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Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, type 1(APS1)

MedGen UID:
39125
Concept ID:
C0085859
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: APS 1; APS I; APS1; Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1; AUTOIMMUNE POLYENDOCRINE SYNDROME, TYPE I, WITH OR WITHOUT REVERSIBLE METAPHYSEAL DYSPLASIA; Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Syndrome Type 1; Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome, type I; Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED); Hypoadrenocorticism with hypoparathyroidism and superficial moniliasis; PGA 1; PGA I; Whitaker syndrome
SNOMED CT: Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, type 1 (11244009); APEDED (11244009); Polyglandular deficiency associated with mucocutaneous candidiasis (11244009); Hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease AND moniliasis (11244009); Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidosis AND ectodermal dystrophy (11244009); Candidiasis-endocrinopathy syndrome (11244009); Blizzard syndrome (11244009); HAM syndrome (11244009); Juvenile familial endocrinopathy (11244009); Whitaker syndrome (11244009); APS type 1 (11244009); Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (11244009); Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome - type 1 (11244009); Type 1 polyendocrine autoimmunity syndrome (11244009); Hypoadrenocorticism, hypoparathyroidism and superficial moniliasis (11244009); APECED - Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (11244009)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
 
Gene (location): AIRE (21q22.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0009411
OMIM®: 240300
Orphanet: ORPHA3453

Definition

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I is characterized by the presence of 2 of 3 major clinical symptoms: Addison disease, and/or hypoparathyroidism, and/or chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (Neufeld et al., 1981). [from OMIM]

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is an inherited condition that affects many of the body's organs. It is one of many autoimmune diseases, which are disorders that occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own tissues and organs by mistake.\n\nIn most cases, the signs and symptoms of APECED begin in childhood or adolescence. This condition commonly involves three characteristic features: chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), hypoparathyroidism, and adrenal gland insufficiency. Affected individuals typically have at least two of these features, and many have all three.\n\nCMC is a tendency to develop infections of the skin, the nails, and the moist lining of body cavities (mucous membranes) caused by a type of fungus called Candida. These infections, which are commonly known as yeast infections, are chronic, which means they recur and can last a long time. CMC is usually the first of the three characteristic features of APECED to become apparent in people with this disorder. Almost all affected individuals develop infections of the oral cavity (known as thrush). Infections of the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach (the esophagus) are also common, while the skin and nails are affected less often. In women, vaginal infections frequently occur.\n\nOther features of APECED result from the body's immune system attacking the network of hormone-producing glands (the endocrine system). The second characteristic feature of the disorder is hypoparathyroidism, which is a malfunction of the parathyroid glands. These glands secrete a hormone that regulates the body's use of calcium and phosphorus. Damage to the parathyroid glands leads to reduced parathyroid hormone production (hypoparathyroidism). Hypoparathyroidism can cause a tingling sensation in the lips, fingers, and toes; muscle pain and cramping; weakness; and fatigue. Serious effects of hypoparathyroidism, such spasms of the voicebox (larynx) leading to breathing problems and seizures, can be life-threatening.\n\nDamage to the small hormone-producing glands on top of each kidney (adrenal glands) results in a third major feature of APECED, adrenal gland insufficiency (autoimmune Addison disease). Reduced hormone production by the adrenal glands leads to signs and symptoms that can include fatigue, muscle weakness, loss of appetite, weight loss, low blood pressure, and changes in skin coloring. Other endocrine problems that can occur in APECED include type 1 diabetes resulting from impaired production of the hormone insulin; a shortage of growth hormone leading to short stature; problems affecting the internal reproductive organs (ovaries or testes) that can cause inability to conceive children (infertility); and dysfunction of the thyroid gland (a butterfly-shaped tissue in the lower neck), which can result in many symptoms including weight gain and fatigue.\n\nAutoimmune problems affecting non-endocrine tissues can lead to a variety of additional signs and symptoms in people with APECED. These features occur more often in North American populations than in European populations. Rashes that resemble hives (urticarial eruptions) are common and often occur in infancy and early childhood. Other early signs and symptoms may include thin enamel on the teeth (enamel hypoplasia) and chronic diarrhea or constipation associated with difficulty in absorbing nutrients from food. Additional features that occur in people with APECED, many of which can lead to permanent organ and tissue damage if left untreated, include stomach irritation (gastritis), liver inflammation (hepatitis), lung irritation (pneumonitis), dry mouth and dry eyes (Sjogren-like syndrome), inflammation of the eyes (keratitis), kidney problems (nephritis), vitamin B12 deficiency, hair loss (alopecia), loss of skin color in blotches (vitiligo), high blood pressure (hypertension), or a small (atrophic) or absent spleen (asplenia).  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/autoimmune-polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal-dystrophy

Clinical features

From HPO
Premature ovarian insufficiency
MedGen UID:
9963
Concept ID:
C0025322
Disease or Syndrome
Amenorrhea due to loss of ovarian function before the age of 40. Primary ovarian inssuficiency (POI) is a state of female hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. It can manifest as primary amenorrhea with onset before menarche or secondary amenorrhea.
Nephrocalcinosis
MedGen UID:
10222
Concept ID:
C0027709
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrocalcinosis is the deposition of calcium salts in renal parenchyma.
Male hypogonadism
MedGen UID:
57480
Concept ID:
C0151721
Disease or Syndrome
Familial male hypogonadism is a highly heterogeneous category from which some disorders such as Reifenstein syndrome (312300), Kallmann syndrome (see 308700), isolated gonadotropin deficiency, and some other entities can be separated. The presence of an autosomal recessive form is suggested by the occurrence of parental consanguinity (Nowakowski and Lenz, 1961).
Female hypogonadism
MedGen UID:
75756
Concept ID:
C0271578
Disease or Syndrome
Decreased functionality of the female gonads, i.e., of the ovary.
Keratoconjunctivitis
MedGen UID:
44014
Concept ID:
C0022573
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
Asplenia
MedGen UID:
108652
Concept ID:
C0600031
Congenital Abnormality
Absence (aplasia) of the spleen.
Cholelithiasis
MedGen UID:
3039
Concept ID:
C0008350
Disease or Syndrome
Hard, pebble-like deposits that form within the gallbladder.
Diarrhea
MedGen UID:
8360
Concept ID:
C0011991
Sign or Symptom
Abnormally increased frequency of loose or watery bowel movements.
Chronic atrophic gastritis
MedGen UID:
42157
Concept ID:
C0017154
Disease or Syndrome
A form of chronic gastritis associated with atrophic gastric mucous membrane.
Chronic active hepatitis
MedGen UID:
105441
Concept ID:
C0520463
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic hepatitis associated with recurrent clinical exacerbations, extrahepatic manifestations, and progression to cirrhosis.
Asplenia
MedGen UID:
108652
Concept ID:
C0600031
Congenital Abnormality
Absence (aplasia) of the spleen.
Malabsorption
MedGen UID:
811453
Concept ID:
C3714745
Finding
Impaired ability to absorb one or more nutrients from the intestine.
Tympanosclerosis
MedGen UID:
473094
Concept ID:
C0395887
Disease or Syndrome
A stiffening of the tympanic membrane due to calcification, typically presents as white plaque-like lesions, involving discrete regions of the tympanic membrane and/or middle ear.
Enamel hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
3730
Concept ID:
C0011351
Disease or Syndrome
A form of amelogenesis imperfecta characterised by incomplete formation of the dental enamel and transmitted as an X-linked or autosomal dominant trait.
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis
MedGen UID:
2426
Concept ID:
C0006845
Disease or Syndrome
.
Iridocyclitis
MedGen UID:
43961
Concept ID:
C0022073
Disease or Syndrome
A type of anterior uveitis, in which there is Inflammation of the iris and the ciliary body.
Keratoconjunctivitis
MedGen UID:
44014
Concept ID:
C0022573
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
Chronic active hepatitis
MedGen UID:
105441
Concept ID:
C0520463
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic hepatitis associated with recurrent clinical exacerbations, extrahepatic manifestations, and progression to cirrhosis.
Asplenia
MedGen UID:
108652
Concept ID:
C0600031
Congenital Abnormality
Absence (aplasia) of the spleen.
Chronic oral candidiasis
MedGen UID:
870166
Concept ID:
C4024599
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic accumulation and overgrowth of the fungus Candida albicans on the mucous membranes of the mouth, generally manifested as associated with creamy white lesions on the tongue or inner cheeks, occasionally spreading to the gums, tonsils, palate or oropharynx.
Diabetes mellitus type 1
MedGen UID:
41522
Concept ID:
C0011854
Disease or Syndrome
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), also designated insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), is a disorder of glucose homeostasis characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is a genetically heterogeneous autoimmune disease affecting about 0.3% of Caucasian populations (Todd, 1990). Genetic studies of T1D have focused on the identification of loci associated with increased susceptibility to this multifactorial phenotype. The classic phenotype of diabetes mellitus is polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.
Decreased circulating parathyroid hormone level
MedGen UID:
1630961
Concept ID:
C0729198
Finding
An abnormally decreased concentration of parathyroid hormone.
Enamel hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
3730
Concept ID:
C0011351
Disease or Syndrome
A form of amelogenesis imperfecta characterised by incomplete formation of the dental enamel and transmitted as an X-linked or autosomal dominant trait.
Keratoconjunctivitis
MedGen UID:
44014
Concept ID:
C0022573
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
Alopecia
MedGen UID:
7982
Concept ID:
C0002170
Finding
A noncongenital process of hair loss, which may progress to partial or complete baldness.
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis
MedGen UID:
2426
Concept ID:
C0006845
Disease or Syndrome
.
Vitiligo
MedGen UID:
22677
Concept ID:
C0042900
Disease or Syndrome
Generalized well circumscribed patches of leukoderma that are generally distributed over symmetric body locations and is due to autoimmune destruction of melanocytes.
Nail dystrophy
MedGen UID:
66368
Concept ID:
C0221260
Disease or Syndrome
Onychodystrophy (nail dystrophy) refers to nail changes apart from changes of the color (nail dyschromia) and involves partial or complete disruption of the various keratinous layers of the nail plate.
Alopecia universalis
MedGen UID:
120481
Concept ID:
C0263505
Disease or Syndrome
Alopecia areata is a common disorder that causes hair loss. "Alopecia" is a Latin term that means baldness, and "areata" refers to the patchy nature of the hair loss that is typically seen with this condition.\n\nIn most people with alopecia areata, hair falls out in small, round patches, leaving coin-sized areas of bare skin. This patchy hair loss occurs most often on the scalp but can affect other parts of the body as well. Uncommonly, the hair loss involves the entire scalp (in which case the condition is known as alopecia totalis) or the whole body (alopecia universalis). Other rare forms of alopecia areata, which have different patterns of hair loss, have also been reported.\n\nAlopecia areata affects people of all ages, although it most commonly appears in adolescence or early adulthood. Hair loss occurs over a period of weeks. The hair usually grows back after several months, although it may fall out again. In some cases, unpredictable cycles of hair loss followed by regrowth can last for years. In addition to hair loss, some affected individuals have fingernail and toenail abnormalities, such as pits on the surface of the nails.\n\nThe hair loss associated with alopecia areata is not painful or disabling. However, it causes changes in a person's appearance that can profoundly affect quality of life and self-esteem. In some people, the condition can lead to depression, anxiety, and other emotional or psychological issues.
Chronic oral candidiasis
MedGen UID:
870166
Concept ID:
C4024599
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic accumulation and overgrowth of the fungus Candida albicans on the mucous membranes of the mouth, generally manifested as associated with creamy white lesions on the tongue or inner cheeks, occasionally spreading to the gums, tonsils, palate or oropharynx.
Primary adrenocortical insufficiency
MedGen UID:
1324
Concept ID:
C0001403
Disease or Syndrome
A long-standing and persistent diminished production of adrenocortical hormones due to a disorder originating within the adrenal glands.
Adrenal insufficiency
MedGen UID:
1351
Concept ID:
C0001623
Disease or Syndrome
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Diabetes mellitus type 1
MedGen UID:
41522
Concept ID:
C0011854
Disease or Syndrome
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), also designated insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), is a disorder of glucose homeostasis characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is a genetically heterogeneous autoimmune disease affecting about 0.3% of Caucasian populations (Todd, 1990). Genetic studies of T1D have focused on the identification of loci associated with increased susceptibility to this multifactorial phenotype. The classic phenotype of diabetes mellitus is polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.
Hypoparathyroidism
MedGen UID:
6985
Concept ID:
C0020626
Disease or Syndrome
A condition caused by a deficiency of parathyroid hormone characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia.
Hypothyroidism
MedGen UID:
6991
Concept ID:
C0020676
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of thyroid hormone.
Male hypogonadism
MedGen UID:
57480
Concept ID:
C0151721
Disease or Syndrome
Familial male hypogonadism is a highly heterogeneous category from which some disorders such as Reifenstein syndrome (312300), Kallmann syndrome (see 308700), isolated gonadotropin deficiency, and some other entities can be separated. The presence of an autosomal recessive form is suggested by the occurrence of parental consanguinity (Nowakowski and Lenz, 1961).
Female hypogonadism
MedGen UID:
75756
Concept ID:
C0271578
Disease or Syndrome
Decreased functionality of the female gonads, i.e., of the ovary.
Decreased circulating parathyroid hormone level
MedGen UID:
1630961
Concept ID:
C0729198
Finding
An abnormally decreased concentration of parathyroid hormone.
Decreased circulating aldosterone level
MedGen UID:
208996
Concept ID:
C0857899
Finding
Abnormally reduced levels of aldosterone.
Iridocyclitis
MedGen UID:
43961
Concept ID:
C0022073
Disease or Syndrome
A type of anterior uveitis, in which there is Inflammation of the iris and the ciliary body.
Keratoconjunctivitis
MedGen UID:
44014
Concept ID:
C0022573
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Acquired Abnormality
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Reduced visual acuity
MedGen UID:
65889
Concept ID:
C0234632
Finding
Diminished clarity of vision.
Constriction of peripheral visual field
MedGen UID:
68613
Concept ID:
C0235095
Finding
An absolute or relative decrease in retinal sensitivity extending from edge (periphery) of the visual field in a concentric pattern. The visual field is the area that is perceived simultaneously by a fixating eye.
Perifoveal ring of hyperautofluorescence
MedGen UID:
892724
Concept ID:
C4073099
Finding
Pigmentary retinopathy
MedGen UID:
1643295
Concept ID:
C4551715
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the retina characterized by pigment deposition. It is typically associated with migration and proliferation of macrophages or retinal pigment epithelial cells into the retina; melanin from these cells causes the pigmentary changes. Pigmentary retinopathy is a common final pathway of many retinal conditions and is often associated with visual loss.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVPolyglandular autoimmune syndrome, type 1

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