to a variety of oligosaccharides and/or glycoproteins (summary by Lowden and O'Brien, 1979). The sialidoses are distinct from the sialurias in which there is storage and excretion of 'free' sialic acid, rather than 'bound' sialic acid; neuraminidase activity in sialuria is normal or elevated. Salla disease (604369) is a form of 'free' sialic acid disease. Classification Lowden and O'Brien (1979) provided a logical nosology of neuraminidase deficiency into sialidosis type I and type II. Type I is the milder form, also known as the 'normosomatic' type or the cherry red spot-myoclonus syndrome. Sialidosis type II is the more severe form with an earlier onset, and is also known as the 'dysmorphic' type. Type II has been subdivided into juvenile and infantile forms. Other terms for sialidosis type II are mucolipidosis I and lipomucopolysaccharidosis.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 61
MedGen UID:
924419
Concept ID:
C4283894
Disease or Syndrome
Tonne-Kalscheuer syndrome (TOKAS) is an X-linked recessive multiple congenital anomaly disorder with 2 main presentations. Most patients exhibit global developmental delay apparent from early infancy, impaired intellectual development, speech delay, behavioral abnormalities, and abnormal gait. Affected individuals also have dysmorphic facial features that evolve with age, anomalies of the hands, feet, and nails, and urogenital abnormalities with hypogenitalism. A subset of more severely affected males develop congenital diaphragmatic hernia in utero, which may result in perinatal or premature death. Carrier females may have very mild skeletal or hormonal abnormalities (summary by Frints et al., 2019). Also see Fryns syndrome (229850), an autosomal recessive disorder with overlapping features.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 62
MedGen UID:
924879
Concept ID:
C4284588
Disease or Syndrome
A pure or complex form of hereditary spastic paraplegia with characteristics of onset in the first decade of life of spastic paraparesis (more prominent in lower than upper extremities) and unsteady gait, as well as increased deep tendon reflexes, amyotrophy, cerebellar ataxia and flexion contractures of the knees in some.
Spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus, and obesity
MedGen UID:
924883
Concept ID:
C4284592
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus, and obesity (SINO) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by rapid growth in infancy, global developmental delay, spastic paraplegia, variable ophthalmologic defects, and dysmorphic facial features (summary by Josifova et al., 2016).
COG4-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
929221
Concept ID:
C4303552
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare form of carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome with, in the single reported case to date, seizures, some dysmorphic features, axial hypotonia, slight peripheral hypertonia and hyperreflexia.
Dystonia, childhood-onset, with optic atrophy and basal ganglia abnormalities
MedGen UID:
934601
Concept ID:
C4310634
Disease or Syndrome
MECR-related neurologic disorder is characterized by a progressive childhood-onset movement disorder and optic atrophy; intellect is often – but not always – preserved. The movement disorder typically presents between ages one and 6.5 years and is mainly dystonia that can be accompanied by chorea and/or ataxia. Over time some affected individuals require assistive devices for mobility. Speech fluency and intelligibility are progressively impaired due to dysarthria. Optic atrophy typically develops between ages four and 12 years and manifests as reduced visual acuity, which can include functional blindness (also known as legal blindness) in adulthood. Because only 13 affected individuals are known to the authors, and because nearly half of them were diagnosed retrospectively as adults, the natural history of disease progression and other aspects of the phenotype have not yet been completely defined.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 49
MedGen UID:
934602
Concept ID:
C4310635
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-49 (DEE49) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the neonatal period, global developmental delay with intellectual disability and lack of speech, hypotonia, spasticity, and coarse facial features. Some patients may have brain calcifications on imaging (summary by Han et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 58
MedGen UID:
934608
Concept ID:
C4310641
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ELP2 gene.
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 57
MedGen UID:
934640
Concept ID:
C4310673
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MBOAT7 gene.
Neurodegeneration with ataxia, dystonia, and gaze palsy, childhood-onset
MedGen UID:
934660
Concept ID:
C4310693
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset neurodegeneration with ataxia, dystonia, and gaze palsy (NADGP) is an autosomal recessive progressive disorder characterized by onset of gait ataxia, cognitive decline, and gaze palsy in the first or second decades. Additional features include dysarthria, dystonia, and athetoid movements. Some patients may become wheelchair-bound as young adults (summary by Haack et al., 2016).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 42
MedGen UID:
934683
Concept ID:
C4310716
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-42 (DEE42) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of various types of seizures in the first hours or days of life, although rare patients may have onset in the first weeks of life. The seizures tend to be refractory and associated with EEG abnormalities, including multifocal spikes and generalized spike-wave complexes. Affected infants show global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development. Other features may include axial hypotonia, peripheral hypertonia with hyperreflexia, tremor, ataxia, and abnormal eye movements (summary by the Epi4K Consortium, 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Microcephaly 17, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
934690
Concept ID:
C4310723
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly-17 (MCPH17) is a severe neurologic disorder characterized by very small head circumference that is apparent at birth and worsens over time (up to -12 SD). Affected individuals have delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, spasticity, axial hypotonia, and dysmorphic features. Brain imaging shows a simplified gyral pattern; more severe cases have lissencephaly with hypoplasia of the brainstem and cerebellum (summary by Harding et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
Encephalopathy due to defective mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission 2
MedGen UID:
934693
Concept ID:
C4310726
Disease or Syndrome
Encephalopathy due to defective mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission-2 (EMPF2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, severe hypotonia with inability to walk, microcephaly, and abnormal signals in the basal ganglia. More variable features include early-onset seizures, optic atrophy, and peripheral neuropathy (summary by Koch et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of EMPF, see EMPF1 (614388).
Micrognathia-recurrent infections-behavioral abnormalities-mild intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
934707
Concept ID:
C4310740
Disease or Syndrome
TRIO-related intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by delay in acquisition of motor and language skills, mild to borderline intellectual disability, and neurobehavioral problems (including autistic traits or autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and/or aggression). Neonatal or infantile feeding difficulties including poor suck, impaired bottle feeding, and failure to thrive are common and are often the presenting finding. Other findings can include microcephaly, variable hand and dental abnormalities, and suggestive facial features. Only ten of the 20 individuals with a TRIO pathogenic variant reported to date had sufficient information to make preliminary generalizations about clinical manifestations; it is anticipated that the phenotype of this newly described disorder will continue to evolve.
Striatonigral degeneration, childhood-onset
MedGen UID:
934710
Concept ID:
C4310743
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic neurodegenerative disease with characteristics of sudden onset of progressive motor deterioration and regression of developmental milestones. Manifestations include dystonia and muscle spasms, dysphagia, dysarthria, and eventually loss of speech and ambulation. Brain MRI shows predominantly striatal abnormalities. The disease is potentially associated with a fatal outcome.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 2F
MedGen UID:
934724
Concept ID:
C4310757
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2F (PCH2F) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by progressive microcephaly and variable neurologic signs and symptoms, including cognitive and motor delay, poor or absent speech, seizures, and spasticity (summary by Breuss et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2, see PCH2A (277470).
Hypermanganesemia with dystonia 2
MedGen UID:
934732
Concept ID:
C4310765
Disease or Syndrome
SLC39A14 deficiency is characterized by evidence between ages six months and three years of delay or loss of motor developmental milestones (e.g., delayed walking, gait disturbance). Early in the disease course, children show axial hypotonia followed by dystonia, spasticity, dysarthria, bulbar dysfunction, and signs of parkinsonism including bradykinesia, hypomimia, and tremor. By the end of the first decade they develop severe, generalized, pharmaco-resistant dystonia, limb contractures, and scoliosis, and lose independent ambulation. Cognitive impairment appears to be less prominent than motor disability. Some affected children have succumbed in their first decade due to secondary complications such as respiratory infections.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 42
MedGen UID:
934741
Concept ID:
C4310774
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
GNB1 encephalopathy (GNB1-E) is characterized by moderate-to-severe developmental delay / intellectual disability, structural brain abnormalities, and often infantile hypotonia and seizures. Other less common findings include dystonia, reduced vision, behavior issues, growth delay, gastrointestinal (GI) problems, genitourinary (GU) abnormalities in males, and cutaneous mastocytosis.
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 22
MedGen UID:
934748
Concept ID:
C4310781
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the VWA3B gene.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 104
MedGen UID:
934784
Concept ID:
C4310817
Disease or Syndrome
Any non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the FRMPD4 gene.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 10B
MedGen UID:
1379481
Concept ID:
C4479254
Disease or Syndrome
Lopes-Maciel-Rodan syndrome
MedGen UID:
1379711
Concept ID:
C4479491
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, and variable brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1380860
Concept ID:
C4479566
Disease or Syndrome
NMIHBA is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy and profoundly impaired intellectual development. Affected individuals have microcephaly with accompanying dysmorphic features, truncal hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, and lack of independent ambulation or speech acquisition. Brain imaging shows variable abnormalities, including cortical atrophy, thin corpus callosum, cerebellar hypoplasia, and delayed myelination (summary by Zollo et al., 2017).
Gaze palsy, familial horizontal, with progressive scoliosis, 2
MedGen UID:
1393733
Concept ID:
C4479640
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic ataxia 8, autosomal recessive, with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
1382553
Concept ID:
C4479653
Disease or Syndrome
NKX6-2-related disorder is characterized by a spectrum of progressive neurologic manifestations resulting from diffuse central nervous system hypomyelination. At the severe end of the spectrum is neonatal-onset nystagmus, severe spastic tetraplegia with joint contractures and scoliosis, and visual and hearing impairment, all of which rapidly progress resulting in death in early childhood. At the milder end of the spectrum is normal achievement of early motor milestones in the first year of life followed by slowly progressive complex spastic ataxia with pyramidal findings (spasticity with increased muscle tone and difficulty with gait and fine motor coordination) and cerebellar findings (nystagmus, extraocular movement disorder, dysarthria, titubation, and ataxia) with loss of developmental milestones. To date NKX6-2-related disorder has been reported in 25 individuals from 13 families.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 40
MedGen UID:
1385103
Concept ID:
C4518336
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare disease with characteristics of adult-onset unsteady gait and dysarthria, followed by wide-based gait, gait ataxia, ocular dysmetria, intention tremor, scanning speech, hyperreflexia and dysdiadochokinesis.
Diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1615973
Concept ID:
C4538630
Disease or Syndrome
Diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia syndrome-1 (DMJDS1) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by progressive microcephaly, severely delayed or even absent psychomotor development with profound intellectual disability, and spasticity or dystonia. Some patients may have seizures and/or visual impairment. Brain imaging shows a characteristic developmental malformation of the midbrain; subtle intracranial calcifications may also be present (summary by Aran et al., 2016 and Guemez-Gamboa et al., 2018). Genetic Heterogeneity of Diencephalic-Mesencephalic Junction Dysplasia Syndrome See also DMJDS2 (618646), caused by mutation in the GSX2 gene (616253) on chromosome 4q12.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 55
MedGen UID:
1622363
Concept ID:
C4539843
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-55 (DEE55) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first weeks or months of life. Affected individuals have an extremely poor outcome, with profoundly impaired intellectual development, absent speech, spastic quadriplegia, and dyskinetic movements. Most have cortical visual impairment and require a feeding tube. Brain imaging shows nonspecific abnormalities, including cerebral atrophy, thin corpus callosum, and abnormal signals in the white matter. Death in childhood may occur. Biochemically, the disorder is associated with impaired synthesis of GPI-anchored proteins (summary by Vetro et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
1623132
Concept ID:
C4539919
Disease or Syndrome
ISCA1-related multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome (ISCA1-MMDS) is a severe neurodegenerative condition typically characterized by either no attainment of developmental milestones or very early loss of achieved milestones, seizures in early infancy, development of spasticity with exaggerated deep tendon reflexes, nystagmus, and risk for sensorineural hearing loss. Affected individuals may also demonstrate elevated blood lactate levels with an elevated lipid-lactate peak on brain MR spectroscopy. Further brain MRI findings may include extensive cerebral and cerebellar deep white matter hyperintensities, marked dilatation of the cerebral ventricles, and pachygyria. Prognosis is poor and most individuals succumb to an intercurrent illness in early childhood.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 32
MedGen UID:
1617600
Concept ID:
C4540029
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-32 is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of delayed psychomotor development and developmental regression in infancy. Affected individuals have multiple variable symptoms, including poor or absent speech, inability to walk, and abnormal movements. Brain imaging shows T2-weighted abnormalities in the basal ganglia and brainstem consistent with Leigh syndrome (256000). Patient cells showed decreased activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, I, III, and IV, as well as impaired mitochondrial translation (summary by Lake et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 9
MedGen UID:
1622927
Concept ID:
C4540171
Disease or Syndrome
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type IX (MGCA9) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset seizures, severely delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability. Patients have hypotonia or spasticity, and laboratory investigations show increased serum lactate and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, suggestive of a mitochondrial defect (summary by Shahrour et al., 2017). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, see MGCA type I (250950).
Neurodevelopmental disorder, mitochondrial, with abnormal movements and lactic acidosis, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1619876
Concept ID:
C4540192
Disease or Syndrome
NEMMLAS is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and abnormal motor function, including hypotonia, dystonia, ataxia, and spasticity. Patient tissues may show deficiencies in one or more of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes, but this is not a constant finding (summary by Wortmann et al., 2017).
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 61
MedGen UID:
1622296
Concept ID:
C4540424
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
MRT61 is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, moderate to severe intellectual disability, and variable dysmorphic facial features. More severely affected patients may develop refractory seizures and have brain abnormalities, including hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (summary by Alwadei et al., 2016).
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defect 15
MedGen UID:
1615160
Concept ID:
C4540520
Disease or Syndrome
GPIBD15 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, variable intellectual disability, hypotonia, early-onset seizures in most patients, and cerebellar atrophy, resulting in cerebellar signs including gait ataxia and dysarthria. The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis (summary by Nguyen et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Cerebellar ataxia, intellectual disability, and dysequilibrium syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639436
Concept ID:
C4551552
Disease or Syndrome
VLDLR cerebellar hypoplasia (VLDLR-CH) is characterized by non-progressive congenital ataxia that is predominantly truncal and results in delayed ambulation, moderate-to-profound intellectual disability, dysarthria, strabismus, and seizures. Children either learn to walk very late (often after age 6 years) or never achieve independent ambulation. Brain MRI findings include hypoplasia of the inferior portion of the cerebellar vermis and hemispheres, simplified gyration of the cerebral hemispheres, and small brain stem – particularly the pons.
Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification 1
MedGen UID:
1637664
Concept ID:
C4551624
Disease or Syndrome
Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurodegenerative disorder with characteristic calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain areas visualized on neuroimaging. Most affected individuals are in good health during childhood and young adulthood and typically present in the fourth to fifth decade with a gradually progressive movement disorder and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The movement disorder first manifests as clumsiness, fatigability, unsteady gait, slow or slurred speech, dysphagia, involuntary movements, or muscle cramping. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, often the first or most prominent manifestations, range from mild difficulty with concentration and memory to changes in personality and/or behavior, to psychosis and dementia. Seizures of various types occur frequently, some individuals experience chronic headache and vertigo; urinary urgency or incontinence may be present.
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1634188
Concept ID:
C4551772
Disease or Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome due to CREBBP mutations
MedGen UID:
1639327
Concept ID:
C4551859
Disease or Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, short stature, and moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low-hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal, then height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Short stature is typical in adulthood. Obesity may develop in childhood or adolescence. Average IQ ranges between 35 and 50; however, developmental outcome varies considerably. Some individuals with EP300-RSTS have normal intellect. Additional features include ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, respiratory difficulties, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, feeding problems, recurrent infections, and severe constipation.
Encephalopathy due to GLUT1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
1645412
Concept ID:
C4551966
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS) is now known to be a continuum that includes the classic phenotype as well as paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia and epilepsy (previously known as dystonia 18 [DYT18]) and paroxysmal choreoathetosis with spasticity (previously known as dystonia 9 [DYT9]), atypical childhood absence epilepsy, myoclonic astatic epilepsy, and paroxysmal non-epileptic findings including intermittent ataxia, choreoathetosis, dystonia, and alternating hemiplegia. The classic phenotype is characterized by infantile-onset seizures, delayed neurologic development, acquired microcephaly, and complex movement disorders. Seizures in classic early-onset Glut1 DS begin before age six months. Several seizure types occur: generalized tonic or clonic, focal, myoclonic, atypical absence, atonic, and unclassified. In some infants, apneic episodes and abnormal episodic eye-head movements similar to opsoclonus may precede the onset of seizures. The frequency, severity, and type of seizures vary among affected individuals and are not related to disease severity. Cognitive impairment, ranging from learning disabilities to severe intellectual disability, is typical. The complex movement disorder, characterized by ataxia, dystonia, and chorea, may occur in any combination and may be continuous, paroxysmal, or continual with fluctuations in severity influenced by environmental factors such as fasting or with infectious stress. Symptoms often improve substantially when a ketogenic diet is started.
Pseudo-TORCH syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639355
Concept ID:
C4552078
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 58
MedGen UID:
1646861
Concept ID:
C4693367
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-58 (DEE58) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the onset of infantile spasms and refractory seizures in the first days or months of life. Affected individuals have global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, usually with absent speech and inability to walk. Additional features include optic atrophy with poor or absent visual fixation, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and spasticity (summary by Hamdan et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, epilepsy, and brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1637443
Concept ID:
C4693390
Disease or Syndrome
NEDMEBA is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by global developmental delay, severe intellectual disability with poor or absent speech and autistic stereotypic behaviors, microcephaly, early-onset generalized seizures, and hypotonia (summary by Marin-Valencia et al., 2018).
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, susceptibility to, 24
MedGen UID:
1632999
Concept ID:
C4693523
Finding
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-24 (ALS24) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by adult-onset loss of motor neurons (Brenner et al., 2016).
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 8
MedGen UID:
1645224
Concept ID:
C4693587
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation-8 (NBIA8) is characterized by iron accumulation in the basal ganglia and manifests as a progressive extrapyramidal syndrome with dystonia, rigidity, and choreoathetosis (Drecourt et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of NBIA, see NBIA1 (234200).
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 16
MedGen UID:
1631337
Concept ID:
C4693779
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-16 is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by onset of hypotonia, nystagmus, and mildly delayed motor development in infancy. Affected individuals have motor disabilities, including ataxic or broad-based gait, hyperreflexia, intention tremor, dysmetria, and a mild pyramidal syndrome. Some patients have cognitive impairment, whereas others may have normal cognition or mild intellectual disability with speech difficulties. Brain imaging typically shows hypomyelination, leukodystrophy, and thin corpus callosum (summary by Simons et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, see 312080.
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 17
MedGen UID:
1644557
Concept ID:
C4693912
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-17 is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by poor, if any, development apparent from infancy. Affected individuals never learn to walk or speak, and have early-onset multifocal seizures, spasticity, poor overall growth, and microcephaly (up to -10 SD). Brain imaging shows multiple abnormalities, including cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, thin corpus callosum, abnormal signals in the basal ganglia, and features suggesting hypo- or demyelination. Some patients may die in childhood (summary by Shukla et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, see 312080.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 65
MedGen UID:
1634676
Concept ID:
C4693925
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-65 (DEE65) is characterized by onset of intractable seizures of various types usually within the first months or years of life, severe to profound psychomotor developmental delay, and mild facial dysmorphism (summary by Nakashima et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Hyperekplexia 4
MedGen UID:
1642659
Concept ID:
C4693933
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperekplexia-4 is an autosomal recessive severe neurologic disorder apparent at birth. Affected infants have extreme hypertonia and appear stiff and rigid. They have little if any development, poor or absent visual contact, and no spontaneous movement, consistent with an encephalopathy. Some patients have early-onset refractory seizures, and many have inguinal or umbilical hernia. Most patients die in the first months of life due to respiratory failure or other complications (summary by Piard et al., 2018). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyperekplexia, see HKPX1 (149400).
Epileptic encephalopathy, infantile or early childhood, 3
MedGen UID:
1642888
Concept ID:
C4693934
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE93) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, early-onset refractory seizures, and impaired intellectual development. The severity of the phenotype is highly variable: some patients may be nonverbal and nonambulatory with spastic quadriparesis and poor eye contact, whereas others have moderate intellectual disability (summary by Fassio et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 14
MedGen UID:
1636182
Concept ID:
C4706415
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-14 (SCAR14) is a neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, severe early-onset gait ataxia, eye movement abnormalities, cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging, and impaired intellectual development (summary by Lise et al., 2012).
Alacrima, achalasia, and intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
1640947
Concept ID:
C4706563
Disease or Syndrome
Alacrima, achalasia, and impaired intellectual development syndrome (AAMR) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of these 3 main features at birth or in early infancy. More variable features include hypotonia, gait abnormalities, anisocoria, and visual or hearing deficits. The disorder shows similarity to the triple A syndrome (231550), but patients with AAMR do not have adrenal insufficiency (summary by Koehler et al., 2013). See also 300858 for a phenotypically similar disorder that shows X-linked inheritance.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A2
MedGen UID:
1648317
Concept ID:
C4721887
Disease or Syndrome
MFN2 hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (MFN2-HMSN) is a classic axonal peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, inherited in either an autosomal dominant (AD) manner (~90%) or an autosomal recessive (AR) manner (~10%). MFN2-HMSN is characterized by more severe involvement of the lower extremities than the upper extremities, distal upper-extremity involvement as the neuropathy progresses, more prominent motor deficits than sensory deficits, and normal (>42 m/s) or only slightly decreased nerve conduction velocities (NCVs). Postural tremor is common. Median onset is age 12 years in the AD form and age eight years in the AR form. The prevalence of optic atrophy is approximately 7% in the AD form and approximately 20% in the AR form.
Autosomal dominant childhood-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy with contractures
MedGen UID:
1669929
Concept ID:
C4747715
Disease or Syndrome
SMALED2A is an autosomal dominant form of spinal muscular atrophy characterized by early childhood onset of muscle weakness and atrophy predominantly affecting the proximal and distal muscles of the lower extremity, although some patients may show upper extremity involvement. The disorder results in delayed walking, waddling gait, difficulty walking, and loss of distal reflexes. Some patients may have foot deformities or hyperlordosis, and some show mild upper motor signs, such as spasticity. Sensation, bulbar function, and cognitive function are preserved. The disorder shows very slow progression throughout life (summary by Oates et al., 2013). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lower extremity-predominant spinal muscular atrophy, see SMALED1 (158600).
Parkinsonism-dystonia, infantile, 2
MedGen UID:
1648382
Concept ID:
C4747991
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset parkinsonism-dystonia-2 (PKDYS2) is an autosomal recessive complex infantile-onset neurologic disorder characterized by abnormal movements, including parkinsonism, dystonia, and poor fine motor skills, as well as autonomic dysfunction, including abnormal sweating, cold extremities, and poor sleep. Some patients have variable degrees of developmental delay. Features of the disorder are consistent with decreased levels of monoamine neurotransmitters, although levels of these in the spinal fluid are normal (summary by Rilstone et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PKDYS, see 613135.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebellar atrophy and with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1648373
Concept ID:
C4748032
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebellar atrophy and with or without seizures (NEDCAS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intellectual disability associated with ataxia (summary by Engel et al., 2023).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1D
MedGen UID:
1648387
Concept ID:
C4748058
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1D (PCH1D) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by severe hypotonia and a motor neuronopathy apparent at birth or in infancy. Patients have respiratory insufficiency, feeding difficulties, and severely delayed or minimal gross motor development. Other features may include eye movement abnormalities, poor overall growth, contractures. Brain imaging shows progressive cerebellar atrophy with relative sparing of the brainstem (summary by Burns et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth
MedGen UID:
1648309
Concept ID:
C4748081
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth (NEDSG) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe early-onset encephalopathy with progressive microcephaly (Nahorski et al., 2018).
Spinocerebellar ataxia 42, early-onset, severe, with neurodevelopmental deficits
MedGen UID:
1648308
Concept ID:
C4748120
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with regression, abnormal movements, loss of speech, and seizures
MedGen UID:
1648345
Concept ID:
C4748127
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia 48
MedGen UID:
1648409
Concept ID:
C4748158
Disease or Syndrome
SCA48 is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of gait ataxia and/or cognitive-affective symptoms in midadulthood. Patients may present with involvement of either system, but most eventually develop impairment in both. Features include gait ataxia, dysarthria, and dysphagia, as well as cognitive decline, deficits in executive function, and psychiatric or affective manifestations, such as depression, anxiety, and apathy. Additional more variable features may include movement abnormalities, such as parkinsonism, tremor, chorea, dystonia, and dysmetria; spasticity is not observed. Brain imaging shows selective atrophy of the posterior areas of the cerebellar vermis, often with bilateral T2-weighted hyperintensities in the dentate nuclei (the 'crab sign'), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may show paucity of cerebellar connections to the brainstem and cerebrum. The presentation is consistent with a clinical diagnosis of cerebellar cognitive-affective syndrome (CCAS). The phenotype shows both inter- and intrafamilial variability as well as some clinical overlap with SCAR16, suggesting that mutations in the STUB1 gene result in a spectrum of neurodegenerative manifestations (summary by Genis et al., 2018; Cocozza et al., 2020; Palvadeau et al., 2020; Ravel et al., 2021). Magri et al. (2022) found evidence that heterozygous STUB1 variants alone do not cause disease but require a concurrent expanded repeat allele of the TBP gene (600075) for disease manifestation; see MOLECULAR GENETICS.
Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 9
MedGen UID:
1648399
Concept ID:
C4748540
Disease or Syndrome
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-9 is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by profoundly impaired motor and cognitive development apparent from early infancy. Affected individuals develop intractable seizures and are unable to speak or ambulate. Brain imaging shows pachygyria as well as hypogenesis of the corpus callosum and other variable brain abnormalities. The phenotype results from impaired cortical neuronal migration (summary by Schaffer et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039).
Neuropathy, congenital hypomyelinating, 3
MedGen UID:
1648417
Concept ID:
C4748608
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy-3 is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of neurogenic muscle impairment in utero. Affected individuals present at birth with severe hypotonia, often causing respiratory insufficiency or failure and inability to swallow or feed properly. They have profoundly impaired psychomotor development and may die in infancy or early childhood. Those that survive are unable to sit or walk. Sural nerve biopsy shows hypomyelination of the nerve fibers, and brain imaging often shows impaired myelination and cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. Nerve conduction velocities are severely decreased (about 10 m/s) or absent due to improper myelination (summary by Vallat et al., 2016 and Low et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CHN, see CHN1 (605253).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 68
MedGen UID:
1648479
Concept ID:
C4748688
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-68 (DEE68) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of twitching and/or myoclonic jerks in infancy. The disorder progresses to refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, often resulting in status epilepticus, loss of developmental milestones, and early death. Other features include delayed development, axial hypotonia, spasticity of the limbs, and clonus. Brain imaging may show cortical atrophy (summary by Barel et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 2
MedGen UID:
1648466
Concept ID:
C4748737
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 3
MedGen UID:
1648346
Concept ID:
C4748752
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 5
MedGen UID:
1648292
Concept ID:
C4748754
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 6
MedGen UID:
1648496
Concept ID:
C4748759
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 15
MedGen UID:
1648320
Concept ID:
C4748778
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 18
MedGen UID:
1648321
Concept ID:
C4748790
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex I deficiency nuclear type 18 (MC1DN18) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Affected individuals present with lactic acidemia soon after birth. Clinical features may include hypertonia or hypotonia, poor feeding, respiratory problems, leukomalacia, and seizures. Death occurs by 6 months of age (Saada et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex I deficiency, see 252010.
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 21
MedGen UID:
1648383
Concept ID:
C4748792
Disease or Syndrome
Trichohepatoneurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648322
Concept ID:
C4748898
Disease or Syndrome
Trichohepatoneurodevelopmental syndrome is a complex multisystem disorder characterized by woolly or coarse hair, liver dysfunction, pruritus, dysmorphic features, hypotonia, and severe global developmental delay (Morimoto et al., 2018).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 69
MedGen UID:
1648381
Concept ID:
C4748988
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-69 (DEE69) is an autosomal dominant severe neurodevelopmental encephalopathic disorder characterized by early-onset refractory seizures, hypotonia, and profoundly impaired development often associated with macrocephaly, hyperkinetic movements, and contractures. The disorder can sometimes result in early death. Some patients may have a favorable seizure response to topiramate medication (summary by Helbig et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia type 70
MedGen UID:
1655287
Concept ID:
C4749431
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare complex subtype of hereditary spastic paraplegia that presents in infancy with delayed motor development (crawling, walking) and has characteristics of lower limb spasticity, increased deep tendon reflexes, extensor plantar responses, impaired vibratory sensation at ankles, amyotrophy and borderline intellectual disability. Additional signs may include gait disturbances, Achilles tendon contractures, and scoliosis and cerebellar abnormalities.
Intellectual disability-hypotonic facies syndrome, X-linked, 1
MedGen UID:
1676827
Concept ID:
C4759781
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATR-X) syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, genital anomalies, hypotonia, and mild-to-profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID). Craniofacial abnormalities include small head circumference, telecanthus or widely spaced eyes, short triangular nose, tented upper lip, and thick or everted lower lip with coarsening of the facial features over time. While all affected individuals have a normal 46,XY karyotype, genital anomalies comprise a range from hypospadias and undescended testicles, to severe hypospadias and ambiguous genitalia, to normal-appearing female external genitalia. Alpha-thalassemia, observed in about 75% of affected individuals, is mild and typically does not require treatment. Osteosarcoma has been reported in a few males with germline pathogenic variants.
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 16
MedGen UID:
1674542
Concept ID:
C5190574
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-16 (SCAR16) is a progressive neurologic disorder characterized by truncal and limb ataxia, resulting in gait instability, associated with cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging. Most patients have onset in the teenage years, although earlier and later onset have been reported. Additional features may include dysarthria, nystagmus, hyperreflexia of the lower limbs, and mild peripheral sensory neuropathy. Some patients have gonadal dysfunction or hypogonadism and/or cognitive deficits. The phenotype represents a spectrum or continuum of neurodegenerative features that may overlap with those of SCA48 (summary by Shi et al., 2013 and Ravel et al., 2021).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 10
MedGen UID:
1676575
Concept ID:
C5190575
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 10 is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development, progressive microcephaly, spasticity, seizures, and brain abnormalities, including brain atrophy and delayed myelination. Some patients have dysmorphic features and an axonal sensorimotor neuropathy (summary by Karaca et al., 2014 and Schaffer et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 3 (hepatocerebral type)
MedGen UID:
1682503
Concept ID:
C5191055
Disease or Syndrome
The two forms of deoxyguanosine kinase (DGUOK) deficiency are a neonatal multisystem disorder and an isolated hepatic disorder that presents later in infancy or childhood. The majority of affected individuals have the multisystem illness with hepatic disease (jaundice, cholestasis, hepatomegaly, and elevated transaminases) and neurologic manifestations (hypotonia, nystagmus, and psychomotor retardation) evident within weeks of birth. Those with isolated liver disease may also have renal involvement and some later develop mild hypotonia. Progressive hepatic disease is the most common cause of death in both forms.
Basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic, 7, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1683911
Concept ID:
C5193025
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive idiopathic basal ganglia calcification-7 is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of symptoms in adulthood. Patients present with dysarthria, gait abnormalities, various movement abnormalities, and often cognitive decline. Brain imaging shows abnormal accumulation of calcium deposits in deep brain regions, including the basal ganglia, thalamus, dentate nuclei, cerebellum, and sometimes other areas of the brain and spinal cord. Some patients with brain imaging abnormalities may be clinically asymptomatic (summary by Yao et al., 2018). For a detailed phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of IBGC, see IBGC1 (213600).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 37
MedGen UID:
1675208
Concept ID:
C5193031
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-37 is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder apparent at birth or in the first months of life. Affected individuals have hypotonia, failure to thrive, and neurodegeneration with loss of developmental milestones, as well as liver dysfunction. Some patients may have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, loss of vision and hearing, and/or seizures. Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction is apparent in liver and skeletal muscle tissue. Most patients die in childhood (summary by Zeharia et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with central and peripheral motor dysfunction
MedGen UID:
1674767
Concept ID:
C5193049
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with central and peripheral motor dysfunction (NEDCPMD) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. At the severe end of the spectrum, patients may have hypotonia apparent from birth, necessitating mechanical respiration and tube-feeding, and global developmental delay with absence of reaction to touch and no eye contact. At the mild end of the spectrum, patients may present with infantile-onset progressive ataxia and demyelinating peripheral neuropathy. The disorder is caused by mutation in the NFASC gene, which has several neuronal- and glial-specific transcripts. The variable clinical phenotype may be caused by several factors, including the severity of the mutation, the selective involvement of distinct isoforms by pathogenic variants, and the presence of genetic modifiers (summary by Monfrini et al., 2019).
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 27
MedGen UID:
1672866
Concept ID:
C5193058
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-27 (SCAR27) is an adult-onset neurologic disorder characterized by gait difficulties and other cerebellar signs, such as eye movement abnormalities, dysarthria, and difficulty writing. The disorder is progressive, and some patients may lose independent ambulation. Additional features include spasticity of the lower limbs and cognitive impairment. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy (summary by Eidhof et al., 2018).
Facial dysmorphism, hypertrichosis, epilepsy, intellectual/developmental delay, and gingival overgrowth syndrome
MedGen UID:
1679105
Concept ID:
C5193066
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by variable intellectual disability and/or developmental delay, epilepsy, generalized hypertrichosis, severe gingival overgrowth and visual impairment in some patients. Common craniofacial features include bitemporal narrowing, bushy and straight eyebrows, long eyelashes, low-set ears, deep/short philtrum, everted upper lip, prominent upper and lower vermilion, wide mouth, micrognathia, and retrognathia.
Encephalopathy, acute, infection-induced, susceptibility to, 9
MedGen UID:
1673394
Concept ID:
C5193089
Finding
Susceptibility to acute infection-induced encephalopathy-9 (IIAE9) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by episodic acute neurodegeneration and developmental regression associated with infections and febrile illness. Patients present in the first months or years of life, often after normal or only mildly delayed early development. Some patients may have partial recovery between episodes, such as transient ataxia, but the overall disease course is progressive, resulting in global developmental delay, abnormal movements, refractory seizures, microcephaly, and cerebellar atrophy (summary by Fichtman et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to acute infection-induced encephalopathy, see 610551.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 75
MedGen UID:
1684253
Concept ID:
C5193099
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-75 (DEE75) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of severe refractory seizures in the first months of life. Patients often have global developmental delay before the onset of seizures, and thereafter achieve few milestones. EEG usually shows multifocal spikes and hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. They have severely impaired intellectual development with inability to walk, absent speech, and hypotonia with axial hyperreflexia. Brain imaging shows progressive cerebral atrophy, frontal lobe atrophy, white matter abnormalities, and delayed myelination. Since the disorder is due to mitochondrial dysfunction, some patients may develop other organ involvement, including cardiomyopathy or liver and renal dysfunction. Death may occur in childhood (summary by Yin et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Spastic ataxia 9, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1680026
Concept ID:
C5193100
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodegeneration, early-onset, with choreoathetoid movements and microcytic anemia
MedGen UID:
1676579
Concept ID:
C5193104
Disease or Syndrome
Early-onset neurodegeneration with choreoathetoid movements and microcytic anemia (NDCAMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe psychomotor developmental abnormalities, abnormal movements, and functional iron deficiency (Costain et al., 2019).
Brain abnormalities, neurodegeneration, and dysosteosclerosis
MedGen UID:
1678789
Concept ID:
C5193117
Disease or Syndrome
Brain abnormalities, neurodegeneration, and dysosteosclerosis (BANDDOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brain abnormalities, progressive neurologic deterioration, and sclerotic bone dysplasia similar to dysosteosclerosis (DOS). The age at onset is highly variable: some patients may present in infancy with hydrocephalus, global developmental delay, and hypotonia, whereas others may have onset of symptoms in the late teens or early twenties after normal development. Neurologic features include loss of previous motor and language skills, cognitive impairment, spasticity, and focal seizures. Brain imaging shows periventricular white matter abnormalities and calcifications, large cisterna magna or Dandy-Walker malformation, and sometimes agenesis of the corpus callosum (summary by Guo et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly and structural brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1677276
Concept ID:
C5193123
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial myopathy, episodic, with optic atrophy and reversible leukoencephalopathy
MedGen UID:
1679560
Concept ID:
C5193223
Disease or Syndrome
Episodic mitochondrial myopathy with or without optic atrophy and reversible leukoencephalopathy (MEOAL) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized mainly by childhood onset of progressive muscle weakness and exercise intolerance. Patients have episodic exacerbation, which may be associated with increased serum creatine kinase or lactic acid. Additional more variable features may include optic atrophy, reversible leukoencephalopathy, and later onset of a sensorimotor polyneuropathy. The disorder results from impaired formation of Fe-S clusters, which are essential cofactors for proper mitochondrial function (summary by Gurgel-Giannetti et al., 2018)
Spastic tetraplegia and axial hypotonia, progressive
MedGen UID:
1684731
Concept ID:
C5231422
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive spastic tetraplegia and axial hypotonia (STAHP) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of severe and progressive motor dysfunction in the first year of life. Affected individuals have severe axial hypotonia combined with spastic tetraplegia, hyperekplexia, hypertonia, and myokymia, reflecting upper motor neuron involvement. Cognitive development may be affected, but only 2 unrelated patients have been reported (Andersen et al., 2019; Park et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spastic quadriplegia, optic atrophy, seizures, and structural brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684884
Concept ID:
C5231442
Disease or Syndrome
Halperin-Birk syndrome (HLBKS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by structural brain defects, spastic quadriplegia with multiple contractures, profound developmental delay, seizures, dysmorphism, cataract, and optic nerve atrophy. Death occurs in early childhood (Halperin et al., 2019).
Mitochondrial complex 5 (ATP synthase) deficiency, nuclear type 6
MedGen UID:
1684729
Concept ID:
C5231461
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex V (ATP synthase) deficiency nuclear type 6 (MC5DN6) is an autosomal recessive progressive and degenerative disorder characterized by episodic regression of gross motor skills beginning in early childhood. The episodes are associated with metabolic stress, including fever, illness, and general anesthesia. Patients develop gait difficulties or loss of ambulation, as well as other variable abnormalities, including abnormal movements, hemiplegia, and persistent lethargy. Brain imaging shows degenerative features in the basal ganglia and brainstem consistent with a diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000) (summary by Barca et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex V deficiency, see MC5DN1 (604273).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, cortical malformations, and spasticity
MedGen UID:
1684695
Concept ID:
C5231480
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, cortical malformations, and spasticity (NEDMCMS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe to profound global developmental delay, early-onset seizures, microcephaly, and polymicrogyria and/or cerebral atrophy on brain imaging. Most affected individuals are unable to walk or speak and have profoundly impaired intellectual development, as well as axial hypotonia and peripheral spasticity. Rare individuals may be less severely affected (summary by Vandervore et al., 2019).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 83
MedGen UID:
1684784
Concept ID:
C5231487
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-83 (DEE83) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by onset of frequent seizures in the first days to months of life that are usually refractory to medical treatment and are associated with significant EEG abnormalities. Affected individuals have profoundly impaired development, with no motor or language skill acquisition, poor or absent visual tracking, and poor oromotor function necessitating tube feeding. Many patients die in the first years of life (summary by Perenthaler et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
ALDH18A1-related de Barsy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1720006
Concept ID:
C5234852
Disease or Syndrome
De Barsy syndrome, or autosomal recessive cutis laxa type III (ARCL3), is characterized by cutis laxa, a progeria-like appearance, and ophthalmologic abnormalities (summary by Kivuva et al., 2008). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see 219100. Genetic Heterogeneity of de Barsy Syndrome Also see ARCL3B (614438), caused by mutation in the PYCR1 gene (179035) on chromosome 17q25.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 30
MedGen UID:
1710020
Concept ID:
C5235139
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-30 (SPG30) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of slowly progressive spastic paraplegia in the first or second decades of life. Affected individuals have unsteady spastic gait and hyperreflexia of the lower limbs. Some patients have a 'pure' form of the disorder, limited to spastic paraplegia, whereas others may have a 'complicated' form that includes cognitive dysfunction, learning disabilities, or behavioral abnormalities, peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, urinary sphincter problems, and/or cerebellar atrophy with thin corpus callosum on brain imaging. The phenotypic features represent a spectrum of abnormalities of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous system (summary by Pennings et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia, see SPG3A (182600). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Wieacker-Wolff syndrome, female-restricted
MedGen UID:
1715791
Concept ID:
C5393303
Disease or Syndrome
Female-restricted Wieacker-Wolff syndrome (WRWFFR) is an X-linked dominant syndromic form of neurogenic arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) with central and peripheral nervous system involvement. Affected individuals have decreased fetal movements causing the development of contractures in utero and resulting in AMC and diffuse contractures involving the large and small joints apparent at birth. There is global developmental delay with difficulty walking or inability to walk, hypotonia that often evolves to spasticity, and variably impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech and language. Dysmorphic facial features, including hypotonic facies, ptosis, microretrognathia, and small mouth, are seen in most patients. Seizures are uncommon; some patients have evidence of a peripheral motor neuropathy with distal muscle weakness. The level of X inactivation in lymphocytes and fibroblasts is often skewed, but may not predict the severity of the phenotype. Most cases occur sporadically; rare X-linked dominant inheritance has been reported in families (summary by Frints et al., 2019).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 9
MedGen UID:
1714250
Concept ID:
C5393830
Disease or Syndrome
NESCAV syndrome (NESCAVS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of features in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with delayed walking or difficulty walking due to progressive spasticity mainly affecting the lower limbs and often leading to loss of independent ambulation. There is variably impaired intellectual development, speech delay, and learning disabilities and/or behavioral abnormalities. Additional features may include cortical visual impairment, often associated with optic atrophy, axonal peripheral neuropathy, seizures, dysautonomia, ataxia, and dystonia. Brain imaging often shows progressive cerebellar atrophy and thin corpus callosum. Some patients may show developmental regression, particularly of motor skills. The phenotype and presentation are highly variable (summary by Nemani et al., 2020).
Spastic paraplegia 81, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1711668
Concept ID:
C5394033
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-81 (SPG81) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with onset in infancy. Affected individuals have delayed motor development, progressive spasticity, and other neurologic impairment, including impaired intellectual development and speech delay. Some patients may have additional features, including bifid uvula, microcephaly, seizures, and variable ocular anomalies. One severely affected patient was reported to have cortical visual loss, sensorineural deafness, and achievement of almost no developmental milestones. Brain imaging shows white matter abnormalities, hypomyelination with progressive white matter loss, and sometimes cerebral atrophy. These significant additional abnormalities enable classification of this disorder as a complicated form of SPG (summary by Ahmed et al., 2017 and Horibata et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Spastic paraplegia 82, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1710411
Concept ID:
C5394037
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-82 (SPG82) is a progressive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, significant motor impairment, and progressive spasticity mainly affecting the lower limbs. Some patients never achieve walking, whereas others lose the ability to walk or walk with an unsteady gait. Additional features include variably impaired intellectual development with language difficulties, ocular anomalies, such as nystagmus and visual impairment, and seizures. Brain imaging shows progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, as well as white matter hyperintensities. Based on the additional abnormalities, the disorder can be classified as a type of complicated SPG (summary by Vaz et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 84
MedGen UID:
1720141
Concept ID:
C5394081
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-84 (DEE84) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first months or years of life. Affected individuals have severely impaired global development with impaired intellectual development, absent speech, and inability to walk. Other features include axial hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, feeding difficulties that sometimes necessitate tube feeding, and mild dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging may show nonspecific findings such as cerebral/cerebellar atrophy and/or hypomyelination. The severity of the disorder is variable (summary by Hengel et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic, 11
MedGen UID:
1716712
Concept ID:
C5394362
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive myoclonic epilepsy-11 (EPM11) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of developmental regression and various types of seizures around 2 years of age after relatively normal early development. The seizures are usually refractory to treatment and are associated with multiple abnormalities on EEG. During the first and second decades, affected individuals develop additional neurologic signs and symptoms, including pyramidal, extrapyramidal, and cerebellar signs such as spasticity, loss of independent ambulation, myoclonus, tremor, and ataxia. Cognitive impairment is severe, and patients can speak only a few words or are non-verbal (summary by Hamanaka et al., 2020). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive myoclonic epilepsy, see EPM1A (254800).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, hypotonia, and brain imaging abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1708579
Concept ID:
C5394517
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, hypotonia, and brain imaging abnormalities (NEDSHBA) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, severe to profound intellectual impairment, early-onset refractory seizures, hypotonia, failure to thrive, and progressive microcephaly. Brain imaging shows cerebral atrophy, thin corpus callosum, and myelination defects. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Marafi et al., 2020).
Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, type 5A
MedGen UID:
1723540
Concept ID:
C5399969
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of GARS1-associated axonal neuropathy ranges from GARS1 infantile-onset SMA (GARS1-iSMA) to GARS1 adolescent- or early adult-onset hereditary motor/sensory neuropathy (GARS1-HMSN). GARS1-iSMA. Age of onset ranges from the neonatal period to the toddler years. Initial manifestations are typically respiratory distress, poor feeding, and muscle weakness (distal greater than proximal). Weakness is slowly progressive, ultimately requiring mechanical ventilation and feeding via gastrostomy tube. GARS1-HMSN. Age of onset is most commonly during the second decade (range eight to 36 years). Initial manifestations are typically muscle weakness in the hands sometimes with sensory deficits. Lower limb involvement (seen in ~50% of individuals) ranges from weakness and atrophy of the extensor digitorum brevis and weakness of toe dorsiflexors to classic peroneal muscular atrophy with foot drop and a high steppage gait.
COACH syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1769861
Concept ID:
C5435651
Disease or Syndrome
Any COACH syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a variation in the TMEM67 gene.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, mitochondrial form, 1
MedGen UID:
1731194
Concept ID:
C5435765
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial form of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-1 (CMTMA1) is inherited only through the maternal line. The disorder is characterized by onset of distal muscle weakness and atrophy mainly affecting the lower limbs and resulting in difficulty walking in the second decade of life, although both earlier and later onset can occur. Upper limb involvement often develops with time, and affected individuals have weakness and atrophy of the intrinsic hand muscles. Other features may include distal sensory impairment, foot deformities, scoliosis, hypo- or hyperreflexia, spastic paraparesis, and neurogenic bladder. Electrophysiologic studies are compatible with an axonal sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, and muscle and nerve biopsy show evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction with decreased activities of respiratory complexes, mtDNA deletions, and mitochondrial hyperplasia (summary by Fay et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1755716
Concept ID:
C5436747
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and brain atrophy (NEDMISB) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay, developmental regression with loss of milestones, severe microcephaly, and brain abnormalities, primarily cerebral atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Affected individuals develop seizures in the first year of life; eventually they are unable to sit, feed, or communicate, and may be unresponsive to stimuli. Other features include muscle weakness, spasticity with hyperreflexia, irritability, and contractures (Coulter et al., 2020).
Kilquist syndrome
MedGen UID:
1742639
Concept ID:
C5436756
Disease or Syndrome
Kilquist syndrome (KILQS) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by neurologic, gastrointestinal, and secretory dysfunction. Affected individuals present at birth with hypotonia, feeding difficulties, mild dysmorphic features, and sensorineural hearing loss. They show poor overall growth associated with gastrointestinal anomalies such as gastroesophageal reflux or midgut malrotation, as well as profound global developmental delay with inability to sit or speak. Tear, sweat, and saliva production is also impaired, causing dry mouth and recurrent bronchial mucus plugging. Some of the clinical features are reminiscent of cystic fibrosis (CF; 219700) (summary by Stodberg et al., 2020).
Developmental delay, impaired growth, dysmorphic facies, and axonal neuropathy
MedGen UID:
1765507
Concept ID:
C5436781
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired growth, dysmorphic facies, and axonal neuropathy (DIGFAN) is a complex neurologic disorder characterized by impaired motor and intellectual development, hypotonia, poor overall growth, usually with short stature and microcephaly, and subtly dysmorphic facial features. Affected individuals have distal muscle weakness and muscle atrophy resulting in delayed acquisition of motor skills and persistent gait abnormalities. Although many patients have clinical and/or electrophysiologic features consistent with an axonal sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, such as hyporeflexia, impaired sensation, foot drop, and pes cavus, the signs and severity are highly variable. Additional features may include hearing loss, pigmentary retinopathy, and abnormalities on brain imaging, including cerebral or cerebellar atrophy, hypomyelination, and lesions in the basal ganglia or brainstem. In some instances, the same mutation may result in different phenotypic manifestations (CMT2Z or DIGFAN syndrome), which highlights the expanding clinical spectrum associated with MORC2 mutations and may render classification of patients into one or the other disorder challenging (summary by Guillen Sacoto et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, impaired language, and gait abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1731507
Concept ID:
C5436783
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, language delay, and gait abnormalities (NEDMILG) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent in infancy. Affected individuals have delayed walking with variable gait abnormalities, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech and language, and progressive microcephaly. More variable features include hypotonia, early-onset seizures, and a peripheral demyelinating or axonal peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy. The disease follows a neurodegenerative course in many patients; clinical features suggest involvement of both the central and peripheral nervous systems (Manole et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, impaired language, epilepsy, and gait abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1764121
Concept ID:
C5436788
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, impaired language, epilepsy, and gait abnormalities (NEDMILEG) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent in infancy. Affected individuals have delayed walking with variable gait abnormalities, including ataxia and spasticity, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech and language, and progressive microcephaly. Dysmorphic facial features may also be observed. Most patients have early-onset seizures; some may develop a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy. The clinical features suggest involvement of both the central and peripheral nervous systems (Manole et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cardiomyopathy, spasticity, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1750805
Concept ID:
C5436848
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cardiomyopathy, spasticity, and brain abnormalities (NEDCASB) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder characterized by global neurodevelopmental delay, severely impaired intellectual development, poor overall growth, and spasticity of the lower limbs resulting in gait difficulties. Most affected individuals also develop progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in childhood or have cardiac developmental anomalies. Additional more variable features include dysmorphic facies and axonal sensory peripheral neuropathy. Brain imaging tends to show thin corpus callosum and polymicrogyria (summary by Garcia-Cazorla et al., 2020).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 89
MedGen UID:
1761611
Concept ID:
C5436853
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-89 (DEE89) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by profound global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, absent speech, inability to sit or walk due to axial hypotonia and spastic quadriparesis, and onset of seizures in the first days or months of life. EEG shows suppression-burst pattern or hypsarrhythmia, consistent with DEE or a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. More variable features include joint contractures with foot deformities, dysmorphic facial features with cleft palate, and omphalocele. Affected individuals have poor motor skills, poor eye contact, and lack of language development; some die in infancy or early childhood. Brain imaging may be normal or show nonspecific abnormalities (summary by Chatron et al., 2020).
Mitochondrial complex 2 deficiency, nuclear type 4
MedGen UID:
1782861
Concept ID:
C5543176
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex II deficiency nuclear type 4 (MC2DN4) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset progressive neurodegeneration with leukoencephalopathy. Acute episodes of neurodegeneration are often triggered by catabolic stress such as infection or fasting.
Martsolf syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1779703
Concept ID:
C5543626
Disease or Syndrome
Martsolf syndrome-2 (MARTS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder with the main features of congenital cataracts, mildly to severely impaired intellectual development, and facial dysmorphism. Other features include brain malformations, microcephaly, and hypogonadism-hypogenitalism (summary by Koparir et al., 2019).
Dyskinesia with orofacial involvement, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1790407
Concept ID:
C5551343
Disease or Syndrome
ADCY5 dyskinesia is a hyperkinetic movement disorder (more prominent in the face and arms than the legs) characterized by infantile to late-adolescent onset of chorea, athetosis, dystonia, myoclonus, or a combination of these. To date, affected individuals have had overlapping (but not identical) manifestations with wide-ranging severity. The facial movements are typically periorbital and perioral. The dyskinesia is prone to episodic or paroxysmal exacerbation lasting minutes to hours, and may occur during sleep. Precipitating factors in some persons have included emotional stress, intercurrent illness, sneezing, or caffeine; in others, no precipitating factors have been identified. In some children, severe infantile axial hypotonia results in gross motor delays accompanied by chorea, sometimes with language delays. The overall tendency is for the abnormal movements to stabilize in early middle age, at which point they may improve in some individuals; less commonly, the abnormal movements are slowly progressive, increasing in severity and frequency.
Leukoencephalopathy, diffuse hereditary, with spheroids 1
MedGen UID:
1794139
Concept ID:
C5561929
Disease or Syndrome
CSF1R-related adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) is characterized by executive dysfunction, memory decline, personality changes, motor impairments, and seizures. A frontal lobe syndrome (e.g., loss of judgment, lack of social inhibitors, lack of insight, and motor persistence) usually appears early in the disease course. The mean age of onset is usually in the fourth decade. Affected individuals eventually become bedridden with spasticity and rigidity. The disease course ranges from two to 30 or more years (mean: 8 years).
Luo-Schoch-Yamamoto syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794156
Concept ID:
C5561946
Disease or Syndrome
Luo-Schoch-Yamamoto syndrome (LUSYAM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and impaired intellectual development apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have delayed walking, early-onset seizures, hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features, and white matter abnormalities on brain imaging (Luo et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1794184
Concept ID:
C5561974
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies (NEDHYDF) is characterized by global developmental delay and hypotonia apparent from birth. Affected individuals have variably impaired intellectual development, often with speech delay and delayed walking. Seizures are generally not observed, although some patients may have single seizures or late-onset epilepsy. Most patients have prominent dysmorphic facial features. Additional features may include congenital cardiac defects (without arrhythmia), nonspecific renal anomalies, joint contractures or joint hyperextensibility, dry skin, and cryptorchidism. There is significant phenotypic variability in both the neurologic and extraneurologic manifestations (summary by Tan et al., 2022).
Cerebellar ataxia, brain abnormalities, and cardiac conduction defects
MedGen UID:
1794215
Concept ID:
C5562005
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia, brain abnormalities, and cardiac conduction defects (CABAC) is an autosomal recessive primarily neurologic disorder with variable manifestations. Common features included infantile-onset hypotonia, poor motor development, poor feeding and overall growth, and ataxic gait due to cerebellar ataxia. Other features include dysarthria, nystagmus, variable ocular anomalies, spasticity, hyperreflexia, and nonspecific dysmorphic features. Most, but not all, patients have global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and speech delay. Brain imaging shows cerebellar hypoplasia, often with brainstem hypoplasia, enlarged ventricles, delayed myelination, and thin corpus callosum. A significant number of patients develop cardiac conduction defects in childhood or adolescence, often requiring pacemaker placement (summary by Slavotinek et al., 2020).
Spastic paraplegia 84, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1794235
Concept ID:
C5562025
Disease or Syndrome
PI4KA-related disorder is a clinically variable disorder characterized primarily by neurologic dysfunction (limb spasticity, developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, ataxia, nystagmus), gastrointestinal manifestations (multiple intestinal atresia, inflammatory bowel disease), and combined immunodeficiency (leukopenia, variable immunoglobulin defects). Age of onset is typically antenatal or in early childhood; individuals can present with any combination of these features. Rare individuals present with later-onset hereditary spastic paraplegia. Brain MRI findings can include hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, cerebellar hypoplasia/atrophy, thin or dysplastic corpus callosum, and/or perisylvian polymicrogyria.
Hengel-Maroofian-Schols syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794242
Concept ID:
C5562032
Disease or Syndrome
Hengel-Maroofian-Schols syndrome (HEMARS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have delayed walking or inability to walk, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, pyramidal signs manifest as lower limb spasticity, poor overall growth often with short stature and microcephaly, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients develop seizures. Brain imaging shows thinning of the posterior part of the corpus callosum, delayed myelination, and cerebral and cerebellar atrophy (Hengel et al., 2021).
Zaki syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794247
Concept ID:
C5562037
Disease or Syndrome
Zaki syndrome (ZKS) is characterized by developmental delay, progressive microcephaly, and short stature, as well as dysmorphic features including sparse scalp hair, cupped ears, wide nose and mouth, short philtrum, and high-arched palate. Other variable features have been observed, including ocular, skeletal, cardiac, and renal anomalies (Chai et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder, nonprogressive, with spasticity and transient opisthotonus
MedGen UID:
1794250
Concept ID:
C5562040
Disease or Syndrome
Nonprogressive neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and transient opisthotonus (NEDSTO) is an autosomal recessive complex neurologic disorder characterized by delay of gross motor milestones, particularly walking, associated with axial hypotonia and peripheral spasticity apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals often show transient opisthotonic posturing in infancy, and later show abnormal involuntary movements, including chorea, dystonia, and dyspraxia. Some patients have impaired intellectual development, although the severity is highly variable; most have speech delay and articulation difficulties and a happy overall demeanor. Brain imaging shows myelination defects in some patients. The disorder is nonprogressive, and many patients may catch up developmentally in the second or third decades (summary by Wagner et al., 2020).
Dystonia, early-onset, and/or spastic paraplegia
MedGen UID:
1794261
Concept ID:
C5562051
Disease or Syndrome
Early-onset dystonia and/or spastic paraplegia (DYTSPG) is an autosomal dominant neurologic movement disorder characterized by phenotypic variability, even within the same family. Some patients have onset of progressive focal and generalized dystonia in the first decade, as young as infancy, whereas others develop progressive spastic paraplegia as adults, suggesting that age affects the phenotype. Some patients have manifestations of both disorders. Most patients have ambulation difficulties (Gilbert et al., 2009). Rare patients may show hypotonia and neurodevelopmental delay (Zech et al., 2022).
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 23, with ataxia, deafness, liver dysfunction, and dilated cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
1794284
Concept ID:
C5562074
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-23 with ataxia, deafness, liver dysfunction, and dilated cardiomyopathy (HLD23) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with systemic manifestations. Affected individuals show delayed motor development and ataxic gait in early childhood that progresses to spastic paraplegia with loss of ambulation in the first decades of life. Additional features include progressive sensorineural hearing loss resulting in deafness, hepatic dysfunction with elevated liver enzymes, and dilated cardiomyopathy that ultimately results in death in the first or second decades. Brain imaging shows hypomyelination, diffuse white matter abnormalities consistent with leukodystrophy, and thin corpus callosum (summary by Sferra et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 26
MedGen UID:
1799164
Concept ID:
C5567741
Disease or Syndrome
Peripheral neuropathy with variable spasticity, exercise intolerance, and developmental delay (PNSED) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with highly variable manifestations, even within the same family. Some patients present in infancy with hypotonia and global developmental delay with poor or absent motor skill acquisition and poor growth, whereas others present as young adults with exercise intolerance and muscle weakness. All patients have signs of a peripheral neuropathy, usually demyelinating, with distal muscle weakness and atrophy and distal sensory impairment; many become wheelchair-bound. Additional features include spasticity, extensor plantar responses, contractures, cerebellar signs, seizures, short stature, and rare involvement of other organ systems, including the heart, pancreas, and kidney. Biochemical analysis may show deficiencies in mitochondrial respiratory complex enzyme activities in patient tissue, although this is not always apparent. Lactate is frequently increased, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction (Powell et al., 2015; Argente-Escrig et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia type 78
MedGen UID:
1799316
Concept ID:
C5567893
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-78 is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized predominantly by spasticity and muscle weakness of the lower limbs, resulting in gait difficulties and loss of ambulation in some patients. Affected individuals also have cerebellar signs, such as dysarthria, oculomotor disturbances, and limb and gait ataxia; brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy. Some patients may have mild cognitive impairment or frank dementia. The phenotype is highly variable (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017). Biallelic mutation in the ATP13A2 gene also causes Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS; 606693), a neurodegenerative disorder with overlapping features. Patients with KRS have earlier onset and prominent parkinsonism. Loss of ATP13A2 function results in a multidimensional spectrum of neurologic features reflecting various regions of the brain and nervous system, including cortical, pyramidal, extrapyramidal, brainstem, cerebellar, and peripheral (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 74
MedGen UID:
1800260
Concept ID:
C5568837
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-74 (SPG74) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of slowly progressive lower limb spasticity, optic atrophy, and peripheral neuropathy in the first decade (summary by Lossos et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 9A
MedGen UID:
1800401
Concept ID:
C5568978
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia-9A is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of slowly progressive spasticity mainly affecting the lower limbs. The age at onset usually ranges from adolescence to adulthood, and patients have gait difficulties, motor neuropathy, and dysarthria. Additional variable features include cerebellar signs, cataract, pes cavus, and urinary urgency (summary by Coutelier et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia, see SPG3A (182600).
Autosomal recessive complex spastic paraplegia type 9B
MedGen UID:
1800403
Concept ID:
C5568980
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive SPG9B is a neurologic disorder characterized by early-onset complex spastic paraplegia. Affected individuals had delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and severe motor impairment. More variable features include dysmorphic facial features, tremor, and urinary incontinence (summary by Coutelier et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive SPG, see SPG5A (270800).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 73
MedGen UID:
1800404
Concept ID:
C5568981
Disease or Syndrome
A pure form of hereditary spastic paraplegia with characteristics of adult onset of crural spastic paraparesis, hyperreflexia, extensor plantar responses, proximal muscle weakness, mild muscle atrophy, decreased vibration sensation at ankles and mild urinary dysfunction. Foot deformities have been reported to eventually occur in some patients. No abnormalities are noted on brain magnetic resonance imaging and peripheral nerve conduction velocity studies.
Acute infantile liver failure-cerebellar ataxia-peripheral sensory motor neuropathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1800507
Concept ID:
C5569084
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-21 (SCAR21) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of cerebellar ataxia associated with cerebellar atrophy in early childhood. Affected individuals also have recurrent episodes of liver failure in the first decade, resulting in chronic liver fibrosis, as well as later onset of a peripheral neuropathy. Mild learning disabilities may also occur (summary by Schmidt et al., 2015). The phenotype is highly variable: all patients appear to have episodic and severe liver dysfunction in early childhood that tends to resolve with age. Affected individuals also show mild developmental or language delay and/or later onset of variable neurologic features, such as motor dysfunction (summary by Lenz et al., 2018).
3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type VIIB
MedGen UID:
1810214
Concept ID:
C5676893
Disease or Syndrome
CLPB (caseinolytic peptidase B) deficiency is characterized by neurologic involvement and neutropenia, which can range from severe to mild. In severe CLPB deficiency, death usually occurs at a few months of age due to significant neonatal neurologic involvement (hyperekplexia or absence of voluntary movements, hypotonia or hypertonia, swallowing problems, respiratory insufficiency, and epilepsy) and severe neutropenia associated with life-threatening infections. Individuals with moderate CLPB deficiency present with neurologic abnormalities in infancy including hypotonia and feeding problems, and develop spasticity, a progressive movement disorder (ataxia, dystonia, and/or dyskinesia), epilepsy, and intellectual disability. Neutropenia is variable, but not life threatening. In those with mild CLPB deficiency there is no neurologic involvement, intellect is normal, neutropenia is mild and intermittent, and life expectancy is normal.
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 73
MedGen UID:
1802013
Concept ID:
C5676902
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal recessive intellectual developmental disorder-73 (MRT73) is characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia and mildly delayed walking, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, and mildly dysmorphic features (summary by Morrison et al., 2021).
Spastic paraplegia 86, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1801286
Concept ID:
C5676910
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-86 (SPG86) is a complex neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood combined with early-onset progressive spasticity mainly affecting the lower limbs, but also affecting the upper limbs. Affected individuals have hyperreflexia, extensor plantar responses, pyramidal signs, and difficulty walking or inability to walk. Some may have joint contractures and foot or ankle deformities. Patients with SPG86 have impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, often with behavioral abnormalities. Brain imaging shows thin corpus callosum and white matter abnormalities. Rare patients may have seizures. The disorder is thus a complicated form of SPG (summary by Yahia et al., 2021, Miyake et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, demyelinating, IIA 1I
MedGen UID:
1811493
Concept ID:
C5676914
Disease or Syndrome
Demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1I (CMT1I) is a neurologic disorder characterized predominantly by delayed motor development in the first years of life associated with gait abnormalities, sensory ataxia, hyporeflexia, and distal sensory impairment due to a sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy that mainly affects the lower limbs. The disorder is progressive, and some may have upper limb involvement. A subset of patients has central nervous system involvement that manifests as global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and speech difficulties. Other features may include spasticity, hyperreflexia, tremor, dysmetria, seizures, or cerebellar findings. Brain imaging may be normal or show nonspecific abnormalities, such as white matter signal changes and delayed myelination (summary by Djordjevic et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1, see CMT1B (118200).
Cerebellar dysfunction, impaired intellectual development, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
MedGen UID:
1808634
Concept ID:
C5676924
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar dysfunction, impaired intellectual development, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CDIDHH) is characterized by delayed motor development, ataxia, severe progressive scoliosis, moderate to severe intellectual disability, and delayed sexual development. Cerebellar hypoplasia has been observed in some patients (Whittaker et al., 2021).
Spinocerebellar ataxia 49
MedGen UID:
1805601
Concept ID:
C5676950
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-49 (SCA49) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized initially by gait abnormalities, gaze-evoked nystagmus, and hyperreflexia. The age at onset is highly variable, ranging from the second to seventh decades, even within the same family. The disorder is slowly progressive, and later features may include dysarthria, dysmetria, diplopia, pyramidal signs, and axonal peripheral neuropathy. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy and myelination defects (Corral-Juan et al., 2022).
Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, with progressive microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1801540
Concept ID:
C5676972
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset neurodegeneration with progressive microcephaly (CONPM) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. The phenotype is highly variable: the most severely affected individuals have severe and progressive microcephaly, early-onset seizures, lack of visual tracking, and almost no developmental milestones, resulting in early death. Less severely affected individuals have a small head circumference and severely impaired intellectual development with poor speech and motor delay. Additional features may include poor overall growth, axial hypotonia, limb hypertonia with spasticity, undescended testes, and cerebral atrophy with neuronal loss (Lam et al., 2019 and Vanoevelen et al., 2022).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 102
MedGen UID:
1812769
Concept ID:
C5676991
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-102 (DEE102) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and severe to profoundly impaired intellectual development with inability to walk or speak. Most patients have onset of variable types of seizures within the first year of life, and the seizures tend to be refractory. Additional features include progressive microcephaly, visual impairment, axial hypotonia, peripheral hypertonia, and nonspecific brain imaging abnormalities (Marafi et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Mitochondrial complex II deficiency, nuclear type 1
MedGen UID:
1814582
Concept ID:
C5700310
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex II deficiency is an autosomal recessive multisystemic metabolic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients have multisystem involvement of the brain, heart, and muscle with onset in infancy, whereas others have only isolated cardiac or muscle involvement. Measurement of complex II activity in muscle is the most reliable means of diagnosis; however, there is no clear correlation between residual complex II activity and severity or clinical outcome. In some cases, treatment with riboflavin may have clinical benefit (summary by Jain-Ghai et al., 2013). Complex II, also known as succinate dehydrogenase, is part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Genetic Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial Complex II Deficiency See MC2DN2 (619166), caused by mutation in the SDHAF1 gene (612848) on chromosome 19q13; MC2DN3 (619167), caused by mutation in the SDHD gene (602690) on chromosome 11q23; and MC2DN4 (619224), caused by mutation in the SDHB gene (185470) on chromosome 1p36. Fullerton et al. (2020) reviewed the genetic basis of isolated mitochondrial complex II deficiency.
Spastic paraplegia 87, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1813069
Concept ID:
C5774182
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-87 (SPG87) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of lower limb spasticity in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have mildly delayed walking, spastic gait, and hyperreflexia; the upper limbs and bulbar regions are not affected. Some patients may also have mild intellectual disability or speech problems. Thus, SPG87 can manifest as either a pure or a complex disorder (Tabara et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive SPG, see SPG5A (270800).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity, seizures, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1823970
Concept ID:
C5774197
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity, seizures, and brain abnormalities (NEDSSBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent in infancy, axial hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, and early-onset seizures of various types and severity. Affected individuals have delayed walking or are unable to walk and show impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Brain imaging may show developmental defects of the operculum, cerebellum, and corpus callosum. Death in early childhood may occur (Calame et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, movement abnormalities, and seizures
MedGen UID:
1823981
Concept ID:
C5774208
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, movement abnormalities, and seizures (NEDMIMS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay apparent from infancy, impaired intellectual development, progressive microcephaly, and early-onset seizures that may be refractory to treatment. Affected individuals have poor overall growth and may have various movement abnormalities, including hypo- and hypertonia. Behavioral problems may also be observed (Klockner et al., 2022).
Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, autosomal dominant 10
MedGen UID:
1824007
Concept ID:
C5774234
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuronopathy-10 (HMND10) is a neurologic disorder of the peripheral nerves characterized clinically by length-dependent motor neuropathy primarily affecting the lower limbs. Affected individuals have onset of distal muscle weakness and atrophy in early childhood that results in walking difficulties and gait abnormalities. Some have pyramidal signs, including hyperreflexia, suggesting the involvement of upper motor neurons. Electrophysiologic studies are consistent with a neurogenic process. More variable features may include mild intellectual disability, minor gyration defects on brain imaging, foot deformities, and connective tissue defects (1 family) (Capuano et al., 2016; Iacomino et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant distal HMN, see HMND1 (182960).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 109
MedGen UID:
1824036
Concept ID:
C5774263
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-109 (DEE109) is characterized by the onset of various types of seizures in the first months or years of life. Affected individuals show developmental delay before and concurrent with the onset of seizures. Features include impaired intellectual development with poor speech, ataxic gait, coordination problems, and behavioral abnormalities (Manivannan et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Tessadori-Van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1824083
Concept ID:
C5774310
Disease or Syndrome
Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome-3 (TEBIVANED3) is characterized by global developmental delay with poor overall growth, impaired intellectual development, and speech difficulties. More variable features include hypotonia, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facies. The severity and manifestations of the disorder are highly variable (Tessadori et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental disorder, see TEBIVANED1 (619758).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, spasticity, and complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1840932
Concept ID:
C5830296
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, spasticity, and partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum (NEDSSCC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by axial hypotonia and global developmental delay apparent from the first days or months of life. Affected individuals often have feeding difficulties and develop early-onset seizures that tend to be well-controlled. Other features include peripheral spasticity with hyperreflexia, variable dysmorphic features, impaired intellectual development, behavioral abnormalities, and hypoplasia or absence of the corpus callosum on brain imaging (Faqeih et al., 2023).
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 27, juvenile
MedGen UID:
1840995
Concept ID:
C5830359
Disease or Syndrome
Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-27 (ALS27) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by early childhood-onset lower extremity spasticity manifesting as toe walking and gait abnormalities, followed by progressive lower motor neuron-mediated weakness without sensory signs or symptoms (Mohassel et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, see ALS1 (105400).
Neurodegeneration and seizures due to copper transport defect
MedGen UID:
1841021
Concept ID:
C5830385
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodegeneration and seizures due to copper transport defect (NSCT) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper transport characterized by hypotonia, global developmental delay, seizures, and rapid brain atrophy (summary by Dame et al., 2023).
Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 12
MedGen UID:
1841043
Concept ID:
C5830407
Disease or Syndrome
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-12 (CDCBM12) is an autosomal recessive disorder of developmental neuronal migration characterized by severe to profound neurodevelopmental delay with absent speech, central hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, cortical visual impairment, and dysmorphic craniofacial features. Affected individuals usually have feeding difficulties and show minimal developmental progress of motor or cognitive skills. Most have microcephaly and develop early-onset refractory seizures. Brain imaging shows cortical abnormalities, such as lissencephaly and pachygyria, as well as other brain malformations, including thin or absent corpus callosum, dysplastic basal ganglia, and mild cerebellar hypoplasia. Due to the function of CAMSAP1 in microtubule stability and maintenance, this disorder can be classified as a 'tubulinopathy' (Khalaf-Nazzal et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 71, with behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1841073
Concept ID:
C5830437
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-71 with behavioral abnormalities (MRD71) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia, speech delay, and variably impaired cognitive development. Almost all affected individuals show marked behavioral manifestations, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD, hypersensitivity, and aggression. Many have dysmorphic features, although there is not a common gestalt (Harris et al., 2021).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 31B
MedGen UID:
1841095
Concept ID:
C5830459
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-31B (DEE31B) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with early-onset epilepsy, generalized muscular hypotonia, visual impairment, and severe neurodevelopmental delay (Yigit et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with intracranial hemorrhage, seizures, and spasticity
MedGen UID:
1841145
Concept ID:
C5830509
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with intracranial hemorrhage, seizures, and spasticity (NEDIHSS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by prenatal or neonatal onset of intracranial hemorrhage, usually with ventriculomegaly and calcifications, resulting in parenchymal brain damage. Some affected individuals have symptoms incompatible with life and die in utero. Those that survive show profound global developmental delay with almost no motor or cognitive skills, hypotonia, spasticity, and seizures. Other features may include facial dysmorphism, retinal vascular abnormalities, and poor overall growth. The pathogenesis of the disease likely results from dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells in the brain (Lecca et al., 2023).
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
1841222
Concept ID:
C5830586
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome-7 (MMDS7) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a clinical spectrum ranging from neonatal fatal glycine encephalopathy to an attenuated phenotype of developmental delay, behavioral problems, limited epilepsy, and variable movement problems (Arribas-Carreira et al., 2023). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome, see MMDS1 (605711).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Chia NH, McKeon A, Dalakas MC, Flanagan EP, Bower JH, Klassen BT, Dubey D, Zalewski NL, Duffy D, Pittock SJ, Zekeridou A
Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2023 Jul;10(7):1083-1094. Epub 2023 May 22 doi: 10.1002/acn3.51791. PMID: 37212351Free PMC Article
Clarke K, Levine T
J Neurosci Nurs 2011 Aug;43(4):205-14. doi: 10.1097/JNN.0b013e3182212a6c. PMID: 21796043
Dunkley EJ, Isbister GK, Sibbritt D, Dawson AH, Whyte IM
QJM 2003 Sep;96(9):635-42. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcg109. PMID: 12925718

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Rafehi H, Read J, Szmulewicz DJ, Davies KC, Snell P, Fearnley LG, Scott L, Thomsen M, Gillies G, Pope K, Bennett MF, Munro JE, Ngo KJ, Chen L, Wallis MJ, Butler EG, Kumar KR, Wu KH, Tomlinson SE, Tisch S, Malhotra A, Lee-Archer M, Dolzhenko E, Eberle MA, Roberts LJ, Fogel BL, Brüggemann N, Lohmann K, Delatycki MB, Bahlo M, Lockhart PJ
Am J Hum Genet 2023 Jan 5;110(1):105-119. Epub 2022 Dec 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.11.015. PMID: 36493768Free PMC Article
Davis C, Nippita T
BMJ Case Rep 2020 Feb 16;13(2) doi: 10.1136/bcr-2019-232653. PMID: 32066577Free PMC Article
de la Torre R, Farré M, Roset PN, Pizarro N, Abanades S, Segura M, Segura J, Camí J
Ther Drug Monit 2004 Apr;26(2):137-44. doi: 10.1097/00007691-200404000-00009. PMID: 15228154
Dunkley EJ, Isbister GK, Sibbritt D, Dawson AH, Whyte IM
QJM 2003 Sep;96(9):635-42. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcg109. PMID: 12925718
Lanska DJ
Neurology 2002 Aug 13;59(3):327-34. doi: 10.1212/wnl.59.3.327. PMID: 12177364

Diagnosis

Davis C, Nippita T
BMJ Case Rep 2020 Feb 16;13(2) doi: 10.1136/bcr-2019-232653. PMID: 32066577Free PMC Article
Peeraully T
Semin Neurol 2014 Apr;34(2):174-81. Epub 2014 Jun 25 doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1381737. PMID: 24963676
Richards CL, Malouin F
Handb Clin Neurol 2013;111:183-95. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52891-9.00018-X. PMID: 23622163
Shahrizaila N, Yuki N
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2013 May;84(5):576-83. Epub 2012 Sep 15 doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2012-302824. PMID: 22984203
Maeda SS, Fortes EM, Oliveira UM, Borba VC, Lazaretti-Castro M
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 2006 Aug;50(4):664-73. doi: 10.1590/s0004-27302006000400012. PMID: 17117292

Therapy

Maeda SS, Fortes EM, Oliveira UM, Borba VC, Lazaretti-Castro M
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 2006 Aug;50(4):664-73. doi: 10.1590/s0004-27302006000400012. PMID: 17117292
de la Torre R, Farré M, Roset PN, Pizarro N, Abanades S, Segura M, Segura J, Camí J
Ther Drug Monit 2004 Apr;26(2):137-44. doi: 10.1097/00007691-200404000-00009. PMID: 15228154
Dunkley EJ, Isbister GK, Sibbritt D, Dawson AH, Whyte IM
QJM 2003 Sep;96(9):635-42. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcg109. PMID: 12925718
Bodner RA, Lynch T, Lewis L, Kahn D
Neurology 1995 Feb;45(2):219-23. doi: 10.1212/wnl.45.2.219. PMID: 7854515
Lawson J
Clin Obstet Gynaecol 1982 Dec;9(3):711-21. PMID: 6756754

Prognosis

Richards CL, Malouin F
Handb Clin Neurol 2013;111:183-95. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52891-9.00018-X. PMID: 23622163
Dunkley EJ, Isbister GK, Sibbritt D, Dawson AH, Whyte IM
QJM 2003 Sep;96(9):635-42. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcg109. PMID: 12925718
Lanska DJ
Neurology 2002 Aug 13;59(3):327-34. doi: 10.1212/wnl.59.3.327. PMID: 12177364
Madersbacher HG
Curr Opin Urol 1999 Jul;9(4):303-7. doi: 10.1097/00042307-199907000-00005. PMID: 10459465
Lawson J
Clin Obstet Gynaecol 1982 Dec;9(3):711-21. PMID: 6756754

Clinical prediction guides

Rafehi H, Read J, Szmulewicz DJ, Davies KC, Snell P, Fearnley LG, Scott L, Thomsen M, Gillies G, Pope K, Bennett MF, Munro JE, Ngo KJ, Chen L, Wallis MJ, Butler EG, Kumar KR, Wu KH, Tomlinson SE, Tisch S, Malhotra A, Lee-Archer M, Dolzhenko E, Eberle MA, Roberts LJ, Fogel BL, Brüggemann N, Lohmann K, Delatycki MB, Bahlo M, Lockhart PJ
Am J Hum Genet 2023 Jan 5;110(1):105-119. Epub 2022 Dec 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.11.015. PMID: 36493768Free PMC Article
Peeraully T
Semin Neurol 2014 Apr;34(2):174-81. Epub 2014 Jun 25 doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1381737. PMID: 24963676
Richards CL, Malouin F
Handb Clin Neurol 2013;111:183-95. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52891-9.00018-X. PMID: 23622163
Dunkley EJ, Isbister GK, Sibbritt D, Dawson AH, Whyte IM
QJM 2003 Sep;96(9):635-42. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcg109. PMID: 12925718
Lawson J
Clin Obstet Gynaecol 1982 Dec;9(3):711-21. PMID: 6756754

Recent systematic reviews

Messina G, Sciuto S, Fontana A, Greco F, Oliva CF, Pappalardo MG, Sapuppo A, Smilari P, Pavone P, Foti R
J Integr Neurosci 2021 Jun 30;20(2):509-513. doi: 10.31083/j.jin2002054. PMID: 34258953
Uncini A, Notturno F, Kuwabara S
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2020 Mar;91(3):278-284. Epub 2020 Jan 14 doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2019-321890. PMID: 31937584
Burlina AP, Lachmann RH, Manara R, Cazzorla C, Celato A, van Spronsen FJ, Burlina A
J Inherit Metab Dis 2019 Mar;42(2):209-219. doi: 10.1002/jimd.12065. PMID: 30690773
Liu N, Zhou M, Biering-Sørensen F, Krassioukov AV
Spinal Cord 2015 Jul;53(7):500-9. Epub 2015 Mar 24 doi: 10.1038/sc.2015.39. PMID: 25800696
Vogel TW, Menezes AH
Childs Nerv Syst 2012 Apr;28(4):609-19. Epub 2012 Jan 25 doi: 10.1007/s00381-012-1694-z. PMID: 22274407

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